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The time-course of an immune response begins with the initial pathogen encounter, (or initial vaccination) and leads to the formation and maintenance of active immunological memory.

Vaccine-naïve is a term that refers to a lack of immunity, or immunologic memory, to a disease because the person has not been vaccinated. There are a variety of reasons why a person may not have received a vaccination including contraindications due to preexisting medical conditions, lack of resources, previous vaccination failure, religious beliefs, personal beliefs, fear of side-effects, phobias to needles, lack of information, vaccine shortages, physician knowledge and beliefs, and social pressure.[1][2][3][4]

Effect on herd immunity[edit]

Communicable diseases, such as measles and influenza, are more readily spread in vaccine-naïve populations, causing frequent outbreaks. Vaccine-naïve persons threaten what epidemiologists call herd immunity.[5][6][7] This is because vaccinations provide not just protection to the those who receive them, but also provide indirect protection to those who remain susceptible because of the reduced prevalence of infectious diseases. Fewer individuals available to transmit the disease, reduce the incidence of it, creating herd immunity.[8]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Menson, E. N.; Mellado, M. J.; Bamford, A.; Castelli, G.; Duiculescu, D.; Marczyńska, M.; Navarro, M. L.; Scherpbier, H. J.; Heath, P. T.; Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS (PENTA) Vaccines Group; Penta Steering, C.; Children's HIV Association (CHIVA) (2012). "Guidance on vaccination of HIV-infected children in Europe". HIV Medicine 13 (6): 333–336; e1–336. doi:10.1111/j.1468-1293.2011.00982.x. PMID 22296225. 
  2. ^ "CDC Smallpox | Smallpox (Vaccinia) Vaccine Contraindications (Info for Clinicians)". Retrieved 2013-07-15. 
  3. ^ Wallace, H. Shortages require practices to take extra measures to keep patients up-to-date on vaccines: Calling the shots. AAP News 2003; 23:54-56
  4. ^ Turner, N.; Grant, C.; Goodyear-Smith, F.; Petousis-Harris, H. (2009). "Seize the moments: missed opportunities to immunize at the family practice level". Family Practice 26 (4): 275–8. doi:10.1093/fampra/cmp028. PMID 19477931. 
  5. ^ Kiera Butler (2013-05-27). "The Real Reason Kids Aren't Getting Vaccines". Mother Jones. Retrieved 2013-07-15. 
  6. ^ "Prevention and Control of Influenza with Vaccines: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2011". Retrieved 2013-07-15. 
  7. ^ West, D. J.; Calandra, G. B. (1996). "Vaccine induced immunologic memory for hepatitis B surface antigen: implications for policy on booster vaccination". Vaccine 14 (11): 1019–27. doi:10.1016/0264-410X(96)00062-X. PMID 8879096. 
  8. ^ Garnett, G. P. (2005). "Role of Herd Immunity in Determining the Effect of Vaccines against Sexually Transmitted Disease". The Journal of Infectious Diseases 191: S97–106. doi:10.1086/425271. PMID 15627236. 

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