Vacuum solution

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

A vacuum solution is a solution of a field equation in which the sources of the field are taken to be identically zero. That is, such field equations are written without matter interaction (i.e.- set to zero).


  • In Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism, a vacuum solution would represent the electromagnetic field in a region of space where there are no electromagnetic sources (charges and electric currents), i.e. where the current 4-vector vanishes:[1]
  • Einstein's theory of general relativity where a vacuum solution[2] would represent the gravitational field in a region of spacetime where there are no gravitational sources (masses), i.e. where the energy-momentum tensor vanishes:[3]
  • Kasner vacuum solution[5]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Esposito, S. (1997), "Classical vgr? c solutions of Maxwell's equations and the photon tunneling effect", Physics Letters A 225 (4-6): 203–209, arXiv:physics/9611018, Bibcode:1997PhLA..225..203E, doi:10.1016/S0375-9601(96)00872-9, retrieved 2009-07-04 
  2. ^ Stephani, H. (2003), Exact solutions of Einstein's field equations, retrieved 2009-07-04 
  3. ^ Quevedo, H. (1990), "Multipole Moments in General Relativity-Static and Stationary Vacuum Solutions", Fortschritte der Physik/Progress of Physics 38 (10): 733, Bibcode:1990ForPh..38..733Q, doi:10.1002/prop.2190381002, retrieved 2009-07-04 
  4. ^ Sorkin, R.D. (1983), "Kaluza-klein monopole", Physical Review Letters 51 (2): 87–90, Bibcode:1983PhRvL..51...87S, doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.51.87 
  5. ^ Chodos, A.; Detweiler, S. (1980), "Where has the fifth dimension gone?", Physical Review D 21 (8): 2167–2170, Bibcode:1980PhRvD..21.2167C, doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.21.2167