Valdaysky District

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Valdaysky District
Валдайский район (Russian)
Location of Valdaysky District (Novgorod Oblast).svg
Location of Valdaysky District in Novgorod Oblast
Coordinates: 57°58′N 33°15′E / 57.967°N 33.250°E / 57.967; 33.250Coordinates: 57°58′N 33°15′E / 57.967°N 33.250°E / 57.967; 33.250
Valdaika-river-05-2011-bobry.JPG
The Valdayka River in Valdaysky District
Flag of Valdaysky rayon (Novgorod oblast).png
Flag
Location
Country Russia
Federal subject Novgorod Oblast[1]
Administrative structure (as of February 2013)
Administrative center town of Valday[1]
Administrative divisions:[2]
Towns of district significance 1
Settlements 8
Inhabited localities:[2]
Cities/towns 1
Rural localities 183
Municipal structure (as of March 2013)
Municipally incorporated as Valdaysky Municipal District[3]
Municipal divisions:[3]
Urban settlements 1
Rural settlements 8
Statistics
Area 2,701.63 km2 (1,043.11 sq mi)[4]
Population (2010 Census) 26,476 inhabitants[5]
- Urban 60.8%
- Rural 39.2%
Density 9.8 /km2 (25 /sq mi)[6]
Time zone MSK (UTC+04:00)[7]
Established October 1, 1927[8]
Official website
Valdaysky District on WikiCommons

Valdaysky District (Russian: Валда́йский райо́н) is an administrative[1] and municipal[3] district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Novgorod Oblast, Russia. It is located in the southeast of the oblast and borders with Okulovsky District in the north, Bologovsky District of Tver Oblast in the east, the territory of the closed administrative-territorial formation of Ozyorny of Tver Oblast in the southeast, Firovsky District of Tver Oblast in the south, Demyansky District in the southwest, and with Krestetsky District in the northwest. The area of the district is 2,701.63 square kilometers (1,043.11 sq mi).[4] Its administrative center is the town of Valday.[1] Population: 26,476 (2010 Census);[5] 29,943 (2002 Census);[9] 32,373 (1989 Census).[10] The population of Valday accounts for 60.8% of the district's total population.[5]

Geography[edit]

Valdaysky District is located in the Valdai Hills and is notable for having many lakes. The biggest lakes in the district are Lakes Valdayskoye, Shilino (shared with Firovsky District), and Velyo (shared with Demyansky District). Minor areas in the south of the district, including Lake Shlino, belong to the basin of the Tsna River and thus to the basin of the Volga. The rest of the area belongs to the basin of the Volkhov River. The western and northwestern parts of the district lie within the basin of the tributaries of the Pola River, including the Polomet. The Polomet itself has its source in the district. The center and the east of the district, including Lake Valdayskoye, belong to the basin of the Berezayka River, a left tributary of the Msta. The divide between the basins of the Atlantic Ocean and the Caspian Sea thus crosses the district in its southern part.

The central part of the district, including the town of Valday, belongs to the Valdaysky National Park which is shared between Okulovsky, Valdaysky, and Demyansky Districts.[11]

History[edit]

Valday was first mentioned in a chronicle in 1495. At the time, the area was a part of Derevskaya Pyatina of the Novgorod Lands.[12] The growth of Valday was facilitated by the construction of a road connecting Novgorod to Central Russia, and by the foundation of the Valday Iversky Monastery in 1653, which became a major cultural center. In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, the area was included into Ingermanland Governorate (known since 1710 as Saint Petersburg Governorate). In 1727, separate Novgorod Governorate was split off. In 1770, Valday was chartered and became the seat of Valdaysky Uyezd of Novgorod Viceroyalty. In 1796, the viceroyalty was transformed into Novgorod Governorate.[13] The area was located along the road connecting Moscow and St. Petersburg, and Valday developed as a major trade center. It also became a pilgrim destination. Between April 1, 1919 and October 1920, the uyezd center was transferred to the town of Bologoye, but soon after it was moved back to Valday again. In December 1926, three of the selsoviets in Valdaysky Uyezd were granted Estonian ethnic status.[14]

In August 1927, the governorates and uyezds were abolished. Valdaysky District, with the administrative center in the town of Valday,[15] was established within Borovichi Okrug of Leningrad Oblast effective October 1, 1927.[8] It included parts of former Valdaysky Uyezd.[15] On July 23, 1930, the okrugs were abolished, and the districts were directly subordinated to the oblast.[16] In 1931, Yakonovsky Selsoviet was granted Karelian ethnic status, but its status was changed back to a regular selsoviet in 1939.[15] The district was not occupied during World War II, although it was located close to the front line.[17] On July 5, 1944, Valdaysky District was transferred to newly established Novgorod Oblast,[17] where it remained ever since.

Economy[edit]

Industry[edit]

The industry of the district is predominantly timber industry and food industry. In Valday, there are also enterprises producing optical devices and pumps.[18]

Agriculture[edit]

As of 2011, there were five large-scale farms operating in the district and eighty-five mid-scale farms. The main specializations were meat (beef and poultry) and milk production, fish farming, and growing potatoes.[18]

Transportation[edit]

A railway which connects Bologoye and Pskov via Staraya Russa crosses the district from east to west. The main stations within the district are Valday and Yedrovo. Valday is also connected to Kresttsy with a railway. There is no passenger traffic, but the railway is in use for transporting cargo.

The M10 highway, which connects Moscow and St. Petersburg, crosses the district from southeast to northwest. In particular, Valday is located on that highway. There are road connections from Valday to Okulovka and from Yazhelbitsy to Demyansk. There are also local roads.

Lake Valdayskoye is navigable.

Tourism[edit]

Valdaysky District is a popular tourist destination, situated in the middle of the Valdaysky National Park. Most tourists visit Lake Valdayskoye and the town of Valday during the summer. Valday features many recreational facilities and sanatoria, and many camping places are available around the lake.

Culture and recreation[edit]

The Church of St. Catherine in Valday currently hosts the Valday Bells Museum

The district contains 51 cultural heritage monuments of federal significance and additionally 329 objects classified as cultural and historical heritage of local significance.[19] The federal monuments are the ensemble of the Valday Iversky Monastery, the Presentation Church and a park in Valday, as well as a number of archaeological sites.

Iversky Monastery was founded by Patriarch Nikon in 1652 and in the 17th century was one of the most influential monasteries in Russia before going into decline in the 18th century.[20]

The Valdaysky District Museum, located in Valday, displays two exhibitions. One is devoted to the history of Valday as a seat of an uyezd in the 19th century. This part of the museum is located in the Mikhaylova House, a 19th-century historical building. The second part, in the former Church of St. Catherine, highlights the history of Valday bell-making.[21] In the end of the 18th and in the 19th century, bell-making was a traditional handicraft in Valday. Big church bells, as well as small bells which were hung to a horse harness, were produced.[12]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Law #559-OZ
  2. ^ Resolution #121
  3. ^ a b c Law #371-OZ
  4. ^ a b "Официальный сайт Администрации Валдайского муниципального района" (in Russian). Администрация Валдайского муниципального района. Retrieved June 21, 2012. 
  5. ^ a b c "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  6. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  7. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  8. ^ a b Snytko et al., p. 85
  9. ^ "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  10. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  11. ^ "Валдайский национальный парк" (in Russian). ООПТ России. 2011. Retrieved June 21, 2012. 
  12. ^ a b "История города и района" (in Russian). Официальный сайт Администрации Валдайского муниципального района. 2012. Retrieved June 21, 2012. 
  13. ^ Snytko et al., p. 22
  14. ^ Snytko et al., p. 35
  15. ^ a b c Snytko et al., pp. 99–100
  16. ^ Snytko et al., pp. 87–88
  17. ^ a b Snytko et al., p. 93
  18. ^ a b "Район сегодня" (in Russian). Администрация Валдайского муниципального района. Retrieved February 8, 2012. 
  19. ^ "Памятники истории и культуры народов Российской Федерации" (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Culture. Retrieved February 7, 2011. 
  20. ^ "История создания Иверской обители на Валдае" (in Russian). Валдайский Иверский монастырь. Retrieved February 7, 2012. 
  21. ^ "Валдайский краеведческий музей" (in Russian). Российская сеть культурного наследия. Retrieved February 8, 2012. 

Sources[edit]

  • Новгородская областная Дума. Областной Закон №559-ОЗ от 11 ноября 2005 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Новгородской области», в ред. Областного закона №533-ОЗ от 1 апреля 2014 г. «О преобразовании некоторых муниципальных образований, входящих в состав территории Новгородского муниципального района, и внесении изменений в некоторые областные законы». Вступил в силу 1 января 2006 г. Опубликован: "Новгородские ведомости", №75, 23 ноября 2005 г. (Novgorod Oblast Duma. Oblast Law #559-OZ of November 11, 2005 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Novgorod Oblast, as amended by the Oblast Law #533-OZ of April 1, 2014 On the Transformation of Several Municipal Formations On the Territory of Novgorodsky Municipal District and on Amending Various Oblast Laws. Effective as of January 1, 2006.).
  • Администрация Новгородской области. Постановление №121 от 8 апреля 2008 г. «Об реестре административно-территориального устройства области», в ред. Постановления №349 от 13 ноября 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в реестр административно-территориального устройства области». Опубликован: "Новгородские ведомости", №49–50, 16 апреля 2008 г. (Administration of Novgorod Oblast. Resolution #121 of April 8, 2008 On the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Novgorod Oblast, as amended by the Resolution #349 of November 13, 2013 On Amending the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Novgorod Oblast. ).
  • Новгородская областная Дума. Областной закон №371-ОЗ от 22 декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, входящих в состав территории Валдайского муниципального района, наделении их статусом городского и сельских поселений, определении административных центров и перечня населённых пунктов, входящих в состав территорий поселений», в ред. Областного закона №216-ОЗ от 1 марта 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в некоторые областные законы, содержащие перечни населённых пунктов, входящих в состав территорий поселений». Вступил в силу со дня, следующего за днём официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Новгородские ведомости", №2, 12 января 2005 г. (Novgorod Oblast Duma. Oblast Law #371-OZ of December 22, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations Within the Territory of Valdaysky Municipal District, on Granting Them the Status of Urban and Rural Settlements, on Establishing Their Administrative Centers, and on Compiling the Lists of Inhabited Localities Within the Settlement Territories, as amended by the Oblast Law #216-OZ of March 1, 2013 On Amending Various Oblast Laws Containing the Lists of Inhabited Localities Within the Settlement Territories. Effective as of the day following the day of the official publication.).
  • Снытко, О. В.; et al. (2009). С. Д. Трифонов, Т. Б. Чуйкова, Л. В. Федина, А. Э. Дубоносова, ed. Административно-территориальное деление Новгородской губернии и области 1727-1995 гг. Справочник (in Russian). Saint Petersburg. Retrieved June 21, 2012.