Valdosta, Georgia

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Valdosta, Georgia
City
Valdosta City Hall
Valdosta City Hall
Official seal of Valdosta, Georgia
Seal
Motto: "A City Without Limits"[1]
Location in Lowndes County and the state of Georgia
Location in Lowndes County and the state of Georgia
Coordinates: 30°50′48″N 83°16′59″W / 30.84667°N 83.28306°W / 30.84667; -83.28306Coordinates: 30°50′48″N 83°16′59″W / 30.84667°N 83.28306°W / 30.84667; -83.28306
Country United States
State Georgia
County Lowndes
Incorporated December 7, 1860
Government
 • Mayor John Gayle
Area
 • City 30.3 sq mi (78.4 km2)
 • Land 29.9 sq mi (77.5 km2)
 • Water 0.4 sq mi (0.9 km2)
Elevation 220 ft (67 m)
Population (2010)
 • City 54,518
 • Density 1,799.3/sq mi (695.4/km2)
 • Metro 139,588
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP codes 31601-31606, 31698
Area code(s) 229
FIPS code 13-78800[2]
GNIS feature ID 0324649[3]
Website City of Valdosta Website

Valdosta is the county seat of Lowndes County, Georgia, United States. As of the 2010 Census, Valdosta has a total population of 54,518,[4] and is the 14th largest city in Georgia.[5]

Valdosta is the principal city of the Valdosta Metropolitan Statistical Area, which in 2010, had a population of 139,588.[6]

Valdosta is the home of Valdosta State University, a regional university in the University System of Georgia with over 13,000 students, and Valdosta High School, home to the winningest football program in the United States.[7]

It is called the Azalea City as the plant grows in profusion there; the city hosts an annual Azalea Festival in March.

According to a Bloomberg survey as of July of 2014, Valdosta, GA has the highest shrinking population of any city in the United States of America. The survey came from several sources. Census Bureau documentation states that the estimates are based on data from several sources including birth and death records, information from the Internal Revenue Service, enrollment numbers from Medicare and Medicaid and personnel numbers from the Armed Services, according to the Census Bureau. [8] [9]

History[edit]

Valdosta was incorporated on December 7, 1860, at which time the county government was moved from nearby Troupville.[10] Citizens of Troupville relocated when the Gulf and Atlantic Railroad was built four miles (about 6 km) away. On July 4, 1860, the engine known as Satilla Number Three pulled the first train into Valdosta on the Gulf and Atlantic Railway.

Troupville, now virtually abandoned, had been named after Governor George Troup, for whom Troup County, Georgia, was also named. Valdosta was named after Troup's estate, Val d'Osta, which itself was named after the Valle d'Aosta in Italy. The name Aosta (Latin: Augusta), refers to Emperor Augustus. Thus, the name Valdosta can be interpreted literally as meaning "Valley of Augustus' City". Originally, a long-standing rumor held that the city's name meant "vale of beauty."[11] The land around Valdosta is flat.

After the American Civil War, over one hundred African Americans, families of farmers, craftsmen, and laborers, emigrated from Lowndes County to Arithington, Liberia, Africa, in 1871 and 1872, looking for a better life. This was made possible with the support of the American Colonization Society. The first group, which left in 1871, was led by Jefferson Bracewell, and the second group was led by Aaron Miller.[12]

Old Lowndes County Courthouse is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. It is located in the heart of downtown Valdosta.

In November 1902, the Harris Nickel-Plate Circus' prize elephant, Gypsy, went on a rampage and killed her trainer James O'Rourke. After terrorizing the town for a couple of hours, she ran off to Cherry Creek, north of Valdosta. Gypsy was chased by Police Chief Calvin Dampier and a posse. Gypsy was killed by a shot from a Krag-Jørgensen rifle and buried on site; James O'Rourke was buried in Sunset Hill Cemetery in Valdosta.[13][14]

A major incident of racial unrest in Lowndes County occurred May 1918. Sidney Johnson, a black man and farm worker who felt that he had been mistreated repeatedly by his white farmer boss Hampton Smith, murdered Smith by gun shot and injured his wife. Subsequently, this sparked a lynch mob to be formed in Valdosta, which lasted from May 17 to May 24. It resulted in the lynchings of a least 13 African Americans, including pregnant twenty-one year old Mary Turner. Sidney Johnson was apprehended during a shoot out on 22 May 1918 in a house on South Troupe Street in Valdosta. Following his death, a crowd of over 700, castrated him and then dragged his body down Patterson Street and taken all the way to Morven, Georgia. Following the violence over 500 African Americans fled from Lowndes County and Brooks County in fear. The lynching spree of May 1918 in Lowndes County was part of a large trend of organized violence towards African Americans after War World One that culminated in Red Summer (1919). By 1922 local chapters of the Ku Klux Klan were holding rallies openly in Valdosta.[15]

The Old Lowndes County Courthouse as it appeared around the early 1900s.

The county's former courthouse was built around 1905 and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and was the county's seventh courthouse. The first courthouse was built in 1828 at Franklinville, the original county seat. In 1834 another courthouse was built at the new county seat of Troupville. It was replaced by a new courthouse in 1842. The 1842 structure was destroyed by a fire set by William B. Crawford in June 1858. The first courthouse at Valdosta was built in the 1860s and was a wooden structure that burned down in 1869. Another wooden structure was rebuilt in its place. It too was replaced in 1875 by a new two-story brick building. In 1900, county commissioners decided that a larger structure was needed and in 1905, the seventh courthouse was built. It is the structure that is locally referred to as the old courthouse. In August and September 2010, the county government moved to a brand new judicial complex.[16] The Lowndes County Courthouse is widely acknowledged as one of the most beautiful county courthouses in Georgia. It is a historical site for many to visit and view. The courthouse is also useful for meeting, public display, and other attractions. Today it is used for many events, meetings and political purposes.[17][18]

Valdosta was once the center of long-staple cotton growing in the United States until the boll weevil finally killed the crop in 1917 and agriculture turned to tobacco and pine timber.

The Valdosta Daily Times has twice reported that the world's second Coca-Cola bottling plant was at one time located in Valdosta.[19][20]

The local economy received an important boost when Interstate 75 was routed and built through the area. Many vacationers on their way to Florida found Valdosta a convenient "last stop" on their way to Walt Disney World and the Orlando area, especially those coming from the Midwest and Ontario, Canada.[citation needed]

The First Baptist Church was built in 1899

A high school oratory contest once held in Valdosta was notable for the second place winner, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

President George W. Bush received his National Guard flight training at Valdosta's Moody Air Force Base in November 1968.

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Monthly Labor Review, the first automated teller machine (ATM) was installed at C&S Bank in Valdosta.[21]

Valdosta was named one of 2003's "Top 100 U.S. Small Towns" by Site Selection magazine.[22] In 2010 Valdosta was named one of the "Best Small Places For Business And Careers" by Forbes.[23] In 1910, Fortune magazine named Valdosta the richest city in America by per capita income.[24]

Geography[edit]

Valdosta is located at 30°50′48″N 83°16′59″W / 30.84667°N 83.28306°W / 30.84667; -83.28306 (30.846661, -83.283101).[25]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 30.3 square miles (78 km2), of which 29.9 square miles (77 km2) is land and 0.3 square miles (0.78 km2) is water, for a total area of 1.09% water.

Valdosta is about 230 miles (370 km) south of Atlanta.[26] It is almost the same distance north of Orlando, Florida. Valdosta is approximately fifteen miles north of the state's border with Florida. Valdosta is located in the coastal plain of Georgia and thus has a virtually flat landscape. Highways stretch for miles with hardly a curve, rise, or fall. The sixty miles (97 km) of railway between Valdosta and Waycross were once the longest straight stretch of railroad in the world.[27][unreliable source?]

Climate[edit]

Valdosta has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa), with mild, wet winters and hot, humid summers.[28] Temperatures frequently go over 90 degrees, but in extreme heatwaves, temperatures occasionally go over 100. Snowfall is rare but not unknown. Snow has not been sighted in Valdosta since February 2010, with the last significant snowfall being 1989. However, light frosts regularly occur between December and February.[29] Valdosta can experience Indian summers in the winter, where temperatures can get quite warm. Very rarely do winter lows go below 25 degrees Fahrenheit.


Climate data for Valdosta, Georgia
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 87
(31)
87
(31)
93
(34)
96
(36)
103
(39)
108
(42)
104
(40)
105
(41)
103
(39)
97
(36)
92
(33)
85
(29)
108
(42)
Average high °F (°C) 61
(16)
65
(18)
71
(22)
79
(26)
85
(29)
90
(32)
91
(33)
90
(32)
87
(31)
79
(26)
71
(22)
63
(17)
78
(26)
Daily mean °F (°C) 52
(11)
55
(13)
62
(17)
69
(21)
75
(24)
81
(27)
82
(28)
82
(28)
78
(26)
69
(21)
61
(16)
54
(12)
68
(20)
Average low °F (°C) 42
(6)
45
(7)
51
(11)
58
(14)
65
(18)
71
(22)
73
(23)
73
(23)
70
(21)
59
(15)
50
(10)
44
(7)
59
(15)
Record low °F (°C) 3
(−16)
2
(−17)
18
(−8)
25
(−4)
40
(4)
50
(10)
57
(14)
54
(12)
42
(6)
28
(−2)
16
(−9)
6
(−14)
2
(−17)
Precipitation inches (mm) 5.79
(147.1)
4.47
(113.5)
5.30
(134.6)
3.61
(91.7)
3.15
(80)
4.91
(124.7)
6.30
(160)
5.24
(133.1)
4.11
(104.4)
3.11
(79)
3.24
(82.3)
3.83
(97.3)
47.27
(1,200.7)
Snowfall inches (cm) 0
(0)
0.1
(0.3)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.1
(0.3)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 9 8 8 7 8 10 13 12 9 5 7 8 104
Source #1: The Weather Channel [30]
Source #2: Weatherbase [31]


Demographics[edit]

MSA[edit]

According to the Bureau of Census, the Valdosta, Georgia Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) had an estimated population of 135,804 and ranked #281 in the U.S. in 2009. (The MSA consisists of Lowndes, Brooks, Lanier and Echols counties.)

City[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1860 166
1870 1,199 622.3%
1880 1,515 26.4%
1890 2,854 88.4%
1900 5,613 96.7%
1910 7,656 36.4%
1920 10,783 40.8%
1930 13,482 25.0%
1940 15,595 15.7%
1950 20,046 28.5%
1960 30,652 52.9%
1970 32,303 5.4%
1980 37,671 16.6%
1990 40,135 6.5%
2000 43,724 8.9%
2010 54,518 24.7%
U.S. Census Bureau[32][33]

As of the census[2] of 2010 and estimates from 2005 to 2009, there were 54,518 people, 20,280 households, and 11,876 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,521.7 people per square mile (563.9/km²). There were 22,709 housing units available in Valdosta. The racial makeup of the city was 51.2% African American, 41.5% White, 0.3% Native American, 1.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.2% from other races, and 1.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.0% of the population.

According to the census[2] of 2000 the largest self-reported ancestry groups in Valdosta were: · Black or African American - 51% · English - 9% · Irish - 7% · German - 6% · Scotch-Irish - 2% · Italian - 2%

There were 20,280 households out of which 27.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.5% were married couples living together, 19.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.4% were non-families. 28.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.93. In the city the population was spread out with 30% 19 years of age and younger, 19.3% from 20 to 24, 23.2% from 25 to 44, 18.3% from 45 to 64, and 9.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 25.5 years. 53.1% of the population of Valdosta was female and 46.9% was male. Females 18 and over made up 54.4% of the population to 45.6% male.

The median income for a household in the city was $31,940, and the median income for a family was $39,295. Males had a median income of $33,230 versus $25,689 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,003. About 20.3% of families and 28.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.3% of those under age 18 and 13.1% of those age 65 or over.[4][34][35]

Economy[edit]

Aerial view of Valdosta

Located in the far southern portion of the state, near the Florida line along the Interstate 75 corridor, it is a commercial center of South Georgia with numerous manufacturing plants. The surrounding area produces tobacco, naval stores, particularly turpentine, as well as pine lumber, and pulpwood. According to the Georgia Department of Community Affairs, Valdosta is called the "Naval Stores Capital of the World" because it supplies 80% of the world demand for naval stores.[36]

In the retailing field, Valdosta has one major regional mall, Valdosta Mall, which features national chain anchor stores like JCPenney, Sears, Buckle clothing, Office Depot, PetSmart, Belk, Old Navy, and Ross Stores. Several large stores surround the mall or are near the mall including Best Buy, Home Depot, Kohl's, Lowe's, Office Max and Target. Valdosta has other notable shopping areas such as the Historic Downtown area with many local businesses,[37] and the Five Points area which has a Big Lots, Winn-Dixie, and numerous national franchise and local restaurants.

Moody Air Force Base is located about 9 miles (14 km) north of Valdosta in northern Lowndes County.

Education[edit]

Valdosta City School District[edit]

The Valdosta City School District holds grades pre-school to grade twelve, consisting of five elementary schools, two middle schools, and a high school. The school district serves the city of Valdosta and the surrounding communities of Lowndes County.[38] The district has 447 full-time teachers and over 7,178 students.[39]

Lowndes County School District[edit]

The Lowndes County School District holds grades pre-school to grade twelve, consisting of seven elementary schools, three middle schools, and a high school. The school district serves communities of Lowndes County outside of Valdosta.[40] The district has 592 full-time teachers and over 9,245 students.[41]

Private education[edit]

Valwood School is an independent college preparatory school enrolling students in Pre-Kindergarten through twelfth grade.[42] Several Christian Schools offering classes K-12 also operate in and near Valdosta including Georgia Christian School, Lighthouse Christian School, Open Bible Christian School, Highland Christian School, St. John Catholic School, and Victory Christian School.

West Hall at Valdosta State University

Higher education[edit]

Valdosta is also the home of Valdosta State University[43] (VSU), founded in 1906 as South Georgia State Normal College for Women. It became part of the University System of Georgia in 1950 as Valdosta State College. Valdosta State College achieved university status and became VSU in 1993 and is one of two regional universities in Georgia. VSU has seen substantial growth in the past decade and currently has an enrollment of over 13,000 students. VSU is also the site of the Georgia Governor's Honors Program (GHP), a yearly four-week gathering of meritorious high school students in subjects ranging from standard academic subjects (i.e. math, languages, social studies, etc.) to broader intellectual enterprises (i.e. dance, theater, agricultural sciences.)

An extension of Georgia Military College[44] is in the city limits, and Wiregrass Georgia Technical College[45] is located a mile outside of the city limits off of Interstate 75.

Also located in Valdosta is Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University-Worldwide: Moody Campus.[46] Embry-Riddle is the #1 rated aviation and aerospace university. Embry-Riddle teaches the science, practice, and business of aviation and aerospace.

Infrastructure[edit]

Major highways[edit]

  • I-75.svg Interstate 75 (State Route 401) runs north to south through a western section of Valdosta.
  • US 41.svg U.S. Highway 41 (State Route 7) runs north to south entering the city at the Withlacoochee River being known as North Valdosta Road, it continues south on North Ashley Street. It branches into two sections at Five Points, US 41 Business / SR 7 Business travelling south down North Ashley Street, US 41 Alternate / SR 7 Alternate travelling south down Patterson Street. At the overpass over the CSX railroad, they join together to become US 41 Business / SR 7 Business following South Patterson Street.
  • US 84.svg U.S. Highway 84 (Wiregrass Georgia Parkway) is colocated with State Route 38 and runs west to east bisecting the city and is known as Hill Avenue through the city limits.
  • US 221.svg U.S. Highway 221 follows US 84 and SR 38 west of Valdosta and State Route 31 northeast of Valdosta.

Other transportation[edit]

The Valdosta Regional Airport, three miles south of Valdosta, is serviced by Delta Air Lines to Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport and Atlantic Southeast Airlines as a Delta Connection. There is also a Greyhound bus station.

Streetcar[edit]

In 1898, the Valdosta Street Railway Company secured the right to operate street cars on Patterson, Ashley, Toombs, Lee, Hill, Central, Crane and Gordon Streets. Valdosta was one of the smallest cities in America to have a street railway system. The streetcar operated in the downtown area between 1899 and 1924. The abandoned tracks were removed in the 1940s to be used as scrap metal for the war effort.[47]

Museum[edit]

The Lowndes County Historical Society & Museum is located at the Carnegie Library of Valdosta, a National Register of Historic Places listed building and Carnegie library,[48] one of 24 Carnegie Libraries in Georgia.

Sports[edit]

High school football[edit]

Valdosta has a strong high school football tradition. The Valdosta High School Wildcats have one of the most successful high school football programs in the country with 829 wins, six national championships (1962, 1969, 1971, 1984, 1986, 1992), 23 Georgia state championships between 1940 and 1998, and 41 region titles.[49]

Cross-town rival Lowndes High School have also built a strong program, winning five state titles since 1980 (including 1999, 2004, 2005 and 2007).[50] Local private school, Valwood School has won four GISA state football titles in Class A (1985, 1986, 1999, and 2012).[51]

The annual matchup between the two public high schools, Lowndes and Valdosta High, is known as the Winnersville Classic.[52] Valdosta leads the overall series 34-16 and 19-12 since 1981 when the annual match was named the Winnersville Classic.

Valdosta State University[edit]

Football[edit]

The Valdosta State University Blazers have won a total of three Division II National Championship titles (2004,2007 and 2012) and have also have won 6 Gulf South Conference football championships (1996, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2010).

Tennis[edit]

Valdosta State University's Men's Tennis team won the 2006 and 2011 NCAA Division II national championships.[53] The team has also appeared in the national title game in 2004, 2007, and 2010.

Valdosta State's Men's Tennis team leads the Gulf South Conference with nine conference championships (1996, 2000, 2001, 2004, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011).[54] In 2011 the men's team became the first to win five consecutive GSC Championships in tennis.[55]

Baseball[edit]

The first baseball team at Valdosta State was formed in 1954 and had its first official season of intercollegiate competition in 1955. Tommy Thomas, became coach in 1967 and served as coach until 2007. Under Thomas the Blazers saw 34 winning seasons, two conference titles, three Divisional titles, eight trips to the national tournament, and a Division II national championship in 1979. Thomas is the all-time wins leader in NCAA Division II baseball with 1302 wins. Greg Guilliams became VSU's head baseball coach in 2008 and won a Gulf South Conference East Division title in his first year and led Valdosta State to its first postseason appearance in seven years.[56]

In 1915 the Newark Peppers of the now defunct Federal League held spring training in Valdosta.[57]

Minor League Baseball[edit]

Valdosta hosted several different minor league baseball teams during the twentieth century, and was one of six cities in the Georgia State League which began play in 1906, with the team known as the Valdosta Stars.[58][59] From 1946-1958, the Valdosta Tigers were a "Class-D" minor league team. Valdosta was also home to the Valdosta Trojans which was a "farm" team for the Brooklyn Dodgers.

ESPN's Titletown, USA[edit]

TitleTown USA was a month-long segment on ESPN that started in the spring of 2008 and continued through July. Fans nominated towns and cities across the country based on their championship pedigree. A panel reviewed the nominees and fan voting in May determined the 20th finalist. SportsCenter visited each city in July, and fan voting July 23–27 determined the winner.

Due to the Valdosta High School football team's record as well as multiple championships in many sports by Valdosta State University, Lowndes High School, Valwood School, Georgia Christian School, and other academic institutions in the town, Valdosta was nominated as a finalist in 2008 for ESPN's "Titletown USA" contest. On July 28, 2008, with 29.2% of fan votes on ESPN's website poll, Valdosta was named TitleTown USA.[60]

Media[edit]

Newspaper[edit]

Radio[edit]

AM:

  • WJEM 1150 AM; 5 kW Gospel
  • WVLD 1450 AM; 1 kW Sports Radio
  • WGUN 950 AM; 4 kW Adult Urban Contemporary
  • WRFV 910 AM; 50 kW

FM:

  • WDDQ TALK 92.1 FM Talk radio
  • WAYT 88.1 FM Christian Contemporary (licensed to Thomasville)
  • WVVS 90.9 FM VSU station
  • WWET 91.7 FM
  • WAAC 92.9 FM Country
  • WJYF 95.3 FM Christian Contemporary
  • WQPW 95.7 FM Adult Contemporary
  • WJEM 96.1 (repeater of 1150 AM)
  • WGOV-FM 96.7 FM Urban
  • WAFT 101.1 FM Christian
  • WXHT 102.7 FM Pop Hits (Broadcast from Valdosta but licensed to Madison, Florida)
  • WSTI 105.3 FM Classic Soul and R&B (Broadcast from Valdosta but licensed to Quitman)
  • WWRQ 107.9 FM Rock

Television[edit]

Valdosta and Lowndes County is part of the Tallahassee, Florida television market and receives most channels from that city; it also receives some channels from the neighboring Albany market. See Template:Tallahassee TV and Template:Albany GA TV.

  • WSWG channel 44 is the local CBS affiliate licensed to Valdosta and based in Moultrie, programmed by WCTV in Tallahassee. The station serves the Valdosta and Albany areas, and includes subchannels offering programming from MyNetworkTV, Me-TV and The CW.
  • WXGA-TV channel 8 is the local GPB outlet, licensed to Waycross.

Notable people[edit]

Valdosta in fiction[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "City of Valdosta Website". City of Valdosta Website. Retrieved September 5, 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  3. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  4. ^ a b "Valdosta (city) QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". Quickfacts.census.gov. Retrieved January 13, 2014. 
  5. ^ "American FactFinder". Factfinder2.census.gov. 2010-10-05. Retrieved September 6, 2012. 
  6. ^ "American FactFinder". Factfinder2.census.gov. 2010-10-05. Retrieved September 6, 2012. 
  7. ^ National High School Sports Record Book[dead link]
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ [2]
  10. ^ "Valdosta | Georgia.gov". Valdosta.georgia.gov. Retrieved September 6, 2012. 
  11. ^ Poling, Dean (2009-10-12). "What does Valdosta mean?". The Valdosta Daily Times. Retrieved November 4, 2011. 
  12. ^ Eric Dewayne Jackson (2003). "Lowdnes County Georgia List of Emigrants to Arithington, Liberia". Retrieved 8 January 2008. 
  13. ^ "Gypsy". The New Georgia Encyclopedia. Retrieved December 31, 2007. 
  14. ^ "Elephant Kills Keeper" (PDF). The New York Times. 1902-11-24. Retrieved January 13, 2014. 
  15. ^ http://www.maryturner.org/
  16. ^ VDT Editors (2010-08-11). "What We Think: Goodbye, Courthouse >> What We Think >> Valdosta Daily Times". Valdosta Daily Times. Community Newspaper Holdings, Inc. Retrieved September 19, 2010. 
  17. ^ ""Lowndes county courhouse" December 5, 2010.". Georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu. Retrieved September 6, 2012. 
  18. ^ http://valdostamuseum.com/exhibitions/online-exhibits-2/places/lowndes-county-courthouse/
  19. ^ Jessica Pope (2007-09-29). "A trip through time". The Valdosta Daily Times. Retrieved January 1, 2008. 
  20. ^ Billy Bruce (2007-12-22). "Breathing fresh life into Downtown". The Valdosta Daily Times. Retrieved January 1, 2008. 
  21. ^ Teresa L. Morisi (August 1996). "Commercial banking transformed by computer technology". Monthly Labor Review. Archived from the original on 2011-10-22. Retrieved January 13, 2014. 
  22. ^ Ron Starner (March 2004). "The Road to Boomtown". Site Selection. Retrieved January 13, 2014. 
  23. ^ "#79 Valdosta GA". Forbes. 2010-04-14. Archived from the original on 2010-04-20. Retrieved January 13, 2014. 
  24. ^ "Triple Crown Hometowns". Archived from the original on 2007-10-21. Retrieved January 8, 2008. 
  25. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  26. ^ CNN Staff. "Family demands coroner's inquest in teen's gym mat death." CNN. October 22, 2013. Retrieved on October 22, 2013.
  27. ^ "Valdosta Georgia". History. Retrieved September 6, 2012. 
  28. ^ Climate Summary for Valdosta, Georgia
  29. ^ First and Last Frost Dates in Georgia 1997-2007 University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences
  30. ^ "The Weather Channel: Monthly Avearges". The Weather Channel. Retrieved 2010-07-27. 
  31. ^ "Historical Weather for Valdosta, Georgia, United States". Weatherbase. Retrieved 2010-07-27. 
  32. ^ "Valdosta (city) QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved September 23, 2011. 
  33. ^ "Valdosta, Georgia (GA) profile: population, maps, real estate, averages, homes, statistics, relocation, travel, jobs, hospitals, schools, crime, moving, houses, news, sex offenders". City-data.com. Retrieved September 6, 2012. 
  34. ^ "American FactFinder". Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved September 6, 2012. 
  35. ^ "American FactFinder". Factfinder2.census.gov. 2010-10-05. Retrieved September 6, 2012. 
  36. ^ "Georgia Department of Community Affairs' Data for Valdosta". Retrieved July 28, 2008. 
  37. ^ "Downtown Valdosta, GA". Valdosta Main Street. Retrieved September 6, 2012. 
  38. ^ Georgia Board of Education, Retrieved June 23, 2010.
  39. ^ School Stats, Retrieved June 23, 2010.
  40. ^ Georgia Board of Education, Retrieved June 23, 2010.
  41. ^ School Stats, Retrieved June 23, 2010.
  42. ^ "Valwood School - About Valwood". Valwood.org. Retrieved September 6, 2012. 
  43. ^ Valdosta State University, Retrieved June 23, 2010.
  44. ^ Georgia Military College- Valdosta Campus, Retrieved June 23, 2010.
  45. ^ Valdosta Technical College. Retrieved June 23, 2010.
  46. ^ "Embry-Riddle Worldwide". Retrieved January 13, 2014. 
  47. ^ Lowndes County Historical Society and Museum
  48. ^ "Valdosta Museum and Lowndes County Historical Society". Valdostamuseum.org. Retrieved September 6, 2012. 
  49. ^ [3][dead link]
  50. ^ "Lowndes Football History". Lowndesfootball.com. Retrieved September 6, 2012. 
  51. ^ "GISA Stats Your Source for GISA Sports". Gisastats.com. Retrieved September 6, 2012. 
  52. ^ "The History of the Winnersville Classic » Local Sports". Valdosta Daily Times. Retrieved September 6, 2012. 
  53. ^ "NCAA Division II Men's Tennis Championship Bracket". NCAA.com. Retrieved September 6, 2012. 
  54. ^ "Gsc Men’S Tennis Championship Team" (PDF). Retrieved September 6, 2012. 
  55. ^ "Valdosta State - Blazers Claim Fifth Consecutive GSC Championship". Vstateblazers.com. Retrieved September 6, 2012. 
  56. ^ [4][dead link]
  57. ^ The ESPN Baseball Encyclopedia. Sterling Publishing. 2007. p. 1789. ISBN 1-4027-4771-3. 
  58. ^ "New Georgia Encyclopedia: Minor League Baseball". Georgiaencyclopedia.org. 2005-03-17. Retrieved September 6, 2012. 
  59. ^ "Valdosta, Georgia Minor League History". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved September 6, 2012. 
  60. ^ "ESPN names Valdosta TitleTown USA". Archived from the original on 2008-08-01. Retrieved January 13, 2014. 
  61. ^ "Tuskegee Airmen". CommunityWalk. Retrieved September 6, 2012. 
  62. ^ Smith, Kyle (1997-06-16). "Jolly Rogers". People.com. Retrieved September 6, 2012. 
  63. ^ "Stan Rome NFL Football Statistics". Pro-Football-Reference.com. 1956-06-04. Retrieved September 6, 2012. 
  64. ^ We Are Marshall (2006) - IMDb
  65. ^ "Marshall University - Huntington, WV". Marshall.edu. Retrieved September 6, 2012. 
  66. ^ Dean Poling (February 26, 2009). "Zombieland: Psst! There’s a movie in town". Valdosta Daily Times. Retrieved March 5, 2009. 

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Valdosta.