Vale of Pewsey
The vale is an extent of lower lying ground separating the chalk downs of Salisbury Plain to the south from the Marlborough Downs to the north. It is around 30 kilometres (19 mi) long and around 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) wide. At the western end is the town of Devizes. Larger settlements in the vale include Pewsey and Burbage with many smaller villages, the larger ones including Bishops Cannings, Etchilhampton, Urchfont, Chirton, Alton Priors, Woodborough, Milton Lilbourne, Easton Royal and Wootton Rivers.
The vale is a major east-west feature opening to the west towards the Bristol Channel, but is drained by the headwaters of the Salisbury Avon, rather than the westward-flowing Bristol Avon. The river cuts through the chalk scarp to the south at Upavon and crosses Salisbury Plain towards the south coast. The higher part of the eastern vale south of Burbage is drained by the River Bourne, which cuts the scarp at Collingbourne Kingston, joining the Avon at Salisbury. Since the area is not believed to have been glaciated, this probably indicates that the course of the rivers pre-dates the modern topography.
The vale is not used by any major roads, but is followed by a railway and canal as a route between the London Basin and the west. To the north of Burbage the head of the Avon valley, draining west into the vale, meets the head of the River Dun, draining east to the Kennet and the Thames. The valley floor at around 150 metres (490 ft) above sea level provides a route through the downs which locally reach 200 to 300 metres. The Kennet and Avon Canal and the main line railway from London to the south-west make use of this route, the canal using the Bruce Tunnel. Formerly another rail route between Andover and Marlborough also followed this gap. Another line formerly branched off towards Bath via Devizes at the western end of the vale.
The vale lies along the eroded core of an anticline, a westward extension of the Mendip Axis, with a relatively thin covering of Mesozoic sediments folded upwards over an up-faulted horst of Palaeozoic rocks. The floor of the vale is floored by Albian (Lower Cretaceous) beds of the Upper Greensand, exposed by removal of the overlying chalk. It is surrounded to the north and south by chalk scarps which close to the east near Burbage. There is also a small inlier of Greensand to the east at Shalbourne; this area drains northwards to the Kennet.
Notable residents, past and present
- Michael Ancram MP, 13th Marquess of Lothian.
- Sir Henry Howarth Bashford (deceased)
- David Brudenell-Bruce, Earl of Cardigan, 31st hereditary warden of Savernake forest.
- Lord Devlin (deceased), Judge, Baron Devlin.
- Pete Docherty, musician
- Major-General Christopher Leslie Elliot
- Elinor Goodman, former Channel 4 Political Editor.
- Brigadier Robert Hall, first Chairman of Wiltshire Council
- Nick Harper, musician.
- Sir Henry Keswick, chairman of Jardine Matheson Holdings.
- Peter Lewis, HTV West news reader.
- David Newbigging, High Sheriff of Wiltshire, 2003
- Shelley Rudman, winner of the silver medal in the skeleton bob, Britain's only medal at the 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin.
- Peter Sarstedt, musician.
- Andy Scott, musician of The Sweet (band).
- Jane Seymour, Queen consort of England.
- Nigel Stock (deceased), actor.
- Zoë Wanamaker, actress.
Culture and sport
Pewsey is the centre of activity for many of the smaller villages in and around the Vale of Pewsey and, as such, offers a wide range of activities for its small size.
Villages: Avebury, Burbage, Wolfhall, Oare, Easton Royal, Milton Lilbourne, Wootton Rivers, Collingbourne Ducis, Collingbourne Kingston, Upavon, Everleigh, Alton Barnes, Alton Priors, Bottlesford, Wilsford, North Newnton, Rushall, Manningford Bohune, Manningford Bruce, Woodborough, Charlton St. Peter, Wilton, East Grafton, Cadley, Huish, Stanton St Bernard, Patney, Beechingstoke, Marden, Marten, Enford, Netheravon, Fittleton, Wilcot, Chirton, Wexcombe.
Places of interest: Avebury (stone circle), Kennet Long-Barrow, Savernake Forest, Crofton Pumping Station, Silbury Hill, Wilton Windmill, Stonehenge, Stourhead, Longleat, Alton Barnes (crop circles), Stonehenge (stone circle), Marlborough, Kennet and Avon Canal, Bruce Tunnel.
- Melville, R.V. & Freshney E.C. (4th Ed 1982), The Hampshire Basin and adjoining areas, British Regional Geology series, Institute of Geological Sciences, London: HMSO, ISBN 0-11-884203-X p115
- Chilterns: Sheet 51N 02W Solid Geology, 1:250,000 Geological map series, British Geological Survey, Keyworth, 1991
- Morton, James (11 August 1992). "Obituary: Lord Devlin". The Independent (London). Retrieved 27 May 2010.
- "Maj-Gen Christopher Elliott, CB, MBE".
- Lewis Cohen (26 July 2007). "Hogwarts Miss is down to earth". Gazette and Herald. Retrieved 5 September 2007.