Vale Rio de Janeiro arriving at Rotterdam on 8 January 2012.
|Builders:||Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering, South Korea
Jiangsu Rongsheng Heavy Industries, China
STX Offshore & Shipbuilding (STX Jinhae), South Korea
STX Offshore & Shipbuilding (STX Dalian, China
Bohai Shipbuilding Heavy Industry, China
STX Pan Ocean
Oman Shipping Company
|Completed:||30 (list of ships)|
|Length:||360–362 m (1,181–1,188 ft)|
|Beam:||65 m (213 ft)|
|Draught:||22–23 m (72–75 ft)|
|Depth:||30 m (98 ft)|
|Installed power:||Low-speed diesel engine (approx. 29,000 kW)|
|Propulsion:||Single shaft; fixed-pitch propeller|
|Speed:||15 knots (28 km/h; 17 mph)|
Valemax ships are a fleet of very large ore carriers (VLOC) owned or chartered by the Brazilian mining company Vale S.A. to carry iron ore from Brazil to European and Asian ports. With a capacity ranging from 380,000 to 400,000 tons deadweight, the Chinamax ships are the largest bulk carriers ever built and among the longest ships currently in service.
In 2008, Vale placed orders for twelve 400,000-ton Valemax ships to be constructed by Jiangsu Rongsheng Heavy Industries (RSHI) in China and ordered seven more ships from South Korean Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering (DSME) in 2009. In addition sixteen more ships of similar size will be built in China and South Korea for other shipping companies, and chartered to Vale under long-term contracts.
The first Valemax vessel, Vale Brasil, was delivered in 2011; all 35 ships are expected to be in service by 2013.
- 1 History
- 2 Design
- 3 Size record
- 4 Criticism
- 5 List of Valemax vessels
- 6 References
Jiangsu Rongsheng Heavy Industries
The first Valemax vessels were ordered on 3 August 2008 when Vale signed a contract with the Chinese shipbuilder Jiangsu Rongsheng Heavy Industries (RSHI) for the construction of twelve 400,000-ton ore carriers. The development had reportedly started in 2007. The contract, worth $1.6 billion, was the world's biggest single shipbuilding contract by deadweight tonnage. The first Chinese-built Valemax vessel, Vale China, was launched at the Nantong shipyard on 9 July 2011 and delivered on 25 November 2011. Although it was expected that the first Chinese-built Valemax vessel would call a Chinese port on its maiden voyage, the ship was diverted to the new transshipment hub Vale had constructed in Philippines. The second RSHI-built Valemax ship (Vale Dongjiakou) was delivered on 9 April 2012, the third (Vale Dalian) on 20 May, the fourth (Vale Hebei) on 28 September, the fifth (Vale Shandong) on 7 December 2012, the sixth (Vale Jiangsu) on 23 March 2013, the seventh (Vale Caofeidian) on 22 July 2013, and the eight (Vale Lianyungang) on 22 November 2013. In March 2012, the shipyard announced that all but one of the remaining Valemax vessels ordered by Vale would be delivered within 2012, but according to Vale only two more ships would be delivered. As of December 2013[update], at least one more RSHI-built Valemax ship (Vale Majishan) has been launched.
On 2 November 2008, Oman Shipping Company signed a framework agreement with RSHI for the construction of four 400,000-ton vessels to transport iron ore from Brazil to the port of Sohar in Oman, where Vale is expected to open a steel plant in near future. The shipbuilding contract, worth US$483 million, was signed in July 2009. Initially the ships were to be named Jazer, Yanqul, Al Kamil and Wafi, but instead they will be named Vale Liwa, Vale Sohar, Vale Shinas and Vale Saham. The steel cutting ceremony for the first two vessels was held on 8 July 2010 and they were launched on 19 March 2012. Vale Liwa entered service in August 2012, followed by Vale Sohar in September 2012, Vale Saham in January 2013, and Vale Shinas in March 2013. The ships reportedly received additional strengthening due to the Vale Beijing incident. As of December 2012[update], the ships built for Oman Shipping Company have been removed from the Det Norske Veritas registry.
The Chinese shipbuilder's ability to deliver any of the very large ore carriers ordered by Vale in time was doubted already before the first ship was built. In May 2011 it was announced that due to delays in construction only two or three Valemax vessels will be delivered from the Chinese shipyard in 2011 instead of the planned six. In the end only one ship, Vale China, was delivered in before the end of the year. Furthermore, later reports claimed that the ships ordered by Vale have a capacity of only 380,000 tons, even though according to the Det Norske Veritas database entries all Chinese-built ships have a deadweight tonnage in excess of 400,000 tons and in the past Vale has referred to the ships ordered from Rongsheng as 400,000-ton vessels. The reduction in cargo capacity, at least on paper, may be due to the reluctance of Chinese officials to accept the 400,000-ton ships to Chinese ports.
In April 2012 it was reported that Vale had refused delivery for three Valemax ships recently completed by Jiangsu Rongsheng Heavy Industries. This was seen as a move against the Chinese officials who have not allowed the 400,000-ton ships to dock in Chinese ports. However, the reports were rebutted by RSHI, who called them "inaccurate and unfounded".
Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering
On 26 October 2009 Vale ordered four Valemax vessels from the South Korean shipbuilder Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering (DSME) for $460 million. Further three ships were ordered from DSME in July 2010, bringing the total order to seven 400,000-ton Valemax vessels. Despite receiving the order later than the Chinese shipyard, DSME launched the first Valemax class ore carrier, Vale Brasil, on 31 December 2010 and delivered her to Vale in March 2011. It was followed by Vale Rio de Janeiro on 22 September 2011, Vale Italia on 25 October 2011, Vale Malaysia on 27 March 2012, Vale Carajas on 29 May 2012. and Vale Minas Gerais on 13 July 2012. The last Valemax ship to be built by DSME, Vale Korea, was delivered on 9 April 2013.
STX Offshore & Shipbuilding
In addition to the ships Vale ordered for itself, further sixteen ships of similar size will be built for other shipping companies and chartered to Vale under exclusive long-term contracts, bringing the total fleet under Vale to 35 vessels. Eight of the ships will be built by South Korean shipbuilder STX Offshore & Shipbuilding in Jinhae, South Korea (STX Jinhae), and Dalian, China (STX Dalian). The shipping company, STX Pan Ocean, signed a 25-year contract with Vale in 2009.
The first STX-built Valemax vessel, Vale Beijing, was delivered by STX Jinhae on 27 September 2011. Although another vessel was expected to take delivery later that year, only one ship was delivered. The second ship, Vale Qingdao, was delivered also by STX Jinhae on 13 April 2012, but the third and fourth ships, Vale Espirito Santo and Vale Indonesia, were built by STX Dalian and delivered on 17 September 2012 and 30 October 2012, respectively. However, the fifth ship, Vale Fujiyama, was again built by STX Jinhae and delivered on 26 November 2012. The sixth ship, Vale Tubarao, was delivered by STX Dalian on 30 January 2013. The remaining two ships will be delivered in 2013, starting with Vale Maranhao on 29 August.
Bohai Shipbuilding Heavy Industry
On 30 April 2007 Berge Bulk signed a contract with the Chinese shipbuilding company Bohai Shipbuilding Heavy Industry for the construction of four 388,000-ton very large ore carriers. Although initially scheduled for delivery in 2010, the first vessel, Berge Everest, was delivered on 23 September 2011. It was followed by Berge Aconcagua on 15 March 2012 and Berge Jaya on 12 June 2012. The remaining ship, Berge Neblina, was initially also scheduled to be delivered in 2012, but entered service on 4 January 2013.
Had Vale not ordered the Valemax fleet in 2008, these ships would have become the largest bulk carriers in the world, surpassing Berge Bulk's own Berge Stahl. The four ships have since been chartered by Vale and, despite slight differences in design and contract date predating that of the ships ordered by Vale, they are also referred to as Valemax vessels.
On 24 May 2011, Vale Brasil received her first cargo at the Brazilian port Terminal Marítimo de Ponta da Madeira, 391,000 tons of iron ore bound for Dalian in China. However, in June, after rounding the Cape of Good Hope, the ship was rerouted to Taranto, Italy, and turned back towards the Atlantic Ocean. There had been speculation that Vale Brasil was not allowed to enter the Chinese port fully laden, but according to Vale the destination was changed due to commercial, not political reasons. The ship arrived at the port of Taranto on 14 July 2011 to discharge her cargo. Since then, fully laden Valemax vessels have unloaded at various ports, such as Dalian in China, Sohar in Oman, Rotterdam, Ōita in Japan, Dangjin in South Korea, and the transshipment hub Vale has constructed at Subic Bay in the Philippines.
On 31 January 2012 the Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China officially banned dry bulk carriers with capacity exceeding 300,000 tons from entering Chinese ports to protect the domestic freight industry. Prior to this only one of the new very large ore carrier chartered by Vale, Berge Everest, had unloaded Brazilian iron ore at a Chinese port — the ship arrived at Dalian on 28 December 2011 — but this is assumed to be a bureaucratic fluke as no Chinese port has regulatory approval to receive dry bulk carriers of that size. According to Vale the discussions about allowing the Valemax ships to enter Chinese ports are ongoing and the Chinese officials have given a preliminary go-ahead for the construction of new berths capable of accommodating the 400,000-ton ships. However, according to the Ningbo Port Company, the construction of the new port facilities would take two to three years, causing further delays for Vale which in the meantime is losing $2–3 per ton of ore due to the ban. On 15 April 2013, Vale Malaysia became the first 400,000-ton Valemax vessel to call a Chinese port. The partially loaded ship docked at the port of Lianyungang en route from the Vale transshipment hub in Subic Bay, Philippines. However, it is unclear if the Chinese officials have actually lifted the ban for fully laden Valemax vessels as none of the ships have called Chinese ports since.
Initially Vale planned to own and manage a fleet of 19 Valemax vessels by itself to control the wildly fluctuating charter prices for large bulk carriers, which had dropped from US$233,988 per day in June 2008 to as low as US$2,400 by December of the same year. However, because of the global economic downturn and the reluctance of Chinese ports to accept the fully laden ships due to environmental concerns, the new board of directors decided to focus capital allocation to mining. As a result Vale has reportedly decided to sell the ships to other, likely Chinese shipping companies and charter them back under long-term contracts. On 21 December 2011 a Brazilian financial newspaper reported that Vale had sold the four Valemax vessels that had been delivered by then to an undisclosed buyer and intended to put the remaining 15 on sale before the end of the year, but as of April 2013[update] none of the ships have not changed owners officially. Although Vale may suffer financial losses from selling the ships, they will be covered by the profit from iron ore sales even at current, depressed ore prices if one or two shipments can be unloaded in Chinese ports.
On 1 November 2013, Vale signed a $500 million contract with the Chinese shipping company Shandong Shipping for the operation of four Valemax vessels. As a result, the 400,000-ton ore carriers may finally be able to dock at Chinese ports. On 1 November 2013, the 2011-built Vale Rio de Janeiro was renamed Shandong Da De.
Structural failure of Vale Beijing
On 5 December 2011 it was reported that Vale Beijing, operated by STX Pan Ocean, had suffered structural damage during her first cargo loading and was in danger of sinking at the port of Ponta da Madeira in Brazil due to sea water entering ruptured ballast tanks and cargo holds. The South Korean-built Valemax ship, partially loaded with 260,000 tons of iron ore, was towed away from Pier 1 by tugboats in the following day and as a precaution against environmental damage the Brazilian authorities requested her fuel tanks to be emptied. Since there are no facilities to unload iron ore from the ship at Ponta da Madeira and no large shipyards in the region, emergency repairs had to be performed by divers and the cargo redistributed while the ship is anchored offshore before it could be towed to a shipyard. The cause of the damage has not been published by STX, but design or construction flaws, material fatigue and incorrect loading have all been suspected. According to calculations performed by DNV the damage was not caused by global strength issues or single pass loading, but is assumed to be related to local buckling strength in some areas of the web frames in the aft ballast tanks. Vale Beijing remained anchored off Ponta da Madeira with a crawler crane on the deck and an oceangoing tug standing by until 19 February 2012, when it left São Luís for Oman. After unloading at Sohar, the ship headed to South Korea for dry docking and arrived at STX shipyard in Jinhae, where it was delivered in September 2011, for inspection and repairs on 21 April 2012. Vale Beijing returned to service in July 2012.
Had Vale Beijing sunk at the pier instead of being moved to an anchorage area outside the port shortly after the leak was detected, the incident would have severely delayed the operations at the port which ships out about 10 percent of the world's iron ore production. While Vale Beijing delayed the loading of only 750,000 tons of iron ore, on 11 November 1994 Trade Daring, a 145,000 DWT ore-bulk-oil carrier, broke in two at the same location due to incorrect loading, blocking the deepwater pier of Ponta da Madeira for more than six weeks before the wreck was removed and scuttled offshore.
After the incident, the China Shipowners' Association (CSA) questioned the safety of the 400,000-ton ore carriers commissioned by Vale. CSA was particularly concerned about the ability of the newly built ships to withstand various sea conditions and the pollution resulting from fuel oil leaks in case of structural damage — each Valemax ship can carry around 10,000 tons of fuel oil. In January 2012 China officially banned the vessels from Chinese ports. However, in April 2013, The China Shipping Association confirmed that the first Valemax vessel was allowed to dock in the Chinese port of Lianyungang in the Jiangsu province. Despite this, the ban has not been officially lifted as of September 2013[update].
Grounding of Vale Indonesia
On 7 September 2013, Vale Indonesia ran aground on a sandbar about 40 nautical miles (74 km; 46 mi) north of São Luís. The vessel, operated by STX Pan Ocean, was fully laden with 390,000 tons of iron ore bound for Vale's transhipment hub in Subic Bay. Two ballast tanks were reportedly breached, but there were no injuries or pollution, and the vessel was not in danger of sinking.
Although similar in size, the Valemax vessels built by different shipyards in South Korea and China have some differences in main dimensions, cargo capacity, machinery and external appearance.
The Valemax ships are 360 to 362 metres (1,181 to 1,188 ft) long, making them some of the longest ships currently in service. With a maximum draught of between 22 and 23 metres (72 and 75 ft) while loaded, the ships are limited only to a few deepwater ports in Brazil, Europe and China. In ballast the ships draw around 12 metres (39 ft) of water. The breadth of the Valemax ships is about 65 metres (213 ft). The size of the ships is limited mainly by Chinese ports and the ships of this size are generally referred to as Chinamax vessels.
The Valemax vessels have seven cargo holds with a total gross volume of almost 220,000 cubic metres (287,749 cu yd). In addition to increasing the strength of the hull special attention has also been paid to improve the speed and efficiency of the loading and discharging operations. Each cargo hold can be fully loaded by a shiploader in a single step with a loading rate of 13,500 tonnes per hour and can carry almost as much iron ore as a small Panamax carrier. In addition the space inside the cargo hold that cannot be reached by grabs during discharging, the so-called "dead spots", is minimized. With a deadweight tonnage of 400,000 tons, a fully laden Valemax vessel is carrying as much iron ore as around 11,150 trucks, enough to produce steel for three Golden Gate bridges. Once all 35 Valemax ships are in service and if each ship does four round trips per year, they will be capable of carrying about 15% of the annual iron ore exports from Brazil to all destinations.
Like most modern bulk carriers, each Valemax vessel will be powered by a single two-stroke low-speed crosshead diesel engine directly coupled to a fixed-pitch propeller. The ships built by DSME and STX in South Korea will be powered by 7-cylinder MAN B&W 7S80ME-C8 and 7S80ME-C engines, respectively, and the ships built by RSHI and Bohai Shipbuilding Heavy Industry will receive Wärtsilä 7RT-flex82T and 7RT-flex84T engines, respectively. The Wärtsilä RT-flex82T engines are manufactured in China under licence. Both MAN and Wärtsilä engines will have a maximum continuous rating of around 29,000 kW (39,000 hp) when turning the 10-metre (33 ft) propeller at 76–78 rpm, giving the ships a service speed of around 15 knots (28 km/h; 17 mph) while burning almost 100 tons of heavy fuel oil per day. However, due to the large size of the vessels the emissions per cargo ton-mile are very low and thus the Valemax vessels are in fact among the most efficient long-distance dry bulk carriers in service — Vale has reported a 35% drop in emissions per ton of cargo carried in comparison to older ships.
All Valemax vessels will be classified by Det Norske Veritas, although some have dual classification with the Korean Register of Shipping. However, the Valemax vessels built for Oman Shipping Company have been removed from the DNV database.
The new ships are considerably larger than the previous record holder, 364,767-ton Berge Stahl, which had been the largest bulk carrier in the world since it was built in 1986. While the draft of the old vessel is the same as that of the Valemax vessels — 23 metres (75 ft) — the new ships are 20 metres (66 ft) longer and 1.5 metres (4.9 ft) wider than the old freighter, and can carry about 10% more cargo.
The Valemax vessels are also the second largest ships in service by deadweight tonnage, second only to the TI class supertankers that have a deadweight tonnage of over 440,000 tons. However, they are still far from the largest ship ever constructed — Seawise Giant, built in 1979 and broken up in 2009, was 458.46 metres (1,504.1 ft) long and had a deadweight tonnage of 564,650 tons — and also considerably shorter than the longest ships currently in service, the 399-metre (1,309 ft) Mærsk Triple E class container ships.
Vale's decision of constructing a fleet of 400,000-ton ore carriers has been widely criticized by other shipping companies. The new Valemax ships, expected to cut the company's transportation costs by 20–25%, are blamed for driving down the freight rates for the entire industry, swelling the already oversupplied bulk transportation market and stalling the recovery of the shipping business after the financial crisis.
The freight rates, down 80% from 2008, are expected to drop further down to the levels of 1977. According to the chief executive of BIMCO, the Valemax vessels could displace up to 168 150,000–180,000-ton capesize bulk carriers, around 15% of the existing fleet, from the long haul voyages and force them to less profitable shorter routes. Vale has responded to the criticism by stating that the company aims to permanently cut the costs of Atlantic-Pacific dry bulk shipping to make Brazilian ore more competitive against iron ore produced in Australia, which is closer to major customers in Asia.
Vale has also faced opposition from the China Shipowners' Association which claim that the Brazilian mining company is seeking to control the freight market as it has already done with the iron ore prices. In the past the Chinese ports were not allowed to increase their capacity to more than 300,000 tons for dry bulk carriers due to safety and environmental concerns, and if the 400,000-ton Valemax vessels are allowed to Chinese ports, Vale's monopoly on the route may result in losses for other shipping companies operating capesize ore carriers. Also, when Vale Brasil was diverted to Italy on her maiden voyage, there was speculation that the domestic steel industry of China had urged the authorities to protect their commercial interests. However, Vale has also received support from the Chinese steel companies as they would benefit from lower transportation costs.
As a precaution against prolonged ban of Valemax vessels from the Chinese ports, Vale started constructing both land- and offshore-based transshipment hubs where iron ore can be loaded to smaller ships for final delivery. Ore Fabrica, a 280,000 DWT crude oil tanker converted in China, arrived at Subic Bay, Philippines, in late January 2012 and has since unloaded a number of Valemax ships. This backup plan has also been criticized by the vice-executive chairman of the CSA, Zhang Shouguo, who called it "waste of resource" and questioned Vale's ability to run the fleet as properly as professional shipping companies. There have been rumors that as a result Vale intends to sell or lease its planned fleet of Valemax bulk carriers to Chinese shipping companies with long-term charter contracts to avoid such criticism and allow the ships to enter Chinese ports, but as of 2013[update] no Valemax ship has changed owners.
In May 2012, the largest Chinese operator of dry bulk carriers, state-owned China Ocean Shipping (Group) Company (COSCO), claimed that Vale has refused to use the company's ships since March as a protest against banning the Valemax vessels from Chinese ports. Vale has refused to give comments on the issue.
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, the former president of Brazil, also publicly criticized Vale's former CEO Roger Agnelli for the decision of ordering ships from Asian shipyards instead of building them in Brazil, where Lula da Silva has been trying to revitalize the shipbuilding industry to create more jobs and increase local demand for steel and other products. Agnelli, who later left his position following continued criticism, replied that the Brazilian shipyards did not have the capacity to build such ships and stated that during the past few years Vale had commissioned 51 vessels from Brazilian shipyards.
List of Valemax vessels
|Ship name||Shipping company||Year||Yard number||IMO number||Status||Notes|
|Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering|
|Vale Brasil||Vale Shipping||2011||1201||9488918||In service|||
|Shandong Da De (2013–)
Vale Rio De Janeiro (2011–2013)
|Vale Shipping||2011||1202||9572329||In service|||
|Vale Italia||Vale Shipping||2011||1203||9572331||In service|||
|Vale Malaysia||Vale Shipping||2012||1204||9572343||In service|||
|Vale Carajas||Vale Shipping||2012||1212||9593919||In service|||
|Vale Minas Gerais||Vale Shipping||2012||1213||9593957||In service|||
|Vale Korea||Vale Shipping||2013||1214||9593969||In service|||
|STX Offshore & Shipbuilding|
|Vale Beijing||STX Pan Ocean||2011||1701||9575448||In service|||
|Vale Qingdao||STX Pan Ocean||2012||1702||9575450||In service|||
|Vale Espirito Santo||STX Pan Ocean||2012||1703||9575462||In service|||
|Vale Indonesia||STX Pan Ocean||2012||1704||9575474||In service|||
|Vale Fujiyama||STX Pan Ocean||2012||1705||9575486||In service|||
|Vale Tubarao||STX Pan Ocean||2013||1706||9575498||In service|||
|Vale Ponta da Madeira||STX Pan Ocean||2013||1707||9575503||Launched|||
|Vale Maranhao||STX Pan Ocean||2013||1708||9575515||In service|||
|Jiangsu Rongsheng Heavy Industries|
|Vale China||Vale Shipping||2011||H1105||9522972||In service|||
|Vale Dongjiakou||Vale Shipping||2012||H1106||9532513||In service|||
|Vale Dalian||Vale Shipping||2012||H1107||9532525||In service|||
|Vale Hebei||Vale Shipping||2012||H1108||9532537||In service|||
|Vale Shandong||Vale Shipping||2012||H1109||9532549||In service|||
|Vale Jiangsu||Vale Shipping||2013||H1110||9532551||In service|||
|Vale Caofeidian||Vale Shipping||2013||H1111||9532575||In service|||
|Vale Lianyungang||Vale Shipping||2013||H1112||9532587||In service|||
|Vale Majishan||Vale Shipping||2013||H1113||9532599||Launched|||
|Vale Tianjin||Vale Shipping||H1114||9532604||Ordered|||
|Vale Rizhao||Vale Shipping||H1115||9532616||Ordered|||
|Vale Ningbo||Vale Shipping||H1116||9532628||Ordered|||
|Vale Sohar||Oman Shipping Company||2012||H1125||9565065||In service|||
|Vale Liwa||Oman Shipping Company||2012||H1126||9566514||In service|||
|Vale Shinas||Oman Shipping Company||2013||H1127||9566538||In service|||
|Vale Saham||Oman Shipping Company||2013||H1128||9566526||In service|||
|Bohai Shipbuilding Heavy Industry|
|Berge Everest||Berge Bulk||2011||BH416-1||9447536||In service|||
|Berge Aconcagua||Berge Bulk||2012||BH416-2||9447548||In service|||
|Berge Jaya||Berge Bulk||2012||BH416-3||9447550||In service|||
|Berge Neblina||Berge Bulk||2013||BH416-4||9447562||In service|||
- Energy efficiency and productivity . Vale S.A. Retrieved on 2011-09-04.
- DSME delivering Vale Brasil, the world's largest ore carrier. Det Norske Veritas, 2011-06-01. Retrieved on 2011-09-01.
- China Set to Deliver Two Mega-ships to Vale. Caixin Online, 6 July 2012. Retrieved on 2012-07-18.
- Breaking News: DNV awarded class for the world's biggest shipbuilding contract ever!, Det Norske Veritas, 9 September 2008. Retrieved on 2011-09-05.
- China: RSHI Launches World’s Most Advanced VLOC for Iron Ore Supplier Vale. Shipbuilding Tribune, 11 July 2011. Retrieved on 2011-09-05.
- "Vale China (30059)". DNV Exchange. Det Norske Veritas. https://exchange.dnv.com/exchange/main.aspx?extool=vessel&subview=summary&vesselid=30059. Retrieved 2011-11-29.
- CHIA RONG : China Rongsheng Heavy Industries' 400,000 DWT Vloc Named and Launched - Lowers Cost for Vale and Forges Long-Term Cooperation, First Vlocs to be Delivered Soon. 4-traders.com, 10 July 2011. Retrieved on 2011-09-05.
- Vale gets 1st China-built mega iron ore carrier, market shudders. International Business Times, 12 July 2011. Retrieved on 2011-09-05.
- With China shut, Vale iron-ore ships head to Philippines. Mining Weekly, 26 January 2012. Retrieved on 2012-02-04.
- "Vale Dongjiakou (30060)". DNV Exchange. Det Norske Veritas. https://exchange.dnv.com/exchange/main.aspx?extool=vessel&subview=summary&vesselid=30060. Retrieved 2012-04-17.
- "Vale Dalian (30061)". DNV Exchange. Det Norske Veritas. https://exchange.dnv.com/exchange/main.aspx?extool=vessel&subview=summary&vesselid=30061. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "Vale Hebei (30062)". DNV Exchange. Det Norske Veritas. https://exchange.dnv.com/exchange/main.aspx?extool=vessel&subview=summary&vesselid=30062. Retrieved 2012-09-29.
- "Vale Shandong (30063)". DNV Exchange. Det Norske Veritas. https://exchange.dnv.com/exchange/main.aspx?extool=vessel&subview=summary&vesselid=30063. Retrieved 2012-12-13.
- "Vale Jiangsu (30064)". DNV Exchange. Det Norske Veritas. https://exchange.dnv.com/exchange/main.aspx?extool=vessel&subview=summary&vesselid=30064. Retrieved 2013-04-05.
- "Vale Caofeidian (30230)". DNV Exchange. Det Norske Veritas. https://exchange.dnv.com/exchange/main.aspx?extool=vessel&subview=summary&vesselid=30230. Retrieved 2013-07-26.
- "Vale Lianyungang (30231)". DNV Exchange. Det Norske Veritas. https://exchange.dnv.com/exchange/main.aspx?extool=vessel&subview=summary&vesselid=30231. Retrieved 2013-12-04.
- Rongsheng to deliver 10 giant ore ships to Vale this year. Reuters, 20 March 2012. Retrieved on 2012-03-21.
- "Vale Majishan (9532599)". Equasis. French Ministry for Transport. http://www.equasis.org/EquasisWeb/restricted/ShipList?fs=ShipSearch&P_PAGE=1&P_IMO=9532599. Retrieved 2013-03-26. (subscription required)
- Sultanate and Brazil, Agreement to Lease four ships for Steel Ore. Oman Shipping Company News Press Releases, 2 November 2008. Retrieved on 2011-09-05.
- Jiangsu Rongsheng Signs US$483 Newbuild VLOC Deal With Oman Shipping. Business Monitor International, 13 July 2009. Retrieved on 2012-02-04.
- Fleet. Oman Shipping Company. Retrieved on 2011-09-05.
- RSHI’s 400,000 DWT VLOC Began Construction. Jiangsu Rongsheng Heavy Industries, 8 July 2010. Retrieved on 2012-02-04.
- China: Rongsheng Heavy Launches VLOC VALE SOHAR Built for OSC. World Maritime News, 9 April 2012. Retrieved on 2012-04-09.
- Rongsheng VLOCs strengthened . Marine News China, 29 April 2012. Retrieved on 2012-05-18.
- "Vale Liwa (9566514)". Equasis. French Ministry for Transport. http://www.equasis.org/EquasisWeb/restricted/ShipList?fs=ShipSearch&P_PAGE=1&P_IMO=9566514. Retrieved 2012-08-21. (subscription required)
- "Vale Sohar (9565065)". Equasis. French Ministry for Transport. http://www.equasis.org/EquasisWeb/restricted/ShipList?fs=ShipSearch&P_PAGE=1&P_IMO=9565065. Retrieved 2012-09-29. (subscription required)
- Delivery doubts plague Vale’s VLOC newbuilds programme. Lloyd's List Asia, 30 June 2011. Retrieved on 2011-11-18.
- Rongsheng May Deliver Two Large Ore Ships in 2011, Six Fewer Than Planned. Eshiptrading.com, 26 May 2011. Retrieved on 2011-09-05.
- CH RONGSHENG (01101) 2011 delivery target: 2-3 vessels to VALE COMMON-DRS. AASTOCKS.com, 24 August 2011. Retrieved on 2011-11-18.
- Vale’s giant ore carriers go on a diet. Lloyd's List, 25 November 2011. Retrieved on 2011-11-29.
- China Rongsheng delivers first VLOC to Vale. ship-technology.com, 29 November 2011. Retrieved on 2011-11-29.
- Vale iron-ore ship built in Korea is smaller than first planned. The Business Times, 28 November 2011. Retrieved on 2011-11-29.
- Vale refuses delivery on Chinese ships. Global Times, 20 April 2012. Retrieved on 2012-04-21.
- Vale refuses delivery on Chinese ships. Maritime Bulletin, 20 April 2012. Retrieved on 2012-04-21.
- Rongsheng scorns VLOC reports. Tradewinds. (Registration required)
- "Vale Brasil (30616)". DNV Exchange. Det Norske Veritas. https://exchange.dnv.com/exchange/main.aspx?extool=vessel&subview=summary&vesselid=30616. Retrieved 2013-02-22.
- DSME bags VLOC order. The Motor Ship, 28 October 2009. Retrieved on 2011-09-05.
- DSME wins order 3 VLOCs from Vale. Maritime Press, 25 June 2010. Retrieved on 2011-09-05.
- "Shandong Da De (30617)". DNV Exchange. Det Norske Veritas. https://exchange.dnv.com/exchange/main.aspx?extool=vessel&subview=summary&vesselid=30617. Retrieved 2013-02-22.
- "Vale Italia (30618)". DNV Exchange. Det Norske Veritas. https://exchange.dnv.com/exchange/main.aspx?extool=vessel&subview=summary&vesselid=30618. Retrieved 2011-10-29.
- "Vale Malaysia (30619)". DNV Exchange. Det Norske Veritas. https://exchange.dnv.com/exchange/main.aspx?extool=vessel&subview=summary&vesselid=30619. Retrieved 2012-03-30.
- "Vale Carajas (31641)". DNV Exchange. Det Norske Veritas. https://exchange.dnv.com/exchange/main.aspx?extool=vessel&subview=summary&vesselid=31641. Retrieved 2012-05-30.
- "Vale Minas Gerais (31642)". DNV Exchange. Det Norske Veritas. https://exchange.dnv.com/exchange/main.aspx?extool=vessel&subview=summary&vesselid=31642. Retrieved 2012-07-16.
- "Vale Korea (31643)". DNV Exchange. Det Norske Veritas. https://exchange.dnv.com/exchange/main.aspx?extool=vessel&subview=summary&vesselid=31643. Retrieved 2013-04-15.
- ME-Engine Firmly Established in Brazilian Market. MAN Diesel & Turbo. Retrieved on 2011-09-01.
- STX Pan Ocean in pact with Vale to ship iron ore. Resource Investor, 21 September 2009. Retrieved on 2011-09-04.
- "Vale Qingdao (30992)". DNV Exchange. Det Norske Veritas. https://exchange.dnv.com/exchange/main.aspx?extool=vessel&subview=summary&vesselid=30992. Retrieved 2012-04-17.
- "Vale Espirito Santo (32459)". DNV Exchange. Det Norske Veritas. https://exchange.dnv.com/exchange/main.aspx?extool=vessel&subview=summary&vesselid=32459. Retrieved 2012-09-17.
- "Vale Indonesia (32460)". DNV Exchange. Det Norske Veritas. https://exchange.dnv.com/exchange/main.aspx?extool=vessel&subview=summary&vesselid=32460. Retrieved 2012-11-04.
- Delivering World’s Largest VLOC and Best-performing Drillship in A Row. STX Mobile, 26 July 2012. Retrieved on 2012-09-17.
- "Vale Fujiyama (32457)". DNV Exchange. Det Norske Veritas. https://exchange.dnv.com/exchange/main.aspx?extool=vessel&subview=summary&vesselid=32457. Retrieved 2012-12-03.
- "Vale Turabao (32461)". DNV Exchange. Det Norske Veritas. https://exchange.dnv.com/exchange/main.aspx?extool=vessel&subview=summary&vesselid=32461. Retrieved 2013-02-11.
- STX acquires world-largest VLOC. Maritime Press, 2011-09-28. Retrieved on 2011-10-03.
- "Vale Maranhao (32458)". DNV Exchange. Det Norske Veritas. https://exchange.dnv.com/exchange/main.aspx?extool=vessel&subview=summary&vesselid=32458. Retrieved 2013-09-11.
- "Vale Beijing (30991)". DNV Exchange. Det Norske Veritas. https://exchange.dnv.com/exchange/main.aspx?extool=vessel&subview=summary&vesselid=30991. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
- "Berge Everest (28514)". DNV Exchange. Det Norske Veritas. https://exchange.dnv.com/exchange/main.aspx?extool=vessel&subview=summary&vesselid=28514.
- "Berge Aconcagua (28515)". DNV Exchange. Det Norske Veritas. https://exchange.dnv.com/exchange/main.aspx?extool=vessel&subview=summary&vesselid=28515. Retrieved 2012-04-07.
- "Berge Jaya (28516)". DNV Exchange. Det Norske Veritas. https://exchange.dnv.com/exchange/main.aspx?extool=vessel&subview=summary&vesselid=28516. Retrieved 2012-06-17.
- China Bohai Shipbuilding to soon deliver 1st mega dry bulk ship. Reuters, 20 July 2011. Retrieved on 2011-12-10.
- Building the world's largest bulk carriers. Det Norske Veritas, 30 January 2008. Retrieved on 2011-12-10.
- "Berge Neblina (28517)". DNV Exchange. Det Norske Veritas. https://exchange.dnv.com/exchange/main.aspx?extool=vessel&subview=summary&vesselid=28517. Retrieved 2013-01-22.
- http://www.lloydslist.com/ll/sector/dry-cargo/article386077.ece. Lloyd's List, 8 December 2011. Retrieved on 2011-12-10.
- First of Vale's mega ships to arrive in Asia next week. Reuters, 8 December 2011. Retrieved on 2011-12-08.
- Vale Brasil Sails For The Port Of Dalian In China. The TEX Report, 31 May 2011. Retrieved on 2011-09-01.
- Vale reroutes China-bound iron cargo to Italy. Reuters, 21 June 2011. Retrieved on 2011-09-01.
- Vale diverts China ore ship for commercial reasons. Lee Universal Enterprises, 22 June 2011. Retrieved on 2011-09-01.
- Vale Brasil discharged iron ore carrier at Taranto in Italy for Ilva. Steelguru, 22 July 2011. Retrieved on 2011-09-01.
- China bans 400,000 dwt 'Valemax' vessels. The Business Times, 2 February 2012. Retrieved on 2012-02-04.
- Iron ore mega-ship offloads first 400,000 tonnes at Sohar jetty. Royal Haskoning, 29 September 2011. Retrieved on 2012-02-04.
- Vale Rio is haven binnengevaren. Rijnmond, 8 January 2012. Retrieved on 2012-01-08.
- Valemax ore carrier docks in Japan for first time. SteelOrbis, 19 June 2012. Retrieved on 2012-06-24.
- South Korean port receives a Valemax class vessel for the first time. Vale S.A., 4 October 2013. Retrieved on 2013-11-01.
- Vale readies iron ore transshipment hub in Philippines. Reuters, 31 January 2012. Retrieved on 2012-02-04.
- Vale Says Discussions 'Going On' Over China Valemax Access. Hellenic Shipping News, 23 May 2012. Retrieved on 2012-05-23.
- China gives preliminary go-ahead to building valemax berths. Lloyd's List, 29 May 2012. Retrieved on 2012-06-06.
- Vale losing $2-$3/t of ore due to China Valemax ban. Mineweb, 6 December 2012. Retrieved on 2013-07-26.
- Vale's Valemax Service Still Faces Hurdles In China. Forbes, 4 September 2012. Retrieved on 2012-09-07.
- Valemax enters China port for first time since ban. South China Morning Post, 18 April 2013. Retrieved on 2013-04-18.
- Chinese port first to take in valemax giant. Lloyd's list, 18 April 2013. Retrieved on 2013-04-18.
- Vale looking to sell Valemax iron ore carriers. Steel Guru, 22 December 2011. Retrieved on 2011-12-22.
- Brazilian group Vale sells four of its 19 “super” cargo ships. Macauhub, 21 December 2011. Retrieved on 2011-12-22.
- Vale VLOCs a "loss-leader". TradeWinds, 22 December 2011. Retrieved on 2011-12-23.
- Shandong Shipping agrees to operate Vale's giant iron ore ships. Yahoo! Finance, 1 November 2013. Retrieved on 2013-11-01.
- Vale says put 260,000 tonnes of ore on damaged ship. Wall Street On Demand, 25 December 2011. Retrieved on 2011-12-25.
- Vale Beijing Update. Maritime Bulletin, 9 December 2011. Retrieved on 2011-12-11.
- Huge Vale ore carrier disabled at Brazil port. Reuters, 6 December 2011. Retrieved on 2011-12-06.
- Huge Vale ore carrier may sink at Brazil port. Mining Weekly, 6 December 2011. Retrieved on 2011-12-06.
- Vale port moves damaged ore ship from berth. Reuters, 6 December 2011. Retrieved on 2011-12-06.
- VALE BEIJING: Situation remains serious SeaNews Turkey, 8 December 2011. Retrieved on 2011-12-11.
- Vale Beijing incident not related to global strength issues or single pass loading. Det Norske Veritas, 16 January 2012. Retrieved on 2012-01-22.
- VLOC Vale Beijing still anchored off Sao Luis, offloading ore in barges. Maritime Bulletin, 20 January 2012. Retrieved on 2012-02-04.
- Vale Beijing Heading to South Korea for Inspections, Owner Says. BloombergBusinessweek, 4 April 2012. Retrieved on 2012-04-07.
- Vale's huge iron-ore ship back in service after maiden accident. Mining Weekly, 16 July 2012. Retrieved on 2012-07-16.
- Damaged Vale ore ship moved, shipments normalized. Reuters, 6 December 2011. Retrieved on 2011-11-09.
- Trade Daring. The Brazilian Register of Shipping (RBNA). Retrieved on 2011-12-07.
- China questions safety of Brazil’s dry bulk carriers, the world’s largest. MercoPress, 14 December 2011. Retrieved on 2011-12-23.
- M.V. Vale Brasil - Ships particulars. Retrieved on 2011-08-26.
- China permits giant Valemax to dock, Hook. Leslie, Financial Times - Shipping (18 April, 2013)
- Valemax Vale Indonesia grounded and breached off Ponta da Madeira, Brazil. Maritime Bulletin, 9 September 2013. Retrieved on 2013-09-11.
- Valemax Vale Indonesia hits sandbar in Brazil port. Seatrade Global, 10 September 2013. Retrieved on 2013-09-11.
- The world's largest ore carriers. Det Norske Veritas. Retrieved on 2011-09-01.
- Vale mulling 63% iron-ore production increase by 2015 . Mining Weekly, 22 April 2011. Retrieved on 2011-09-02.
- Machine Support services on world's largest dry bulk carrier. Machine Support News. Retrieved on 2011-09-02.
- Biggest iron-ore ships can enter 3 Chinese ports. China Daily, 2011-06-23. Retrieved on 2011-09-02.
- Interactive presentation. Vale S.A. Retrieved on 2011-08-28.
- The ‘Chinamax’ aka* ‘Valemax’: an (iron) ore carrier drama. Carbon Positive, 17 July 2013. Retrieved on 2013-07-26.
- Vale - A Global Strategic Partner. Vale S.A. Retrieved on 2011-09-01.
- Vale’s fleet ambitions loaded with super-sized risks. Lloyd's List, 30 July 2010. Retrieved on 2011-09-04.
- World’s Largest Bulk Carrier Uses Low-Speed B&W Power on Chinese Route. Diesel Facts 2/2011, page 9. MAN Diesel, 2011. Retrieved on 2011-08-26.
- MS Berge Stahl. Ships and Yacht Information, 11 March 2008. Retrieved on 2011-09-05.
- "Berge Stahl (14702)". DNV Exchange. Det Norske Veritas. https://exchange.dnv.com/exchange/main.aspx?extool=vessel&subview=summary&vesselid=14702. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
- Tankers International (2008). "Fleet List". tankersinternational.com. Tankers International. Retrieved 7 July 2010.
- Auke Visser. "Jahre Viking". International Super Tankers. Retrieved 2011-08-24.
- "EMMA MÆRSK". American Bureau of Shipping. Retrieved 2011-08-24.
- "The Danish Armada". The Economist. February 21, 2011. Retrieved 26 February 2011.
- Vale mega ships to cut freight costs by 20-25 pct. Reuters, 17 June 2011. Retrieved on 2011-09-05.
- Vale’s giant ships ‘to drive rates to 1977 lows’. Lloyd's List, 22 October 2010. Retrieved on 2011-09-05.
- Mega-Ships to stall maritime recovery. Commodities Now, December 2010. Retrieved on 2011-09-05.
- Vale Brasil Sends Shipping Returns Plummeting: Freight Markets. Business Week, 27 April 2011. Retrieved on 2011-09-05.
- Vale New Giant Ships to be Built in China and Korea. SteelHome, 6 July 2011. Retrieved on 2011-09-05.
- China's Shippers Lobby to Foil Vale's Ore Fleet. SteelHome, 28 July 2011. Retrieved on 2011-09-05.
- Vale’s Giant Ships Get Support from Chinese Steelmakers. Trefix, 10 May 2012. Retrieved on 2012-09-07.
- Gloves come off in China's Vale scrap. Lloyd's List, 1 December 2011. Retrieved on 2011-12-23.
- China Shipowners’ Association’s Comment and View on Vale’s Construction of Transshipment Hub and Distribution Centre in Philippines and Malaysia to Transport Iron Ore Imported by China. China Shipowners' Association, 6 December 2011. Retrieved on 2011-12-23.
- Exclusive: Vale in talks to sell giant ships to China. Reuters, 5 September 2011. Retrieved on 2011-09-05.
- Cosco Says Vale Shuns Its Vessels on China Mega-Ship Ban. Bloomberg Businessweek, 9 May 2012. Retrieved on 2012-05-18.
- Brazil Vale takes delivery of 400,000-ton ore carrier. Bulk Inside, 19 May 2011. Retrieved on 2011-09-05.
- "Vale Ponta da Madeira (9575503)". Equasis. French Ministry for Transport. http://www.equasis.org/EquasisWeb/restricted/ShipList?fs=ShipSearch&P_PAGE=1&P_IMO=9575503. Retrieved 2013-05-10. (subscription required)
- Ship Search. Maritime Connector. Retrieved on 2012-08-03.
- "Vale Shinas (9566538)". Equasis. French Ministry for Transport. http://www.equasis.org/EquasisWeb/restricted/ShipList?fs=ShipSearch&P_PAGE=1&P_IMO=9566538. Retrieved 2012-09-13. (subscription required)
- "Vale Saham (9566526)". Equasis. French Ministry for Transport. http://www.equasis.org/EquasisWeb/restricted/ShipList?fs=ShipSearch&P_PAGE=1&P_IMO=9566526. Retrieved 2012-09-29. (subscription required)