The Gens Valeria was a patrician family at Rome, which later included a number of plebeian branches. The Valeria gens was one of the most ancient and most celebrated at Rome; and no other Roman gens was distinguished for so long a period, although a few others, such as the Cornelia gens, produced a greater number of illustrious men. Publius Valerius, afterwards surnamed Poplicola or Publicola, played a distinguished part in the story of the expulsion of the Kings, and was elected consul in the first year of the Republic, BC 509. From this time forward, down to the latest period of the Empire, for nearly a thousand years, the name Valerius occurs more or less frequently in the Fasti, and it was borne by the emperors Maximinus, Maximianus, Maxentius, Diocletian, Constantius, Constantine the Great, and others.
The Valeria gens enjoyed extraordinary honours and privileges at Rome. Their house at the bottom of the Velia was the only one in Rome of which the doors were allowed to open back into the street. In the Circus Maximus a conspicuous place was set apart for them, where a small throne was erected, an honour of which there was no other example among the Romans. They were also allowed to bury their dead within the walls, a privilege which was also granted to some other gentes; and when they had exchanged the older custom of interment for that of burning the corpse, although they did not light the funeral pile on their burying-ground, the bier was set down there, as a symbolical way of preserving their right.
Niebuhr, who mentions these distinctions, conjectures that among the gradual changes of the constitution from a monarchy to an aristocracy, the Valeria gens for a time possessed the right that one of its members should exercise the kingly power for the Tities, to which tribe the Valerii must have belonged, as their Sabine origin indicates; but on this point, as on many others in early Roman history, it is impossible to come to any certainty. The Valerii in early times were always foremost in advocating the rights of the plebeians, and the laws which they proposed at various times were the great charters of the liberties of the second order.
- 1 Origin
- 2 Praenomina
- 3 Branches and cognomina
- 4 Members
- 5 Other uses of the name Valerius
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Footnotes
The Valerii are universally admitted to have been of Sabine origin, and their ancestor, Volesus or Volusus, is said to have settled at Rome with Titus Tatius. Publius Valerius Poplicola and his brothers, Marcus Valerius Volusus and Manius Valerius Maximus, were descendants of this Volesus. The nomen Valerius is a patronymic surname derived from the praenomen Volesus, itself derived from valere, to be strong.
Branches and cognomina
The Valeria gens was divided into various families under the Republic, the names of which are Corvus or Corvinus, Falto, Flaccus, Laevinus, Maximus, Messalla, Potitus, Poplicola or Publicola, Tappo, Triarius, and Volusus. Besides these, we meet with other cognomens of the Valerii under the Republic, which are mostly the names of freedmen or clients of the Valeria gens. On the coins of the Valerii, we find the cognomens Acisculus, Catullus, Flaccus, and Barbatus. Other surnames were borne by the Valerii in the imperial period.
The Valerii Poplicolae were descended from Publius Valerius, the consul of 509 BC. His brothers, Marcus and Manius, bore their father's praenomen, in the form Volusus, as a surname. Manius bore the additional cognomen Maximus, which was passed down to his descendants.
Poplicola signified "one who courts the people," from populus and colo, thus "a friend of the people." The form Poplicola was the most ancient. Poplicola generally occurs in inscriptions, but we also find Poplicula. Publicola was the more modern form, and seems to have been the one usually employed by the Romans in later times. We find it in the best manuscripts of Livy, and in the palimpsest manuscript of Cicero's De Republica.
The Valerii Potiti appear to be descended from Lucius Valerius, a son of Marcus Valerius Volusus, and nephew of Poplicola. This family, like many of the other ancient Roman families, disappears about the time of the Samnite Wars; but the name was revived at a later period by the Valeria gens as a praenomen; a Potitus Valerius Messalla was consul suffectus in BC 29. The practice of using extinct family names as praenomina was common in other gentes; in the Cornelia gens, the Lentuli adopted the extinct cognomen of Cossus as a praenomen.
Corvus or Corvinus was a surname borne by a family of the Valerii Maximi. The first of this family earned the cognomen during the war against the Gauls in BC 349, when he defeated a giant Gaul in single combat, with the help of a raven. Marcus Valerius Corvus was regarded as one of the great heroes of the Republic, and was twice dictator, six times consul, and had filled the curule chair twenty-one times, living to the age of one hundred. He seems to have used the form Corvus, although some writers call him Corvinus; his descendants invariably adopted the form Corvinus, which is merely a longer form of Corvus.
The surname Messalla was originally assumed by Manius Valerius Maximus Corvinus after his relief of Messana in Sicily from blockade by the Carthaginians in the second year of the First Punic War, BC 263. Members of this family appear for the first time on the consular Fasti in BC 263, and for the last in AD 506; and, during this period of nearly eight centuries, they held twenty-two consulships and three censorships. The cognomen Messalla, frequently written Messala, was originally an agnomen, meaning "of Messana." It appears with the agnomens Barbatus, Niger, and Rufus.
The cognomen Lactuca, borne by one of the Valerii Maximi, means "Lettuce," a favourite esculant of the early Romans. It belongs to the same class of surnames as Cicer (Cicero) and Stolo in the Licinian family. Lactucinus, borne by some of his descendants, is merely a longer form of the same name.
- Volesus or Volusus, the eponymous ancestor of the gens, is said to have come to Rome with Titus Tatius during the time of Romulus, the first King of Rome.
- Volesus Valerius, a descendant of the first Volesus, was the father of Publius Valerius Poplicola, Marcus Valerius Volusus, and Manius Valerius Volusus Maximus.
- Publius Valerius Vol. f. Poplicola, consul in 509 BC, the first year of the Republic; he triumphed over the forces of the king. Consul again in 508, 507, and 504, when he triumphed over the Sabines.
- Publius Valerius P. f. Vol. n. Poplicola, said by Dionysius to have perished along with his brother, Marcus, after recovering the body of their uncle, Marcus Valerius Volusus, during the Battle of Lake Regillus, in 498 BC. However, the Publius Valerius Poplicola who was consul in 475 and 460 BC is thought to be the same man.
- Marcus Valerius P. f. Vol. n. Poplicola, said to have perished with his brother, Publius, at the Battle of Lake Regillus.
- Publius Valerius P. f. Vol. n. Poplicola, consul in 475 and 460 BC, and interrex in 462; he triumphed over the Veientines and Sabines during his first consulship, but in his second, he was killed in recovering the capitol from Appius Herdonius. He is said to be the son of the consul of 509, but according to another tradition, that son fell in battle at Lake Regillus; perhaps the consul of 475 was his grandson.
- Lucius Valerius Poplicola, grandfather of the consular tribune of 394 BC.
- Lucius Valerius L. f. Poplicola, father of the consular tribune of 394 BC.
- Lucius Valerius L. f. L. n. Poplicola, consular tribune in 394, 389, 387, 383, and 380 BC.
- Publius Valerius L. f. Poplicola, father of the consul of 352 BC.
- Marcus Valerius L. f. Poplicola, magister equitum in 358 BC, and consul in 355 and 353.
- Publius Valerius P. f. L. n. Poplicola, consul in 352 BC; as praetor in 350 he commanded the reserves during the war against the Gauls. In 344 he was appointed dictator for the purpose of celebrating games in consequence of the appearance of prodigies.
- Publius Valerius Poplicola, magister equitum in 332 BC.
- Marcus Valerius Vol. f. Volusus, consul in 505 BC; he fell at the Battle of Lake Regillus, in 498.
- Lucius Valerius M. f. Vol. n. Potitus, consul in 483 and 470 BC.
- Volesus Valerius Potitus, grandfather of the consul of 410 BC.
- Publius Valerius Potitus, grandfather of the consul of 393 BC.
- Lucius Valerius L. f. M. n. Potitus, sometimes called Lucius Valerius Poplicola Potitus, opposed the decemvirs, and was elected consul for the year 449 BC. He defeated the Aequi and the Volsci, and when the senate refused him a triumph, the soldiers conferred that honour on him.
- Lucius Valerius Vol. f. Potitus, father of the consul of 410 BC.
- Lucius Valerius P. f. Potitus, father of the consul of 393 BC.
- Gaius Valerius L. f. Vol. n. Potitus Volusus, consular tribune in 415, 407, and 404 BC, and consul in 410; as consul he opposed the agrarian law of Marcus Maenius, and recovered the Arx Carventana from the Volsci, in consequence of which he was granted an ovation.
- Lucius Valerius L. f. P. n. Potitus, consular tribune in 414, 406, 403, 401, and 398 BC, and consul in 393 and 392; triumphed over the Aequi. Interrex for the purpose of holding the comitia in 392, and magister equitum under the dictator Marcus Furius Camillus in 390, the year in which Rome was taken by the Gauls.
- Publius Valerius L. f. L. n. Potitus Poplicola, consular tribune in 386, 384, 380, 377, 370, and 367 BC.
- Gaius Valerius (C. f. L. n.) Potitus, consular tribune in 370 BC.
- Gaius Valerius L. f. L. n. Potitus Flaccus, consul in 331 BC. He is probably the progenitor of the Valerii Flacci.
- Lucius Valerius (L. f. L. n.) Potitus, magister equitum in 331 BC.
- Manius Valerius Vol. f. Volusus Maximus, dictator in 494 BC, he promised to alleviate the conditions of the debtors if the people would serve in the war against the Sabines and the Aequi. After triumphing over the enemy, Valerius was prevented from fulfilling his promise, and resigned the dictatorship, but was honoured by the people.
- Marcus Valerius M'. f. Vol. n. Lactuca Maximus, consul in 456 BC; opposed the plan of Icilius, tribune of the plebs, to assign the Aventine Hill to the commons.
- Marcus Valerius M. f. Lactucinus Maximus, father of the consular tribune of 398 BC.
- Marcus Valerius M. f. M. n. Lactucinus Maximus, consular tribune in 398 and 395 BC.
- Marcus Valerius M. f. M. n. Maximus Corvus Calenus, consul in BC 348, 346, 343, 335, 300, and 299, dictator in 342 and 301, and interrex in 332 and 320; triumphed over the Volsci in 346, the Samnites in 343, Cales in 335, and the Etruscans in 301. He was elected consul at twenty-three, and lived to the age of one hundred, filling the curule chair twenty-one times.
- Marcus Valerius M. f. Maximus, father of the consul of 312 BC.
- Marcus Valerius M. f. M. n. Maximus, consul in 312 BC, triumphed over the Samnites. He was censor in 307, and extended or improved the roads through the demesne lands.
- Marcus Valerius M. f. M. n. Maximus Corvinus, consul in 289 BC.
- Marcus Valerius Maximus Potitus, consul in 286 BC. He was occupied by the agitation attending the Hortensian laws.
- Marcus or Publius Valerius Maximus, an important scholar and compiler of historical anecdotes, who probably lived during the first century AD.
- Marcus Valerius Maximus, consul in AD 253 and 256.
- Manius Valerius M. f. M. n. Corvinus Messalla, consul in 263 BC, the second year of the First Punic War. Campaigning in Sicily, he and his colleague, Manius Otacilius Crassus, concluded a treaty with Hiero. He was granted a triumph, and earned the cognomen Messalla by relieving Messana from naval blockade. He was censor in 252.
- Marcus Valerius M'. f. M. n. Maximus Messala, consul in 226 BC.
- Marcus Valerius M. f. M'. Messalla, prefect of the fleet in Sicily in 210 BC, the ninth year of the Second Punic War. He was nominated dictator, but the senate canceled the appointment. Messalla was praetor peregrinus in 194 and consul in 188 BC.
- Marcus Valerius M. f. M. n. Messalla, consul in 161 BC, the year in which the senate prohibited the residence of Greek rhetoricians at Rome. Although previously degraded by the censors, Messalla himself held the censorship in 154.
- Valerius Messalla, a legate of the consul Publius Rutilius Lupus at the breaking out of the Marsic or Social War, BC 90.
- Marcus Valerius Messalla, grandfather of the consul of 61 BC.
- Marcus Valerius M. f. Messalla, father of the consul of 61 BC.
- Marcus Valerius M. f. M. n. Messalla Niger, consul in 61 BC, and censor in 55.
- Valeria Messala, fourth wife and widow of the dictator Sulla.
- Marcus Valerius M. f. M. n. Messalla Rufus, consul in 53 BC. He was supported by Cicero, and opposed by Pompeius and the supporters of Publius Clodius Pulcher. In 47, he served under Caesar during the Civil War.
- Marcus Valerius M. f. M. n. Messalla Corvinus, a partisan of Gaius Cassius Longinus, he was proscribed by the triumvirs, but accepted terms from Marcus Antonius after the death of Brutus and Cassius. He later went over to Octavian, and was appointed consul suffectus in place of Antonius in 31 BC. He distinguished himself at the Battle of Actium, and triumphed over the Aquitani in 27.
- Marcus Valerius M. f. M. n. Messalla, consul suffectus in 32 BC.
- Potitus Valerius Messalla, consul suffectus in 29 BC.
- Marcus Valerius Messalla M. f. M. n. Barbatus, surnamed Appianus, consul in BC 12.
- Lucius Valerius Potiti f. Messalla Volesus, consul in AD 5; subsequently he was proconsul of Asia, where his cruelties drew on him the anger of Augustus, and a condemnatory decree from the senate.
- Marcus Valerius M. f. M. n. Messallinus, consul in 3 BC.
- Marcus Valerius M. f. M. n. Messalla Barbatus, consul in AD 20, was the first husband of Domitia Lepida.
- Marcus Valerius M. f. M. n. Messalla Corvinus, consul in AD 58.
- Valeria Messalina, third wife of the emperor Claudius.
- Lucius Valerius Messalla Thrasea Priscus, consul in AD 196. A man of noble birth and great acquirements, he was slain by Caracalla in 212.
- Lucius Valerius Messalla Apollinaris, consul in AD 214.
- Publius Valerius Laevinus, consul in 280 BC, during the war with Pyrrhus. Although defeated by Pyrrhus, he escaped with much of his army intact, defended Capua, and successfully harried the Epeirot army.
- Publius Valerius Laevinus, father of the consul of 210 BC.
- Marcus Valerius P. f. P. n. Laevinus, consul in 220 BC, may be the same as the consul of 210.
- Marcus Valerius P. f. P. n. Laevinus, consul in 210 BC, during the war with Hannibal.
- Gaius Valerius M. f. P. n. Laevinus, consul suffectus in 176 BC; triumphed over the Ligures.
- Publius Valerius C. f. M. n. Laevinus, praetor in 177 BC, obtained part of Cisalpine Gaul as his province.
- Lucius Valerius Flaccus, magister equitum under the dictator Marcus Aemilius Papus, BC 321.
- Marcus Valerius L. f. Flaccus, father of the consul of BC 261.
- Lucius Valerius M. f. L. n. Flaccus, consul in 261 BC, during the First Punic War, carried on the war in Sicily against the Carthaginians with little success.
- Publius Valerius L. f. M. n. Flaccus, consul in 227 BC, the year in which the number of praetors was raised to four. In 218 he was sent as an ambassador to Spain, and then to Carthage. He held several important commands during the early years of the Second Punic War.
- Lucius Valerius P. f. L. n. Flaccus, consul in 195 BC and censor in 183, with Cato the Elder; princeps senatus.
- Gaius Valerius P. f. L. n. Flaccus, inaugurated as flamen Dialis in BC 209.
- Lucius Valerius P. f. L. n. Flaccus, one of the triumvirs appointed to conduct 6,000 families as colonists to Placentia and Cremona in BC 190, after those places had become almost deserted by the late war.
- Lucius Valerius L. f. P. n. Flaccus, consul in 152 BC, died during his magistracy.
- Lucius Valerius L. f. L. n. Flaccus, flamen Martialis, and consul in 131 BC.
- Lucius Valerius L. f. L. n. Flaccus, consul in 100 BC, and consul suffectus in the place of Gaius Marius in 86; he was censor in 97.
- Lucius Valerius Flaccus, princeps senatus by 86 BC; in 82 he was named interrex, and magister equitum under Sulla.
- Gaius Valerius L. f. L. n. Flaccus, consul in 93 BC, and afterwards proconsul in Spain.
- Lucius Valerius L. f. L. n. Flaccus, praetor in 63 BC, was subsequently accused of extortion, and successfully defended by Cicero in the speech Pro Flacco.
- Gaius Valerius Flaccus, a friend of Appius Claudius Pulcher, whom Cicero saw in Cilicia, BC 51.
- Lucius Valerius L. f. L. n. Flaccus, son of the Flaccus whom Cicero defended, was introduced before the court when he was still a little boy, in order to excite the pity of the judges. During the Civil War, he fought on the side of Pompeius, and was killed in the Battle of Dyrrhachium, BC 48.
- Lucius Valerius Flaccus, flamen Martialis in the time of Cicero, whose brother, Quintus, heard him give an account of a marvelous occurrence. Eckhel believed that he was the same Flaccus whom Cicero defended, which seems likely, as he would have inherited the priesthood from his father, the consul of 100 BC.
- Publius Valerius Flaccus, the accuser of Papirius Carbo, of whom nothing further is known.
- Gaius Valerius Flaccus, a Latin poet, active during the latter half of the first century AD.
- Publius Valerius Falto, grandfather of the consuls of 239 and 238 BC.
- Quintus Valerius P. f. Falto, father of the consuls of 239 and 238 BC.
- Quintus Valerius Q. f. P. n. Falto, consul in 239 BC; as the first praetor peregrinus in 242, commanded the Roman fleet at the Battle of the Aegates, and triumphed over the Carthaginians.
- Publius Valerius Q. f. P. n. Falto, consul in 238 BC, he suffered a defeat at the hands of the Boii and Ligures, but counterattacked and routed them. He was refused a triumph in consequence of his earlier defeat, and because his counterattack before reinforcements could arrive was considered rash.
- Marcus Valerius Falto, one of the envoys sent by the senate to Attalus I of Pergamon in 205 BC. He was praetor in 201, with Bruttium as his province.
- Lucius Valerius Triarius, propraetor in Sardinia in 77 BC; subsequently served as legate of Lucullus in the war against Mithridates. In 68 and 67, he put Mithridates on the defensive, but overextended himself, and was attacked at a disadvantage. His forces were defeated with great slaughter, and Triarius was only saved by the arrival of Lucullus.
- Publius Valerius L. f. Triarius, in 54 BC accused Marcus Aemilius Scaurus, first of repetundae (extortion) and then of ambitus (bribery). Cicero defended Scaurus on both occasions.
- Gaius Valerius (L. f.) Triarius, a friend of Cicero, and a supporter of Pompeius during the Civil War. He was present at Pharsalus in 48 BC, and advised Pompeius to allow his troops to stand and receive the charge of Caesar's soldiers. He perished in the course of the war, probably in Africa, and in 45 Cicero mentions that he had been left the guardian of Triarius' children.
- Valerius of Ostia, was architect of the covered theatre erected at Rome for the games of Libo (probably the Lucius Scribonius Libo who, as curule aedile in 193 BC, celebrated the Megalesia as ludi scenici).
- Lucius Valerius Tappo, praetor in 192 BC, obtained Sicily as his province. In 190 he was one of the triumvirs for settling new colonists at Placentia and Cremona.
- Gaius Valerius Tappo, tribune of the plebs in 188 BC, proposed that the franchise be extended to the Formiani, Fundani, and Arpinates.
- Marcus Valerius M. f. Artema, an architect, mentioned in an extant inscription.
- Decimus Valerius L. f., a vascularius, or maker of bronze vases, at Tusculum, of which place he was a native or citizen.
- Gaius Valerius Anemestione C. Ius, an anaglyptarius, or metalworker, so described in a Cordovan inscription.
- Valerius Aedituus, a Roman poet, cited as the author of two epigrams in the Noctes Atticae of Aulus Gellius, who probably lived about 100 BC.
- Quintus Valerius Soranus, an orator, scholar, and poet, much admired by Cicero; he had been tribune of the plebs, but the year is uncertain. He was put to death in 82 BC, ostensibly for revealing the sacred name of Rome, but more probably because he was proscribed by Sulla as a partisan of Marius.
- Valerius Antias, annalist 1st century BC
- Quintus Valerius Orca, praetor 57 BC and officer under Julius Caesar in the civil war
- Gaius Valerius Catullus, the poet (fl. 50s BC)
- Publius Valerius Cato, scholar and poet 1st century BC
- Decimus Valerius Asiaticus, consul in 35 and 46
- Potitus Valerius Corvus Rufus Sulla, consul in 100
- Volsus Valerius Valus Sulla Valerianus, praetor in 132
- Poplicola Valerius Sulla Felix
- Phillipus Valerius Sulla Felix
- Phillipus Valerius Sulla Felix Cassianus, consul in 193
- Marcus Valerius Martialis (Martial), poet 1st century
- Gaius Calpetanus Rantius Quirinalis Valerius Festus, suffect consul 71
- Lucius Valerius Licinianus, advocate 1st century
- Valerius Probus, grammarian 1st century
- Marcus Valerius Bradua Mauricus, consul 191
- Publius Valerius Comazon Eutychianus, consul 220
- Lucius Valerius Maximus, consul 233
- Valerius Maximus, consul 253
- Lucius Valerius Maximus, consul 256
Late imperial Rome
- Imp. Caesar Marcus Aurelius Valerius Claudius Augustus (Claudius II), Roman emperor
- Imp. Caesar Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus (Diocletian), emperor
- Imp. Caesar Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Augustus (Maximian), emperor
- Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus Caesar (Galerius), emperor
- Flavius Valerius Constantinus Caesar (Constantius Chlorus), emperor
- Flavius Valerius Severus, short-lived emperor circa 306
- Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius (Maxentius), emperor 306-312
- Marcus Valerius Romulus, consul 309
- Flavius Julius Valerius Crispus (Crispus)
- Flavius Galerius Valerius Licinianus Licinius (Licinius), emperor
- Imp. Caesar Flavius Valerius Constantinus Augustus (Constantine I), emperor
- Imp. Caesar Galerius Valerius Maximinus Augustus (Maximinus), emperor
- Julius Valerius Alexander Polemius, scholar 4th century
- Julius Valerius Majorianus (Majorian), emperor 457-461
- Valerius (consul 432), consul in 432.
Other uses of the name Valerius
- Adriaen Valerius, who composed or compiled an anthology of Dutch patriotic songs during the Eighty Years' War against the Habsburg suzerains
- Valeria of Milan, a 1st- or 2nd-century Christian martyr
- Valerius of Trèves, a 4th-century bishop of Trier
- Valerius of Saragossa, bishop of Zaragoza in 290-315.
- Valerius II, bishop of Zaragoza (Spain) in circa 380.
- Valerio of Bierzo 7th-century hermit and writer from Visigothic Spain.
- Friedrich Münzer, Roman Aristocratic Parties and Families (1920)
- Oxford Classical Dictionary
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: William Ramsay (1867). "Valeria Gens". In Smith, William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology 3. p. 1215.
- Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, William Smith, Editor.
- Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Romaike Archaiologia v. 39.
- Plutarchus, Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans, Publicola 20.
- Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita ii. 31.
- Marcus Tullius Cicero, De Legibus ii. 23.
- Plutarchus, Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans, Publicola 23.
- Barthold Georg Niebuhr, History of Rome, vol. i. p. 538.
- Dictionary of Antiquities, s. v. Leges Valeriae.
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- Plutarchus, Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans, Numa 5, Publicola 1.
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- D.P. Simpson, Cassell's Latin & English Dictionary (1963).
- Johann Caspar von Orelli, Inscriptionum Latinarum Selectarum Collectio n. 547.
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- Gaius Plinius Secundus, Historia Naturalis xviii. 3.
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- Marcus Terentius Varro, Rerum Rusticarum libri III i. 2.
- Quintus Horatius Flaccus, Satirae 1, 6, 12, Schol. Vet.
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- Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita vii. 21, 23, 28.
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- Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita vi. 36.
- Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita viii. 18.
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- Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita ii. 30, 31.
- Marcus Tullius Cicero, Brutus 14.
- Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Romaike Archaiologia x. 31-33.
- Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita iii. 31.
- Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita v. 14, 24.
- Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita ix. 29, 40, 41, 43.
- Fasti Capitolini.
- Gaius Plinius Secundus, Historia Naturalis xvi. 10.
- Joannes Zonaras, Epitome Historiarum viii. 19.
- Paulus Orosius, Historiarum Adversum Paganos Libri VII iv. 13.
- Fasti Capitolini.
- Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita xxvii. 5, xxxiv 54, 55, xxxviii. 35, 42, xli. 22, xlii. 28.
- Aulus Gellius, Noctes Atticae ii. 24, xv. 11.
- Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, De Claris Rhetoribus i.
- Valerius Maximus, Factorum ac Dictorum Memorabilium libri IX ii. 9. § 9.
- Appianus, Bellum Civile i. 40.
- Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, William Smith, Editor.
- Publius Cornelius Tacitus, Annales iii. 68.
- Lucius Annaeus Seneca, De Ira ii. 5.
- Lucius Cassius Dio Cocceianus, Roman History lxxvii. 5.
- Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita xxxi. 50, xli. 8.
- Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita ix. 7.
- Polybius, The Histories i. 20.
- Aulus Gellius, Noctes Atticae iv. 3.
- Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita xxi. 6, xxiii. 16, 34, 38, xxvi. 8 Epitome 20.
- Marcus Tullius Cicero, Philippicae v. 10.
- Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita xxvii. 8, xxxi. 50, xxxii. 7.
- Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita xxxvii. 46.
- Julius Obsequens, Liber de Prodigiis 77.
- Marcus Tullius Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares iii. 4, 11.
- Marcus Tullius Cicero, Pro Flacco 36, De Oratore 38.
- Gaius Julius Caesar, Commentarii de Bello Civili iii. 53.
- Marcus Tullius Cicero, De Divinatione i. 46.
- Marcus Terentius Varro, De Lingua Latina libri XXV vi. 21.
- Joseph Hilarius Eckhel, Doctrina Numorum Veterum vol. v. p. 333.
- Marcus Tullius Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares ix. 21.
- Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita Epitome xix.
- Fasti Capitolini.
- Valerius Maximus, Factorum ac Dictorum Memorabilium libri IX i. 1. § 2, ii. 8. § 2.
- Joannes Zonaras, Epitome Historiarum viii. 18.
- Paulus Orosius, Historiarum Adversum Paganos Libri VII iv. 12.
- Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita xxix. 11, xxx. 40, 41.
- Appianus, Bella Mithridatica 88, 89, 112, 120.
- Plutarchus, Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans, Pompeius 35.
- Lucius Cassius Dio Cocceianus, Roman History xxxv. 10-12.
- Marcus Tullius Cicero, De Leg. Man. 9.
- Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita Epitome 98.
- Gaius Plinius Secundus, Historia Naturalis vi. 3.
- Quintus Asconius Pedianus, in Scauro p. 19.
- Marcus Tullius Cicero, Pro Scauro 1, 2, Epistulae ad Atticum iv. 16. § 8, iv. 17. § 2, Epistulae ad Quintum Fratrem iii. 2. § 3.
- Gaius Julius Caesar, Commentarii de Bello Civili iii. 5, 92.
- Marcus Tullius Cicero, Brutus 76, Epistulae ad Atticum xii. 28, § 3.
- Gaius Plinius Secundus, Historia Naturalis xxxvi. 15. s. 24.
- Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita xxxv. 10, 20, xxxvii. 46.
- Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita xxxviii. 36.
- Karl Julius Sillig, Catalogus Artificium (1827), Append. s.v. Artema.
- Desiré-Raoul Rochette, Lettre à M. Schorn, p. 422, 2nd ed.
- Ludovico Antonio Muratori, Novus Thesaurus Veterum Inscriptionum, Milan (1739-42), vol. i. p. xii. 12, p. xiv. 6.
- Ludovico Antonio Muratori, Novus Thesaurus Veterum Inscriptionum, Milan (1739-42), vol. ii. p. cmlxxxi. 9.
- Aulus Gellius, Noctes Atticae xix. 9.
- Latin Anthology, iii. 242, 243, ed. Burmann, or Nos. 27, 28, ed. Meyer.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1867). "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.