Valparaiso University

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Not to be confused with University of Valparaíso.
Valparaiso University
Valparaiso University logo
Motto In luce tua videmus lucem (Latin)
Motto in English In Thy light we see light
Established 1859
Type Private, Coeducational
Endowment $178 million (2013)[1]
President Mark A. Heckler
Academic staff 220
Students 4,500
Undergraduates 3,300
Postgraduates 1,200
Location Valparaiso, Indiana, United States
41°27′49″N 87°02′37″W / 41.46361°N 87.04361°W / 41.46361; -87.04361
Campus Suburban, 350 acres (141.6 ha)
Athletics 18 Division I NCAA teams
Colors Brown and Gold
           
Nickname Crusaders, Valpo[2]
Affiliations Independent Lutheran
Website www.valpo.edu
Seal of Valparaiso University

Valparaiso University, known colloquially as Valpo, is a regionally accredited[3] private university located in Valparaiso, Indiana, United States. The university is a coed, four-year, private institution that enrolls about 4,500 students from over 50 countries.

Covering 350 acres (140 ha),[4] Valpo’s campus is approximately one hour southeast of Chicago. The city of Valparaiso is part of the Chicago metropolitan area and has a population of about 32,000 residents.

Valpo consists of five undergraduate colleges, a graduate school, and a law school. It is the largest independent Lutheran university in the United States and is home to the second-largest collegiate chapel in the world, the Chapel of the Resurrection.

Originally named Valparaiso Male and Female College, Valparaiso University was founded in 1859 as one of the first coeducation colleges in the United States. Due to reverses brought about by the Civil War, the college was forced to close its doors in 1871. Two years later it was revived by educator Henry Baker Brown and named Northern Indiana Normal School and Business Institute. At the turn of the 20th century, Brown changed the college's name to Valparaiso College, and shortly after it was rechartered as Valparaiso University. Initially founded by Methodists, in 1925 the school was purchased by the Lutheran University Association, which continues to operate it today.[5]

History[edit]

History at a glance
Valparaiso Male and Female College Established 1859 Affiliation Methodist
Closed 1871 to 1873
Northern Indiana Normal School and Business Institute Acquired 1873 Affiliation secular
Valparaiso College Renamed 1900
Valparaiso University Renamed 1906
Acquired 1925 Affiliation Lutheran

Valparaiso Male and Female College[edit]

In 1859, citizens of Valparaiso were so supportive of the placement of the college that they raised $11,000 to encourage the Methodist Church to locate there. The school opened on September 21, 1859, to 75 students, and was one of the first coeducational colleges in the nation.[6] Students paid tuition expenses of $8 per term (three terms per year), plus nearby room and board costs of approximately $2 per week. Instruction at the college actually began with young children, and most of the students were in elementary and grade levels. Courses at the collegiate level included math, literature, history, sciences, and philosophy. Courses stressing the Christian faith included “moral philosophy” and “moral science.” Due to the fallout of the Civil War, the school closed in 1871. At this time, most men (both students and administrative members) had enrolled in the army. In addition, Indiana passed an 1867 bill that provided state support for public education, and the Methodists’ broad statewide efforts toward higher education meant that none of the schools were self-sustaining. The combination proved too much to overcome for the Male and Female College.

Valparaiso Male and Female College, circa 1870

Northern Indiana Normal School and Business Institute[edit]

The school, reopened by Henry Baker Brown in 1873, was named the Northern Indiana Normal School and Business Institute. In 1900, the school was renamed Valparaiso College and gained its current university status after being rechartered in 1906.

Valparaiso College, then Valparaiso University[edit]

Henry Baker Brown bought the American College of Medicine and Surgery from Northwestern University; he later changed the name to Chicago College of Medicine and Surgery. Students could save money by spending their first two medical college years in Valparaiso.[6] In 1905 the university formed an affiliation with Chicago College of Dental Surgery to provide dental education for its students. For the next two decades, Valpo gained a national reputation as an economical institution of higher learning, earning its positive nickname The Poor Man’s Harvard. At the height of enrollment in 1907, it was the second-largest school in the nation, behind only Harvard University. In 1914, monthly literary magazine The Torch was founded; it became the university's weekly student newspaper in 1915.[7] The university began intercollegiate athletic competition in 1916. Valpo's first game was a basketball game against the Chicago YMCA Training School, in which VU fielded players from intramural teams.[6] In 1917, World War I and the death of President Brown took its toll, and the school was forced into bankruptcy.[8] Valparaiso University sold the Chicago College of Medicine and Surgery to Loyola University Chicago. In 1923, a fire destroyed the original 1860 Old College Building, and VU could not afford to clean the site.[6]

Lutheran revival[edit]

In 1923, the Ku Klux Klan assembled a bid to purchase the university.[9] At that time, the Pillar of Fire was publishing the pro-KKK monthly periodical The Good Citizen.[10] They pledged to offer the university's appraised value of $175,000, expand it to the size of Purdue University, and devote the institution to the instilling of Americanism.[11] However, in 1925 the Lutheran University Association outbid the Klan for the school's ownership. The association was a group of clergy and church laity that saw promise in the school and wished to create an academic institution not controlled by any church denomination. Valparaiso is still operated by the Lutheran University Association, and remains an independent Lutheran institution that enjoys close relations with the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod and Evangelical Lutheran Church in America.

On March 13, 1929, the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools accredited the university. Two years later, President Kreinheder created the Valparaiso University Guild, a volunteer and philanthropy organization to help students, and in 1934 the Alumni Association began operation. The university's College of Engineering started a cooperative education program with Purdue University in 1938. At the end of the 1930s, the university completed a new gymnasium. In 1941, VU instituted its Department of Art. Coincident with the beginning of World War II, Valparaiso University renamed its yearbook from The Uhlan (a German soldier) to The Beacon. The next year Valpo changed its athletic team name from the Uhlans to the Crusaders.

Modern era[edit]

In 1940, O. P. Kretzmann became president of the university. During his 28 years in office, he marshaled significant changes, many of which remain in place today.[12] Valparaiso University bought about 90 acres (36 ha) of land in 1944 east of campus near the corner of Sturdy Road and US Highway 30. The large oak tree occupying this land was named "Merlin" and remains a central feature of campus.[13] This purchase would transform campus, as the university moved to its current location over the course of many years.

Kretzmann increased student enrollment from 400 to more than 4,000. Academic rigor increased along with enrollment. VU created its Honor Code in 1943 and remains in place today, as students continue to write the code on top of assignments.[14] After the conclusion of the Second World War, Valparaiso offered its first four-year degrees: mechanical, civil, and electrical engineering. On November 27, 1956, the Chapel-Auditorium burned down. The university quickly rebuilt its worship space: the Chapel of the Resurrection was dedicated on September 27, 1959. VU installed a subcritical nuclear reactor in 1958, and in the 1970s the University Branch of the United States Atomic Energy Commission called Valpo's nuclear physics lab "a model for all small universities wishing to provide excellent training in the field of undergraduate physics."[13]

President Kretzmann founded Christ College, the honors college of Valparaiso University, in 1967. Christ College was only the third such honors college in the nation. The campus radio station WVUR-FM began broadcasting in 1960. Robert Kennedy spoke before 5,000 people in 1968 at VU while campaigning, and in the same year, the university began its long-standing international study centers in Cambridge, England, and Reutlingen, Germany. During student protests in 1970, Kinsey Hall burned. The first class of the College of Nursing graduated in 1971. In 1976, Valparaiso University began NCAA Division I competition.

In 1991, Valpo became home to the Lilly Fellows Program, a national program that supports young scholar-teachers, during its inaugural year. This program has grown to encompass almost 100 universities. The 1998 men's basketball team reached the Sweet Sixteen of the Division I national tournament. In 2002, a new international study center was established in Hangzhou, China. Phi Beta Kappa established a chapter at Valparaiso University in 2004.[6] In 2013 the university completed a solar furnace and research facility, the only undergraduate institution to operate a solar furnace, and one of only five total solar furnaces in the US.[13]

In 2008, Mark Heckler became Valparaiso University's 18th president. During his initial years in office, Heckler led the "most comprehensive and collaborative strategic-planning endeavor in the University’s history".[15] The plan includes goals such as increasing enrollment to 6,000 students, multiple building initiatives, and increased global engagement.

Campus[edit]

Old campus[edit]

Old College Building, Valparaiso University, circa 1918

The Old Campus of Valparaiso University is both adjacent to and a part of the historic downtown district of the city. Old Campus is the site of the School of Law, made up of Wesemann Hall and Heritage Hall. Heritage was the oldest remaining building on the campus, and was put on the National Register of Historic Places in 1976. In 2009, the school started a restoration project, essentially rebuilding the facility. The school's fraternities and the Kade-Duesenberg German House and Cultural Center are located on old campus as was the Martin Luther King, Jr., Cultural Center before acts of vandalism and arson destroyed the building in 2009.[16][17] Old Campus is also the site of Valpo's Doppler weather radar. Located north of Old Campus is the College of Nursing, whose students use SIMMAN, a robotic patient simulator used to train students in real life treatment to better serve their education.

New campus[edit]

Chapel of the Resurrection.

Beginning in the 1950s, the school expanded eastward to occupy what is now known as "new campus. Today, it is center of the university, home to thousands of students in nine dormitories and most of the academic buildings.

At the center of campus is the Chapel of the Resurrection, a {{convert|98|ft|m|0|sing=on}-}high building that is the home of Valparaiso University's many worship services and convocations. Built on the highest elevation of land on the university's campus, it has been a Northwest Indiana landmark since 1959. In 2011, Rev. Mark and Kathy Helge gave a $15-million gift for a major expansion to the chapel.[18] The groundbreaking for the 11,000-square-foot addition took place in 2014.

The Christopher Center Library (built 2004) houses over 500,000 books and numerous video and audio resources. It is a popular place for students to gather and study. The Valparaiso University Center for the Arts (VUCA) offers multiple performance facilities, which are most notably used by students to produce full scale theatrical performances every year. The performances and exhibits in the Center for the Arts are always open to the public, and the Center houses the nationally renowned Brauer Museum of Art.

Kallay-Christopher Hall is home to the Department of Geography and Meteorology. Kallay-Christopher has an observation deck and large weather lab facilities. Adjoining Kallay-Christopher Hall is Schnabel Hall, which is home to communications students, WVUR-FM, the university's student-run radio station, and VUTV, the university's student-run television station.

The Donald V. Fites Innovations Center, an addition to the College of Engineering's Gellersen Hall, was completed in the summer of 2011. The $13-million, LEED-certified building contains two suites of labs that support advanced undergraduate research in areas such as materials science and energy systems.[19] The College of Engineering has both a 16-inch (406 mm) computerized reflecting telescope to aid in NASA research and VisBox-X2, a virtual reality system used to immerse students in a visualized three-dimensional image.

The 52,000-square-foot Arts and Sciences Building, located adjacent to the Christopher Center for Library and Information Resources, opened in 2012 and houses state-of-the-art classrooms and offices for faculty in the College of Arts and Sciences.

The Neils Science Center was erected in 1974 and includes an astronomical observatory, greenhouse, and a now decommissioned sub-critical nuclear reactor that helped the facility receive an Atomic Energy Commission citation as a model undergraduate physics laboratory.

The 202,000-square-foot (18,800 m2), $74 million Harre Union opened in 2009. Named in honor of former University President Alan F. Harre, who retired in 2008, it is more than three times the size of the previous union. The Harre Union has consolidated all dining services on campus, with the exception of the law school. It has room for all student organizations on campus, as well as a new bookstore, lounge areas, student mailboxes for every student on campus, entertainment areas, a large ballroom, a career center, and an outdoor terrace overlooking the Chapel. The design architect was Sasaki Associates, Inc. and the architect of record was Design Organization.

Two new structures, the Duesenberg Welcome Center and the James S. Markiewicz Solar Energy Research Facility, were dedicated in September 2013.[20] Professors and students use the energy research facility, profiled in The Atlantic, in developing methods to produce low-carbon magnesium with 90 percent less fossil fuel energy than standard production methods.[21]

A new residence hall, Beacon Hall, opened in 2014.[22]

Academics[edit]

Undergraduate programs[edit]

Valparaiso is organized into five undergraduate colleges: Arts and Sciences, Business, Engineering, Nursing and Health Professions, and Christ College.

College of Arts and Sciences[edit]

The College of Arts and Sciences is the most diverse of the undergraduate colleges. The College of Arts and Sciences provides an education that integrates liberal arts and professional education. The college provides more than 70 academic programs in 21 departments. It provides the liberal arts core for all programs, including those in highly specialized fields. It offers internships and hands-on learning opportunities that complement classroom activity. The College of Arts and Sciences provides opportunities for original research, joint projects with faculty, and the flexibility to major in multiple fields or create an individualized major. [23]

College of Business[edit]

The College of Business is among the elite 25 percent of undergraduate business programs nationally accredited by the AACSB International — The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. The College of Business offers focused majors in accounting, finance, international business, management, and marketing. [24]

College of Engineering[edit]

Based on the 2013 U.S. News & World Report, the College of Engineering tied for 17th in the nation among 194 institutions in which the highest degree is a bachelor’s or master’s. The College of Engineering won the 2012 Engineering Award presented by the National Council of Examiners for Engineering. About 90 percent of undergraduates complete the program within four years. The college provides several service learning opportunities as well as undergraduate research opportunities. [25]

College of Nursing and Health Professions[edit]

Students enrolled in the College of Nursing and Health Professions receive a foundation in liberal arts and can explore a variety of cutting-edge topics in and out of the classroom. The Virtual Nursing Learning Center offers patient stations complete with interactive mannequins, beds and equipment simulating a hospital environment. The baccalaureate, master’s, and DNP programs at Valpo are accredited by the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education. [26]

Christ College[edit]

Christ College, the Honors College of Valparaiso University, provides directed study in the liberal arts, focusing on the fields of history, literature, art, music, philosophy, religion and theology, and social science. Christ College was chartered by President O. P. Kretzmann in 1967. On October 29, 1964, Kretzmann convened a committee[27] to plan a successor to the Directed Studies Program, which was established to better serve the influx of gifted students to the institution. Approximately 90 students, or 10 percent of the university's incoming class, are admitted each year. Students in the honors college concurrently enroll in another undergraduate college at VU, and have the option to complete their study with a major or a minor in humanities to complement the major received in their main field of study. In 2013, Peter Kanelos became the fifth Dean of Christ College, succeeding Mel Piehl. Piehl had led the college for ten years after Mark Schwehn stepped down from the position.

A student steering committee composed of upperclassmen guides the development of the program and several annual events. The most notable of these annual events are the fall Christ College Freshman Production and the spring Christ College Oxford Debates. The Freshman Production is an original play or musical that is written, scored, choreographed, directed, produced, and performed exclusively by members of the Christ College freshman class.[28] The Christ College Oxford Debates are a series of formal debates in which two groups of students represent either the affirmative or negative side of a topic they have researched for the previous five or six weeks; usually the topics relate to current events. When both sides have completed their arguments, the debate moderator asks the audience members to "vote their minds" and decide the winner of the debate.[29] Another notable academic opportunity offered by Christ College is the Student Scholarship Symposium, in which undergraduates present research in a formal lecture setting. It features student-selected research projects, from a diverse set of academic fields, delivered in a critical and interactive environment. Students in the college often spend a semester studying abroad at one of Valpo’s overseas study centers; many take a Christ College Abroad course, which are led by faculty each spring break.

Graduate school[edit]

Valparaiso University offers a variety of master’s programs in Business, Chinese Studies, Education, English Studies and Communication, Information Technology, International Commerce, Policy, Liberal Studies, Nursing, Psychology/Counseling, International Economics and Finance, and Sports Administration.

Law school[edit]

Founded in 1879 the Law School was accredited by the ABA in 1929 and the AALS in 1930. In 2010, Valparaiso Law Students had an 83 percent first-time bar pass rate. The School enrolls more than 500 students. [30]

Study abroad[edit]

Valparaiso offers 19 study-abroad programs around the world. Valpo maintains four global study centers (Cambridge, England; Reutlingen, Germany; Hangzhou, China; and San José, Costa Rica) provide group trips and excursions, a topics course on the life and culture of the host country, and specialized housing, all under the guidance of an on-site resident director. Other sites students are able to study in include Athens, Greece; Granada, Spain; Zaragoza, Spain; Cergy-Pointoise, France; La Rochelle, France; Paris, France; Rottenburg am Neckar, Germany; Tübingen, Germany; Chiang Mai, Thailand; Delhi, India; Coimbatore, India; Osaka, Japan; Viña Del Mar, Chile; Puebla, Mexico; and Windhoek, Namibia. [31]

Distance learning[edit]

The University offers online degree opportunities that include a Master of Arts in Chinese Studies and a Post-MSN Doctorate in Nursing Practice. The accelerated degree programs are Web-based and allow versatile learning.

Reputation[edit]

Rankings[edit]

U.S. News & World Report named Valparaiso University as No. 4 in the Universities-Master's category for the Midwest in its annual rankings of "America's Best Colleges."[32] It also ranked Valparaiso among the "Best College Values" based on a ratio of price to quality, and placed the College of Engineering in the nation's top 25 undergraduate-only engineering schools.[33] Over ninety-five percent of graduates secure employment or further education (twenty-three percent) within six months. More than ninety percent of students receive financial aid totaling over fifty-two million dollars annually. Charity Navigator also gave the institution four out of four stars based on its organizational efficiency and capacity.[34]

Culture[edit]

Valparaiso is a growing school that works to uphold the benefits of an intimate education. Most first-year undergraduate students take a year of Core, an interdisciplinary course rooted in liberal arts and focused on understanding the purpose and fulfillment of human life. About a tenth of incoming freshmen alternatively participate in the freshman program of Christ College. Students are also subject to an honor system originally implemented by the students themselves in 1943, and which remains in effect today. Each January, the school holds a week of Martin Luther King Jr. events as a major annual event and invites provocative keynote speakers.

Student body[edit]

Students[edit]

Valparaiso University Students are from geographically diverse backgrounds. Of the 4,000 students, only one-third is from the school’s home state of Indiana. The remaining two-thirds come from almost every other state of the United States and from nearly 50 countries. Over two-thirds graduate in the top quarter of their high school class and 83 percent return to Valpo after their freshman year. Annually, more than $26 million is awarded by the university to more than 80 percent of the student body, which is administered based on factors such as community involvement, interests, recommendations, and personality, as well as grade point average, class ranking, and standardized test scores.

Sixty-one percent of Valparaiso University students live on the school’s city campus, as University regulations require nearly all students who do not have senior status to live in residence halls. Twenty-seven percent of students are Lutheran, and 75 percent participate in faith-related activities. Valpo supports more than 100 student-administered organizations, clubs, and activities. Fifty percent of students participate in intramural athletics, and more than 1,000 students give more than 45,000 hours of community service to the region annually.

Greek life[edit]

More than 25 percent of Valpo students are members of one of the school's eight national fraternities or seven national sororities. The entire Greek Life community is coordinated by the fraternities' Interfraternity Council and sororities in the Panhellenic Council. Many of the fraternities were local until the 1950s when they were accepted as chapters into national and international fraternities. However, the sororities were local and had no national affiliation until 1998.

Fraternities

Sororities

Honor societies[edit]

Valparaiso hosts chapters of all major honors fraternities, including Mortar Board National College Senior Honor Society.

Honor Societies

               

Student activism[edit]

Valparaiso University has a detailed history of student activism.

Kinsey Hall fire

While many colleges either amended or canceled the remainder of the 1969-1970 school year following the Kent State shootings due to unrest, the Valparaiso administration ignored student calls for a series of seminars and forums about violence at other campuses. A large group of students then organized a protest march from the campus Victory Bell to the Porter County courthouse. Continued protests led to discussions between the administration and student leaders. When these talks failed, a group of still-unidentified students set fire to the empty Kinsey Hall administrative building in the early morning. The aftermath of the fire left Kinsey Hall destroyed.

Venture of faith

The existence of Valparaiso University's current College of Engineering is the result of student activism. The university's engineering program had been reduced to a two-year associate's degree in response to reduced enrollment during economic depression, which dominated the 1930s. When students began inquiring in 1948 regarding the possibility of restoring a four-year degree program, the current university president, O.P. Kretzmann, cited a lack of space and lack of resources to build a new facility. Students responded with an offer to build the new facility if he would guarantee faculty positions, to which the President agreed.[35] The students constructed the facility themselves using their engineering education and an intense fundraising campaign, and by 1951 the new College of Engineering was again granting four-year bachelor degrees. The building still exists today, home to the Art department. This story received national attention and was turned into a feature-length film entitled Venture of Faith.[36]

Burning of the shanty

During the 1988-1989 school year, a mock shanty town was erected on campus to show solidarity with victims of apartheid in South Africa. Mike Weber and Phil Churilla, two columnists for VU's student newspaper The Torch, wrote a column critical of the protest due to student use of portable CD players, wool blankets and packaged food in the shanties. A few days later the shanty town burned down and a culprit was never found.

2006 Protests

During the Spring 2006 semester, a Valparaiso police officer entered a fraternity house with his weapon drawn under suspicion of alleged drug use. During the same time period, Valparaiso University police officers began riding the University's escort service vans in an effort to catch drunken students on the dry campus. Since the escort vans were used by students as a safe alternative to driving while intoxicated, several van drivers quit in protest. As a result of these two incidents, over 400 students organized a protest and march on campus to demonstrate against the Valparaiso University Police Department and ask the Board of Directors to make policy changes.[37]

Athletics[edit]

Main article: Valparaiso Crusaders
The Victory Bell, rung after athletic victories and campus celebrations, stands near the Athletics and Recreation Center.

Valpo's colors are brown and gold and the school's mascot is the Crusader. Most athletic events are held in the Athletics-Recreation Center (ARC), which is the primary sporting facility on campus. Valparaiso's eighteen teams and nearly 600 student athletes participate in NCAA Division I (I-FCS for football) in the Horizon League. Football athletes compete in the Pioneer Football League (since the Horizon League does not sponsor football) and play at Brown Field. The VU football team played in the Cigar Bowl on New Year's Day 1951.[6] Valpo is also known for its men's basketball head coach Homer Drew and his son Bryce Drew, who led the team to its Sweet Sixteen appearance in the 1998 NCAA basketball tournament by making "The Shot", a three-point shot as time expired, to beat favored Ole Miss by one point. Bryce Drew was named head coach in the spring of 2011.[38] Valparaiso is also the home of the National Lutheran Basketball Tournament.[39]

Recently the Crusader men's soccer team has been successful, winning the Horizon League regular season conference championship in 2011. Men's basketball followed with a 2011 Horizon League crown of its own while the baseball and softball teams both won regular season and Horizon League Tournament titles, representing the conference in the NCAA Tournament. In addition, the Crusader bowling team earned a berth at the NCAA Championships in just its third season of existence. In addition, Head Coach Carin Avery led the Crusader women's volleyball team to great success recently. In their 2014-2015 season they will be pursuing their 13th consecutive 20-win season.[40] The Crusaders are one of 10 programs nationwide to have won at least 20 matches in each of the last 12 years, during which time Avery has led the Crusaders to three conference regular season and tournament championships, as well as advancing to the NCAA Tournament on three occasions.[41] In the spring of 2013 the men's golf team won the Horizon League Championship and advanced to the NCAA Tournament.

NCAA Division I teams include baseball (men), basketball, bowling (women), cross country, football (men), golf, soccer, softball (women), swimming and diving, tennis, track & field, and volleyball. The university has cheerleading and Crusaderettes spirit squads, as well as several intramural and club sports: flag football, innertube water polo, miniature golf, sand volleyball, soccer, softball, swimming, tennis, ultimate frisbee, and volleyball.[4]

Notable people[edit]

Faculty[edit]

Alumni[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2013 Endowment Market Value and Percentage Change in Endowment Market Value from FY 2012 to FY 2013" (PDF). National Association of College and University Business Officers. January 23, 2014. Retrieved February 5, 2014. 
  2. ^ Valparaiso University Quick Facts
  3. ^ Kaplan, Inc. (2008). Kaplan College Guide 2009 Edition. Kaplan Publishing. p. 171. ISBN 1-4277-9750-1. 
  4. ^ a b Viewbook. Valparaiso University. 2014. 
  5. ^ "History - About". Valparaiso University.  Archived July 18, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ a b c d e f Valparaiso University Timeline at the Wayback Machine (archived October 19, 2014)
  7. ^ "About Us". The Torch. The Torch, Valparaiso, IN. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  8. ^ "Valpo Magazine" (150th Anniversary ed.). Valparaiso, IN. 2008. pp. 13–41. 
  9. ^ "Klan Buys College Close to Princeton". The Harvard Crimson. October 31, 1923. Retrieved 2009-07-06. Alma College is the second institution in the north avowedly run by the Ku Klux Klan to further its aims and principles. The other is Valparaiso University at Valparaiso, Indiana, near Chicago, which was purchased outright by the Klan several months ago. 
  10. ^ "The Ku Klux Klan’s invasion of Indiana in the 1920s". The Rochester Sentinel. Archived from the original on 2005-09-21. Retrieved 2006-01-25. 
  11. ^ "Ku Klux Klan". Lowellpl.lib.in.us. Retrieved 2014-08-23. 
  12. ^ "Valpo 150th". Retrieved 2 December 2014. 
  13. ^ a b c "Only at Valpo; From the Archives". Valpo Magazine 31 (1): 5-9. Fall 2014. 
  14. ^ "Honor Code". Retrieved 2 December 2014. 
  15. ^ "Heckler bio". Valpo. Retrieved 2 December 2014. 
  16. ^ Kosky, Ken. "It's the Law: Arson Is Considered Serious Crime". NWI Times. Retrieved 28 October 2013. 
  17. ^ Times staff. "Top Stories of 2009". NWI Times. Retrieved 28 October 2013. 
  18. ^ http://www.valpo.edu/chapel/news/chapel_addition.php. Retrieved 28 November 2014.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  19. ^ http://www.valpo.edu/engineering/facilities/donald_v_fites_engineering_innovation_center1.php. Retrieved 28 November 2014.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  20. ^ "Reflect the Crusader Light". Valparaiso University. 2013-10-04. Retrieved 2013-12-19. 
  21. ^ http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2014/04/this-sun-powered-furnace-can-reach-3-000-degrees/360423/.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  22. ^ http://www.valpo.edu/reslife/halls/beacon.php http://www.valpo.edu/reslife/halls/beacon.php |url= missing title (help). 
  23. ^ "College of Arts & Sciences - Valparaiso University". Valpo.edu. 2014-05-30. Retrieved 2014-08-23. 
  24. ^ "College of Business". Valpo.edu. 2014-06-20. Retrieved 2014-08-23. 
  25. ^ "College of Engineering - Valparaiso University". Valpo.edu. 2014-06-09. Retrieved 2014-08-23. 
  26. ^ "College of Nursing - Valparaiso University". Valpo.edu. 2014-03-17. Retrieved 2014-08-23. 
  27. ^ "Happy Anniversary, Christ College!". The Spillikin: Alumni Newsletter of Christ College, the Honors College of Valparaiso University 25: 1. 2008. 
  28. ^ "Christ College Freshman Production". Valparaiso University- Christ College. Retrieved 23 October 2013. 
  29. ^ "Freshman Debates". Valparaiso University- Christ College. Retrieved 23 October 2013. 
  30. ^ "Facts & Figures | Valparaiso University Law School | Valparaiso University". Valpo.edu. 2014-06-20. Retrieved 2014-08-23. 
  31. ^ "Study Abroad Programs - Valparaiso University". Valpo.edu. 2014-05-12. Retrieved 2014-08-23. 
  32. ^ "America's Best Colleges 2012". U.S. News & World Report. 
  33. ^ "Magazine again cites Valpo for excellence, value". Valparaiso University. Retrieved 2006-05-01. 
  34. ^ "Valparaiso University". Charity Navigator. Retrieved 2007-06-02. 
  35. ^ "News". Valpo.edu. Retrieved 2014-08-23. 
  36. ^ "Venture of Faith (1951) - Overview". TCM.com. 2008-10-31. Retrieved 2014-08-23. 
  37. ^ April 30, 2006 (2006-04-30). "Valparaiso students protest police actions - South Bend Tribune". Articles.southbendtribune.com. Retrieved 2014-08-23. 
  38. ^ In 1942, Valparaiso University fielded the tallest basketball team in the world, and the so-called "Valparaiso Giants" played at Madison Square Garden in the 1944-1945 season. Sports Illustrated - Bryce Drew replacing father Homer at Valparaiso (2011)
  39. ^ LBAA, Lutheran Basketball Association of America. "LBAA History". Lutheran Basketball Association of America. CMW Consulting. Retrieved 2/6/2013.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  40. ^ "Crusaders Announce 2014 Volleyball Schedule". www.valpoathletics.com. Valparaiso University. Archived from the original on 15 July 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2014. 
  41. ^ "Head Coach Carin Avery". www.valpoathletics.com. Valparaiso University. Retrieved 20 October 2014. 
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