Bombardment of Valparaíso
|Bombardment of Valparaíso|
|Part of Chincha Islands War|
The Spanish fleet shelling the port of Valparaíso
|Commanders and leaders|
|Casto Méndez Núñez||N/A|
|Casualties and losses|
33 ships sunk
After the humiliating defeat at the Battle of Papudo and the indecisive Battle of Abtao, Rear Admiral Casto Méndez Núñez was ordered to take punitive action against South American ports. When the Chilean government ordered that vessels supplying or communicating with the Spanish fleet should not be allowed to enter Chilean ports, Méndez Núñez's first target became the most important and undefended Chilean city of Valparaíso.
Attempts at mediation
Efforts to mediate were initially steered by European diplomats whose countrymen were most affected by the initial blockade of Chilean ports and by the threat of bombardment. High-level contacts took place intensively in late 1865 and early 1866 between London, Paris and Madrid. A formula to resolve the conflict appeared, at one stage, to have been secured.In the final two weeks, the United States was especially active. The American minister to Chile, General Hugh Judson Kilpatrick and the US Naval Commander John Rodgers who was at port commanding a US naval squadron composed of the ironclad monitor USS Monadnock and the steamers Powhatan, Tuscarora and Vanderbilt attempted a last-minute settlement with the Spanish Admiral. To that effect they enlisted the cooperation of the commander of the British Pacific Station, Rear Admiral Joseph Denman, who had under his command two warships: HMS Sutlej and HMS Leander. The British commander, despite coming under great pressure from British merchants in the city, later changed his mind and decided to enforce a strict neutrality, refusing the cooperation of his ships.
Ultimately, all the attempts at mediation failed, as the chief condition of Admiral Méndez Núñez was the proper salute to the Spanish flag, the return by the Chileans of the captured Schooner Covadonga and the immediate payment of a crippling indemnity. The talks broke over the matter of the flag salute. When General Kilpatrick threatened to defend the port with the US squadron and attack the Spanish fleet, Admiral Méndez Núñez famously responded with, "I will be forced to sink [the US ships], because even if I have one ship left I will proceed with the bombardment. Spain, the Queen and I prefer honor without ships than ships without honor." Consequently the Spanish Admiral, notwithstanding the protest of the diplomatic corps, gave notice on March 27 to all neutrals to evacuate the city.
At 7 am on March 31, the Spanish fleet took positions in front of their targets. It consisted of the Numancia, Resolución, Villa de Madrid, Blanca, Vencedora and the Paquete del Maule. The frigate Berenguela remained behind to guard against the possible escape of the merchant fleet. At 8.10 AM, the Numancia discharged two shots as final notice and to give opportunity for the people still in town to take cover. The bombardment itself started at 9 am and lasted for three hours without fire being returned, as Valparaíso was totally defenseless.
The Spanish bombarded the town unhindered. The loss in public and private property was estimated at $1,000,000, and in merchandise at $9,000,000, huge sums at the time. One recent account suggests that in today's money the losses amounted to the equivalent of around $224,000,000 
The action created an international scandal. While the Spanish were heavily criticized for attacking an unarmed city, so too was the British government for not employing its own naval force to protect the lives and property of its own nationals. Most of the losses were actually endurerd by British merchants, and a large argument developed in the British Parliament when news arrived in May 1866.
James McNeill Whistler, who was on board the American ships, painted his famous "Nocturne in Blue and Gold: Valparaíso Bay" the night before the bombardment. It shows the Chilean merchant fleet at their moorings waiting to be destroyed.
- NY Times Bombardment of Valparaíso and Gallao (sic)
- "BOMBARDMENT OF VALPARAISO.; OFFICIAL REPORT BY ADMIRAL CASTO MEMDEZ NUNEZ. Curous Statement Regarding the Course of Gen. Kilpatrick and Commodore Rogers". New York Times. 10 May 1866. Retrieved 2 January 2010.
- "CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA; The War Between Spain and Chili. Bombardment of Valparaíso by the Spanish Fleet. Remarkable Manifesto Issued by the Spanish Admiral. Failure of Gen. Kilpatrick's Attempt at Mediation. The Spanish Admiral Inflexible on a Point of Etiquette. Details and Incidents of the Bombardment. Over Eight Million Dollars Worth of Property Destroyed, The Principal Losses Sustained by Foreigners. THE CHILIAN WAR. Details of the Bombardment of Valparaise by the Spanish Fleet. PERU. PANAMA. The Uncle Sam in Possession of the Spanish Fleet--Miscellaneous. CENTRAL AMERICA. A Fillibuster Expedition". New York Times. 2 May 1866. Retrieved 2 January 2010.
- "VALPARAISO.; Official Report to the Chillan Government on tire Bombardment by the Spanish Fleet". New York Times. 16 May 1866. Retrieved 2 January 2010.
- Own, Our (6 May 1866). "SOUTH AMERICA.; From the Seat of War--Great Preparations and "Great Expectations"--The Grand Movement of the Allied Fleet Again Delayed -- Paraguayan Spies and their Stories--The War Beginning to Affect the Finances of the Argentine Confederation. THE BOMBARDMENT OF VALPARAISO Letter from an Americal Naval Officer". New York Times. Retrieved 2 January 2010.
- Woods, David (2011). The Bombardment of Paradise . Geneva: WTA Publishing. p. 268. ISBN 978-2-8399-0800-9.
- "Indeed, the bombardment of Valparaiso might even be described as a Spanish victory over Britain". Mayo, John: British Merchants and Chilean Development, 1851-1886. Boulder: Westview Press, 1987, ISBN 081337278X, p. 83.
- Barros Arana, Diego (1884–1902). Historia Jeneral de Chile (in Spanish). I-XVI. Santiago, Chile: Rafael Jover.
- García Martínez, José Ramón (1997). "La Campaña del Pacífico (1862-1866)" (PDF). Revista de Marina (in Spanish). Retrieved 1 January 2010.
- López Urrutia, Carlos. "Chile: A Brief Naval History". Historical Text Archive. Retrieved 1 January 2010.
- "The War with Spain of 1865–1866". Retrieved 2 January 2010.
- "Guerra del Pacífico - 1864–1865 Conflicto de España contra Chile y Perú". Historia y Arqueologia Marítima (in Spanish). Retrieved 2 January 2010.
- "España y la Guerra del Pacífico" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2 January 2010.
- "Liberation of the Chinchas". Retrieved 2 January 2010.[dead link]
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