Valuation (measure theory)

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In measure theory, or at least in the approach to it via the domain theory, a valuation is a map from the class of open sets of a topological space to the set positive real numbers including infinity. It is a concept closely related to that of a measure, and as such, it finds applications in measure theory, probability theory, and theoretical computer science.

Domain/Measure theory definition[edit]

Let  \scriptstyle (X,\mathcal{T}) be a topological space: a valuation is any map

 v:\mathcal{T} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^+\cup\{+\infty\}

satisfying the following three properties


\begin{array}{lll}
v(\varnothing) = 0 & & \scriptstyle{\text{Strictness property}}\\
v(U)\leq v(V) & \mbox{if}~U\subseteq V\quad U,V\in\mathcal{T} & \scriptstyle{\text{Monotonicity property}}\\
v(U\cup V)+ v(U\cap V) = v(U)+v(V) & \forall U,V\in\mathcal{T} & \scriptstyle{\text{Modularity property}}\,
\end{array}

The definition immediately shows the relationship between a valuation and a measure: the properties of the two mathematical object are often very similar if not identical, the only difference being that the domain of a measure is the Borel algebra of the given topological space, while the domain of a valuation is the class of open sets. Further details and references can be found in Alvarez-Manilla et al. 2000 and Goulbault-Larrecq 2002.

Continuous valuation[edit]

A valuation (as defined in domain theory/measure theory) is said to be continuous if for every directed family  \scriptstyle \{U_i\}_{i\in I} of open sets (i.e. an indexed family of open sets which is also directed in the sense that for each pair of indexes i and j belonging to the index set  I , there exists an index k such that \scriptstyle U_i\subseteq U_k and \scriptstyle U_j\subseteq U_k) the following equality holds:

 v\left(\bigcup_{i\in I}U_i\right) = \sup_{i\in I} v(U_i).

Simple valuation[edit]

A valuation (as defined in domain theory/measure theory) is said to be simple if it is a finite linear combination with non-negative coefficients of Dirac valuations, i.e.

v(U)=\sum_{i=1}^n a_i\delta_{x_i}(U)\quad\forall U\in\mathcal{T}

where a_i is always greather than or at least equal to zero for all index i. Simple valuations are obviously continuous in the above sense. The supremum of a directed family of simple valuations (i.e. an indexed family of simple valuations which is also directed in the sense that for each pair of indexes i and j belonging to the index set  I , there exists an index k such that \scriptstyle v_i(U)\leq v_k(U)\! and \scriptstyle v_j(U)\subseteq v_k(U)\!) is called quasi-simple valuation

\bar{v}(U) = \sup_{i\in I}v_i(U) \quad \forall U\in \mathcal{T}. \,

See also[edit]

Examples[edit]

Dirac valuation[edit]

Let  \scriptstyle (X,\mathcal{T}) be a topological space, and let x be a point of X: the map

\delta_x(U)=
\begin{cases}
0 & \mbox{if}~x\notin U\\
1 & \mbox{if}~x\in U
\end{cases}
\quad\forall U\in\mathcal{T}

is a valuation in the domain theory/measure theory, sense called Dirac valuation. This concept bears its origin from distribution theory as it is an obvious transposition to valuation theory of Dirac distribution: as seen above, Dirac valuations are the "bricks" simple valuations are made of.

References[edit]

External links[edit]