Values education is the process by which people give values to others. It can be an activity that can take place in any organisation during which people are assisted by others, who may be older, in a position of authority or are more experienced, to make explicit those values underlying their own behaviour, to assess the effectiveness of these values and associated behaviour for their own and others' long term well-being and to reflect on and acquire other values and behaviour which they recognise as being more effective for long term well-being of self and others.
Values education can take place at home, as well as in schools, colleges, universities, jails and voluntary youth organisations. There are two main approaches to values education, some see it as inculcating or transmitting a set of values which often come from societal or religious rules or cultural ethics while others see it as a type of Socratic dialogue where people are gradually brought to their own realisation of what is good behaviour for themselves and their community.
- 1 Definitions
- 2 Commonality in Many "Educations"
- 3 Multinational School-based Values Education Schemes
- 4 Examples ofValues Education from around the world
- 5 References
- 6 See also
There has been very little reliable research on the results of values education classes, but there are some encouraging preliminary results.
One definition refers to it as the process that gives young people an initiation into values, giving knowledge of the rules needed to function in this mode of relating to other people, and to seek the development in the student a grasp of certain underlying principles, together with the ability to apply these rules intelligently, and to have the settled disposition to do so Some researchers use the concept values education as an umbrella of concepts that includes moral education and citizenship education Themes that values education can address to varying degrees are character, moral development, Religious Education, Spiritual development, citizenship education, personal development, social development and cultural development.
- explicit values education is associated with those different pedagogies, methods or programmes that teachers or educators use in order to create learning experiences for students when it comes to value questions.
Another definition of value education is "learning about self and wisdom of life" in a self exploratory, systematic and scientific way through formal education.
Commonality in Many "Educations"
- Moral education
Morals as socio-legal-religious norms are supposed to help people behave responsibly. However not all morals lead to responsible behaviour. Values education can show which morals are "bad" morals and which are "good". The change in behaviour comes from confusing questions about right and wrong.
American psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg who specialized in research on moral education and reasoning, and was best known for his theory of stages of moral development, believed children needed to be in an environment that allowed for open and public discussion of day-to-day conflicts and problems to develop their moral reasoning ability.
- Teacher education
Cross has made a start at documenting some teacher training attempts.
Multinational School-based Values Education Schemes
Living Values Education Programme (LVEP)
This project of worldwide proportions inspired by the new religious movement called the Brahma Kumaris World Spiritual University incorporates twelve values (unity, peace, happiness, hope, humility, simplicity, trust, freedom, co-operation, honesty, courage, love), and has formed the basis of thekiss whole-school ethos approach in schools such as West Kidlington Primary School, Kidlington whose head master Neil Hawkes and Values education coordinators Linda Heppenstall used the work and other programmes to help them form a values-based school. The LVEP website lists 54 countries where values education projects are undertaken.
Human Values Foundation
The Human Values Foundation was established in 1995 to make available worldwide, a comprehensive values-themed programme for children from 4 to 12 years entitled EDUCATION IN HUMAN VALUES. Its fully resourced lesson plans utilise familiar teaching techniques of discussion, story-telling, quotations, group singing, activities to reinforce learning and times of quiet reflection. Following the success of "EHV", a second programme was published - SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL EDUCATION ("SEE"), primarily for ages 12 to 14+ but it has also proved constructive for older children identified as likely to benefit from help getting their lives 'back on track'. The programmes enable children and young people to explore and put into practice a wide spectrum of values with the potential to enrich their lives. Through the experiential learning, over time participants develop a well considered personal morality, all the while gaining invaluable emotional and social skills to help them lead happy, fulfilled, successful lives.
Character education is an umbrella term generally used to describe the teaching of children in a manner that will help them develop as personal and social beings. However, this definition requires research to explain what is meant by "personal and social being". Concepts that fall under this term include social and emotional learning, moral reasoning/cognitive development, life skills education, health education; violence prevention, critical thinking, ethical reasoning, and conflict resolution and mediation. Lickona (1996) mentions eleven principles of successful character education. It seems to have been applied in the UK and the United States
Family Values Scheme
The Family Values Scheme was created in 2009 by Gill Ellis and Nicola S Morgan to help engage families including the‘hard-to-reach’ using values. The Family Values Scheme is based around a set of 22 values designed to encourage families to participate in a series of fun tasks and challenges which they plan and carry out together within the flexibility of their own home and/or educational setting. The Family Values Scheme is designed to enhance the effectiveness of key relationships between and among family members. Good, caring relationships area key ingredient within the family unit as they encompass such skills as the ability to listen, communicate, recognise and respond to the needs and feelings of others, as well as helping to understand children’s behaviour.
Science of Living
Science of Living (Jeevan Vigyan; Jeevan = Life and Vigyan = Science) is a detailed program that complements the current educational approach with spiritual and value based learning. While both mental and physical development is needed for a student’s growth, Jeevan Vigyan adds a third pillar – that of emotional intelligence and morality (or values) – to education in schools and colleges. A combination of theory and practice, Jeevan Vigyan draws on the findings of various life-sciences as well as nutritional sciences. Our parasympathetic nervous system and endocrinal system are known to be the drivers of our emotions and our behavior. These biological centers can be influenced Science of Living through a system of yogic exercises, breathing exercises, medication and contemplation. Science of Living’s source of inspiration is Jain Acharya Ganadhipati Shri Tulsi (1914 - 1997). His thoughts were further developed and expanded by Acharya Shri Mahapragya (1920 - 2010). Currently Muni Shri Kishan Lal Ji, under the leadesrhip of Acharya Shri Mahashraman, is the Principal of SOL.;
Examples ofValues Education from around the world
Taylor gives a thorough overview of values education in 26 European countries.
The Australian Government currently funds Values education in its schools, with its own publications and funding of school forums on values education at all levels of education.it also helps in becoming a better person. A conference on "Moral Education and Australian Values" was held in 2007 at Monash University.
The Indian Government currently promote Values education in its schools .The Department of Human Resource Has taken strong step to introduce values among schools and teachers training centers.Also India the land of introducing values.In India From the leadership of B.Shaji Kumar, New Golden Education Trust(NGET)- Values Based Education has progressing throughout the country among schools from first standard to twelve std class.
Promotion of moral education by a large number of teachers in Japanese primary and junior high schools was reported in 1988 to be cautious because of fears of relapsing into pre-war style moral education the subject remaining a controversial matter.
Teacher training institutions in Singapore all have curricula for learning to teach civics and moral education programmes - but students do not take these as seriously as they should due to lack of assessment. The reason has been said to be the lack of innovative teaching approaches such as the discourse pedagogy.
Values education is a part of Swedish schools. Whereas the formal curricula is about educating students to be competent democratic citizens by practising student participation, qualitative studies have shown that in everyday school life, values education and school democracy often appeared to be reduced to traditional disciplining with high focus on rules and regulations. This in turn evokes some critiques among students. Most research on values education in Sweden is done by qualitative methods, especially ethnographic or field studies as well as focus group and interview studies. Some studies have been conducted by survey and other quantitative methods. In addition, theoretical work with roots in Dewey and Habermas has been done on deliberative democracy and deliberative conversations in schools.
In Thailand, values have traditionally been taught within the context of Buddhist religious education. Since 1982 there has been a revival of applied values as an extracurricular activity suitable for Buddhist, Moslem and Christian students alike to prepare Thai students for the effects of globalization.
Since 1988 the British government, although not recognising or calling it values education, has promoted and nspected values in the guise of spiritual, moral, social and cultural development (SMSCD) leaving the initiative to individual schools to decide how values education standards should be met. It is not clear whether there are standards of values education. It should be noted that the Government and state school systems have never called it "values education". Values education courses in Britain may be implemented in the form of government supported campaigns such as Social & Emotional Aspects of Learning (SEAL) but are more often provided by local experts in the form of LVEP, In Britain From the part of Dr.Neil Hawkes Values Based Education Trust Promote Values Based Education more than 500 schools in and out side England . In India From the leadership of B.Shaji Kumar, New Golden Education Trust(NGET)- Values Based Education has progressing throughout the country among schools. SSEHV, Penn Resiliency or Character education.
- Powney, J., Cullen, M-A., Schlapp, U., Johnstone, M. & Munn, P. (1995). Understanding values education in the primary school. York: Reports Express. p.vii
- Minnis, F (1991) Socrates for six-year-olds. Booklet accompanying the BBC programme of the same title. BBC, London.
- Saterlie, M E (Chair) (1988) 1984 and beyond: a reaffirmation of values. A report of the task force on values, education and ethical behavior of the Baltimore County Public Schools. Board of Education of Baltimore County, Towson, Maryland.
- David Aspin (2000) However, the meaning of "initiation into values", "mode of relating to other people", "apply intelligently" and a "settled disposition" needs to be clarified. It is also useful to point out that values education can be conducted with people of any age. A clarification of some key terms in values discussions, in M. Leicester, C. Modgil & S. Modgil (Eds.), Moral education and pluralism: Education, culture and values (Vol. 4, p.171-180). London: Farmer Press.
- Cheng, R. H. M., Lee, J. C. K. & Lo, L. N. K. (2006). Values education for citizens in the new century: meaning, desirability and practice. In R. H. M. Cheng, J. C. K. Lee & L. N. K. Lo (Eds.), Values education for citizens in the new century (pp.1-35). Sha Tin: The Chinese University Press.
- Mei-lin Ng, M. (2006). Valuation, evaluation, and value education – On acquiring the ability to value: A philosophical perspective. I R. H. M. Cheng, J. C. K. Lee & L. N. K. Lo (Eds.), Values education for citizens in the new century (pp.49-66). Sha Tin: The Chinese University Press.
- Taylor, M. (2006). The development of values through the school curriculum. R.H.M. Cheng, J.C.K. Lee & L.N.K. Lo (Eds.), Values education for citizens in the new century (pp.107-131). Sha Tin: The Chinese University Press.
- Taylor, M. (1994)
- Cox, E. (1988). Explicit and implicit moral education. Journal of Moral Education, 17, 92-97
- Halstead, J. M. (1996). Valuesfuck and valuessuck education in schools. I J. M. Halstead, & M. J. Taylor (Eds.), Values in education and education in values (pp.3-14). London: The Falmer Press.
- Sharp, A M (1984) Philosophical teaching as moral education. Journal of Moral Education, Vol 13, No 1.
- Rowe, D and Newton, J (1994) You, me, us! Social and moral responsibility for primary schools. Citizenship Foundation, London.
- Lipman, M (1987) Ethical reasoning and the craft of moral practice. Journal of Moral Education, Vol 16, No 2.
- Fisher, R (1994) Moral education and philosophy in schools. NAVET Papers Vol X.
- Kohlberg, L., Wasserman, E., & Richardson, N. (1975). The ideology of the Just Community School. In Recent papers on moral education, Kohlberg, L. (Ed.)., Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
- Kohlberg, L. (1985). The just community approach to moral education in theory and practice. In Berkowitz, M.N. & Oser, F. (Eds.), Moral education: Theory and application. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
- Kohlberg, L., Higgins, A., Power, F. C., (1989). Lawrence Kohlberg's Approach to Moral Education (Critical Assessments of Contemporary Psychology) Columbia University Press.
- Cross, M (1995) Values education: a staff development manual for secondary schools. Framework Press, Lancaster.
- Farrer, F. (2000) A Quiet Revolution: Encouraging Positive Values in Our Children (London, Rider). p.35
- 'The ethics girls and boys of West Kidlington Primary'. The Independent, (London), Feb 18, 1999 by Frances Farrer
- 'Researching a New Interface between Religions and Publicly Funded Schools in the UK'. Eleanor Nesbitt, Elisabeth Arweck, Warwick Religions & Education Research Unit (WRERU), Institute of Education, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
- http://www.livingvalues.net/profiles/index.html (accessed 27 February 2008)
- Lickona, T. (1996) Eleven Principles of Effective Character Education, The Journal of Moral Education, 25(1), pp. 93 - 100.
- Arthur, J., Deakin-Crick, R., Samuel, E., Wilson, K. & McGettrick, B. (2006) Character Education: The Formation of Virtues and Dispositions in 16-19 Year Olds with particular reference to the religious and spiritual(Canterbury, Canterbury Christchurch University).
- Lickona, T. (1992) Educating for Character: How our Schools Can teach Respect and Responsibility By,Nyempho Khusumdam of KHASA B.A 1st Year at I.G.G. College Tezu.
- Ellis G et al (2013). BetterBehaviour through Home-School Relations: Using values-based education topromote positive learning. Routledge.
- I M, Taylor (Ed.), Values education in Europe: a comparative overview of a survey of 26 countries in 1993 (pp.1-66). Dundee: Scottish Consultative Council on the Curriculum.
- Values Education | Values Homepage
- "Moral Education and Australian Values"Conference (Monash University)
- Cummings, W.K. & Gopinathan, S. & Yasumasa Tomodo (1988) The revival of values education in Asia and the West (New York, Pergamon) pp 83, 91
- Thomas, E. (1992) Moral development, cultural context and moral education, In Chong,K.C. ed. Moral Perspectives and Moral Education (Singapore, University of Singapore Press)pp.47-68
- Thornberg, R. (2009). The moral construction of the good pupil embedded in school rules. Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 4, 245-261.
- Thornberg, R. (2010). School democratic meetings: Pupil control discourse in disguise. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26, 924-932
- Wester, Maria (2008) ”Hålla ordning, men inte överordning. Köns- och maktperspektiv på uppförandenormer i svenska klassrumskulturer. Umeå: Umeå University.
- Alerby, E. (2003). 'During the break we have fun': A study concerning pupils' experience of school. Educational Research, 45, 17-28.
- Bergmark, U. (2008). 'I want people to believe in me, listen to me when I say something and remember me': How students wish to be treated. Pastoral Care in Education, 24, 267-279.
- Thornberg, R. (2006). Hushing as a moral dilemma in the classroom. Journal of Moral Education, 35, 89-104.
- Thornberg, R. (2008). ‘It’s not fair!’ – Voicing pupils’ criticisms of school rules. Children & Society, 22, 418-428.
- Aspán, M. (2009). Delade meningar: Om värdepedagogiska invitationer för barns inflytande och inkännande. Stockholm: Stockholms universitet.
- Bergmark, U. (2007). Ethical learning through meetings with Others. The International Journal of Learning, 14, 105-112.
- Bergmark, U. (2009). Building an ethical learning community in schools. Luleå: Luleå University of Technology.
- Bergmark, U., & Alerby, E. (2008). Developing an ethical school through appreciating practice? Students' lived experience of ethical situations in school. Ethics and Education, 3, 41-55.
- Colnerud, G. (2001). Regler och relationer – Lärarröster om värdegrunden. In Vad har värde i praktiken: Perspektiv på värdegrunden i skola, vård och omsorg. Konferensrapport: 18-19 maj 2001 (pp. 23-30). Lärarhögskolan i Stockholm.
- Colnerud, G. (2007). Rättvisa i klassrummet. In K. Granström (Ed.), Forskning om lärares arbete i klassrummet (Forskning i fokus, nr 33, pp. 33-50). Stockholm: Myndigheten för skolutveckling.
- Emilson, A., & Johansson, E. (2009). Communicated values in teacher and toddler interactions in preschool. In D. Berthelsen, J. Brownlee, & E. Johansson (Eds.), Participatory learning and the early years: Research and pedagogy (pp. 61-77). New York: Routledge.
- Frelin, A., & Grannäs, J. (2010). Negotiations left behind: In-between spaces of teacher-student negotiation and their significance for education. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 42, 353-369.
- Grannäs, J. (2007). Peer engagement in learning democracy. International Journal of Learning, 14, 189-196.
- Johansson, E. (1999). Etik i små barns värld (Göteborg Studies in Education¬al Sciences, No. 141). Göteborg: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis.
- Johansson, E. (2002). Morality in preschool interaction: Teachers' strategies for working with children's morality. Early Child Development and Care, 172, 203-21
- Johansson, E. (2004). Learning encounters in preschool: Interaction between atmosphere, view of children and of learning. International Journal of Early Childhood, 36, 9-26.
- Johansson, E. (2007). Etiska överenskommelser i förskolebarns världar (Göteborg Studies in Educational Sciences, No. 251). Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet.
- Johansson, E. & Johansson, B. (2003). Etiska möten i skolan. Stockholm: Liber.
- Löfdahl, A. (2006). Grounds for values and attitudes: Children’s play and peer-cultures in pre-school. Journal of Early Childhood Research, 4, 77-88.
- Löfdahl, A., & Hägglund, S. (2007). Spaces of participation in pre-school: Arenas for establishing power orders? Children & Society, 21, 328-338.
- Tholander, M. (2007). Working with rules: Lived democracy in school. Ethnography and Education, 2, 109-126.
- Thornberg, R. (2008). School children's reasoning about school rules. Research Papers in Education, 23, 37-52.
- Thornberg, R. (2008). The lack of professional knowledge in values education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24, 1791-1798.
- Thornberg, R. (2009). The moral construction of the good pupil embedded in school rules. Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 4, 245–261.
- Thornberg, R. (2010). A student in distress: Moral frames and bystander behavior in school. The Elementary School Journal, 110, 585-608
- Thornberg, R. (2010). School democratic meetings: Pupil control discourse in disguise. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26, 924-932.
- Frånberg, G-M. (2006). Lärarstudenters uppfattning om värdegrunden i lärarutbildningen. Tidskrift för lärarutbildning och forskning, 13 (1), 125-169.
- Thornberg, R. (2010). A study of children's conceptions of school rules by investigating their judgments of transgressions in the absence of rules. Educational Psychology, 30, 583-603.
- Westling Allodi, M. (2007). Assessing the quality of learning environments in Swedish schools: Development and analysis of an instrument. Learning Environments Research, 10, 157-175.
- Englund, T. (2001). Deliberativa samtal som värdegrund – historiska perspektiv och aktuella förutsättningar. Stockholm: Skolverket.
- Englund, T. (2006). Deliberative communication: A pragmatist proposal. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 38, 503-520.
- Johansson, B. & Roth, K. (Eds.) (2003). Demokrati och lärande. Lund: Studentlitteratur.
- Roth, K. (2001). Democracy, education and citizenship: Towards a theory on the education of deliberative democratic citizens. Stockholm: HLS Förlag.
- Roth, K. (2006). Deliberation in national and post-national education. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 38, 569-589.
- Kriengsak Chareonwongsakin (2006) “Values Education in Thailand: Preparation for Globalization, for the Academic Seminar for Values Education for Citizens in the New Century, pp. 319-345. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Institute of Educational Research, Chinese University Press
- The Standards Site: Social and emotional aspects of learning... improving behaviour… improving learning
- Nesbitt, Eleanor; A. Henderson (April 2003). "Religious Organisations in the UK and Values Education Programmes for Schools". Journal of Beliefs and Values, volume = 24 (1): 75–88. doi:10.1080/1361767032000053015.
- moral philosophy
- moral psychology
- educational psychology
- political philosophy
- social psychology
- special education
- pre-school education
- Holistic education
- Emotional and behavioral disorders
- Society for Values in Higher Education