Vanishing Point (1971 film)
Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Richard C. Sarafian|
|Produced by||Norman Spencer
|Screenplay by||Guillermo Cain
Barry Hall (uncredited)
|Story by||Malcolm Hart|
|Music by||Kim Carnes
Delaney, Bonnie & Friends
|Cinematography||John A. Alonzo|
|Editing by||Stefan Arnsten|
|Distributed by||20th Century Fox|
|Release date(s)||March 13, 1971|
|Running time||98 minutes[Note 1]|
Vanishing Point is a 1971 American action road movie directed by Richard C. Sarafian and starring Barry Newman, Cleavon Little, and Dean Jagger. The film is notable for its scenic film locations across the American Southwest and its social commentary on the post-Woodstock mood in the United States. The film is especially popular with Mopar auto enthusiasts because it prominently features a classic 1970 Dodge Challenger muscle car.
A car delivery driver, Kowalski (Barry Newman), arrives in Denver, Colorado late Friday night with a black Chrysler Imperial.[Note 2] The delivery service clerk, Sandy (Karl Swenson), urges him to get some rest, but Kowalski insists on getting started with his next assignment to deliver a white 1970 Dodge Challenger R/T 440 Magnum to San Francisco by Monday. Before leaving Denver, Kowalski pulls into a biker bar parking lot around midnight to buy Benzedrine pills to stay awake for the long drive ahead. He bets his dealer, Jake (Lee Weaver), that he will get to San Francisco by 3:00 pm Saturday, even though the delivery is not due until Monday.
Kowalski is a Medal of Honor Vietnam War veteran and former race car driver and motorcycle racer. He is also a former police officer, who was dishonorably discharged in retaliation for preventing his partner from raping a young woman. Haunted by the surfing death of his girlfriend, Vera, Kowalski now thrives on adrenaline.
Driving west across Colorado, Kowalski is pursued by two motorcycle police officers who try to stop him for speeding. Recalling his days as a motorcycle racer, he forces one officer off the road and eludes the other officer by jumping across a dry creek bed. Later, the driver of a Jaguar E-Type convertible pulls up alongside Kowalski and challenges him to a race. After the Jaguar driver nearly runs him off the road, Kowalski overtakes him and beats the Jaguar to a one-lane bridge, causing the Jaguar to crash into the river. Kowalski checks to see if the driver is okay, then takes off, with police cars in hot pursuit.
Kowalski drives across Utah and into Nevada, with the police unable to catch him. During the pursuit, Kowalski listens to radio station KOW, which is broadcasting from Goldfield, Nevada. A blind African-American disc jockey at KOW, Super Soul (Cleavon Little), listens to the police radio frequency and encourages Kowalski to evade the police. Super Soul seems to understand Kowalski and seems to see and hear Kowalski's reactions. With the help of Super Soul, who calls Kowalski "the last American hero," Kowalski gains the interest of the news media, and people begin to gather at the KOW radio station to offer their support.
During the police chase across Nevada, Kowalski finds himself surrounded and heads into the desert. After he blows a left front tire and becomes lost, Kowalski is helped by an old prospector (Dean Jagger) who catches snakes in the desert for a Pentecostal Christian commune. After Kowalski is given fuel, the old man redirects him back to the highway. There, he picks up two homosexual hitchhikers stranded en route to San Francisco with a "Just Married" sign in their rear window. When they attempt to hold him up at gunpoint, Kowalski throws them out of the car and continues on.
Saturday afternoon, a police officer and some thugs shouting racial epithets raid the KOW studio and assault Super Soul and his engineer. Near the California state line, Kowalski is helped by a hippie biker, Angel (Timothy Scott), who gives him pills to help him stay awake. Angel's girlfriend (Gilda Texter), who rides a motorcycle nude, recognizes Kowalski and shows him a poster she made of newspaper articles about his police career. Kowalski suspects that Super Soul's encouragement is now being directed by the police to entrap him. Confirming that the police are indeed waiting at the border, Angel helps Kowalski get through the roadblock trap with the help of an old air raid siren and a small motorbike with a red light strapped to the top of the Challenger. Kowalski finally reaches California by Saturday 7:12 pm. He calls Jake the dealer from a payphone to reassure him that he still intends to deliver the car on Monday.
On Sunday morning, California police, who have been tracking Kowalski's movements through electronic road sensors, set up a roadblock with two bulldozers in the small town of Cisco, where Kowalski will be passing. A small crowd gathers at the roadblock. As Kowalski approaches at high speed, he smiles as he crashes into the bulldozers in a fiery explosion. As firemen work to put out the flames, the crowd slowly disperses.
The screenplay for Vanishing Point was written by G. Cabrera Infante, under the pseudonym Guillermo Cain. The story was based on two actual events: the disgraced career of a San Diego police officer and a high-speed pursuit of a man who refused to stop and was killed when he crashed into a police roadblock. Infante modeled the character of Super Soul after legendary rock and roll singer The Big Bopper. His script reflected the popular counterculture lifestyle of the time, containing elements of rebellion, drugs, sexual freedom, and rock and roll.
In 1969, director Richard C. Sarafian turned down an offer to make Robert Redford's Downhill Racer in order to direct Vanishing Point. He was drawn to the counterculture themes in Cain's script. Originally, the director wanted Gene Hackman to play Kowalski, but 20th Century Fox studio executive Richard Zanuck insisted on casting relative unknown actor Barry Newman in the lead role. The film marked the first major screen appearances of Cleavon Little and John Amos.
The car 
According to Sarafian, it was Zanuck who came up with the idea of using the new 1970 Dodge Challenger R/T. He wanted to do Chrysler a favor for their long-time practice of providing 20th Century Fox with cars on a rental base for only a dollar a day. Many of the other cars featured in the film are also Chrysler products. Stunt Coordinator Carey Loftin said he requested the Dodge Challenger because of the "quality of the torsion bar suspension and for its horsepower" and felt that it was "a real sturdy, good running car."
Five Alpine White Dodge Challenger R/Ts were lent to the production by Chrysler for promotional consideration and were returned upon completion of filming. Four cars had 440 engines equipped with four-speeds; the fifth car was a 383. No special equipment was added or modifications made to the cars, except for heavier-duty shock absorbers for the car that jumped over No Name Creek. The Challengers were prepared and maintained for the movie by Max Balchowsky, who also prepared the Mustangs and Chargers for Bullitt (1968). The cars performed to Loftin's satisfaction, although dust came to be a problem. None of the engines were blown. Loftin remembers that parts were taken out of one car to repair another because they "really ruined a couple of those cars" while jumping ramps between highways and over creeks. Newman remembers that the 440 engines in the cars were so powerful that "it was almost as if there was too much power for the body. You'd put it in first and it would almost rear back!" The Challengers appear in the film with Colorado plates OA-5599.
Principal photography 
Principal photography began in the summer of 1970 with a planned shooting schedule of 60 days. Financial troubles plaguing the studio at the time forced Zanuck to shorten Sarafian's shooting schedule by 22 days. In response, the director decided not to film certain scenes rather than rush through the rest of the shoot. An average day of filming involved the actors and the crew of 19 men spending many hours traveling to the remote locations, shooting for an extended period of time and then looking for a motel to spend the night. The shoot had a few mishaps, including Newman driving a Challenger equipped with three cameras into the bushes in order to avoid a head-on collision when a "civilian" driver ignored the traffic blocks installed to ensure the safety of the crew.
The film's cinematographer John Alonzo used light-weight Arriflex II cameras that offered a great deal of flexibility in terms of free movement. Close-up and medium shots were achieved by mounting cameras directly on the vehicles instead of the common practice of filming the drivers from a tow that drove ahead of the targeted vehicle. To convey the appearance of speed, the filmmakers undercranked the cameras. For example, in the scenes with the Challenger and the Jaguar, the camera was cranked at half speed. The cars were traveling at approximately 50 miles per hour (80 km/h) but projected at normal frame rate, they appeared to be moving much faster.
Filming locations 
Vanishing Point was filmed on location in the American Southwest in the states of Colorado, Utah, Nevada, and California.
- Austin, Nevada
- Cisco, Utah (the ending)
- Denver, Colorado
- Esmeralda County, Nevada
- Glenwood Springs, Colorado (first motorcycle police chase)
- Goldfield, Nevada (Super Soul scenes)
- Lander County, Nevada
- Nye County, Nevada
- Rifle, Colorado
- Thompson Springs, Utah
- Tonopah, Nevada
- Wendover, Nevada
Carey Loftin was the film's stunt coordinator and responsible for setting up and performing the major driving stunts. Considered one of Hollywood's greatest stunt drivers, Loftin's resume at the time included work on Grand Prix (1966), Bullitt (1968), and The French Connection (1971). Barry Newman learned from Loftin and was encouraged by the stunt coordinator to do some of his own stunts. In the scene before Kowalski crashes into the bulldozer, Newman drove and performed a 180-degree turn on the road himself without the director's knowledge.
The 383 car was also used as the tow vehicle in the crash scene at the end of the movie. A quarter-mile cable was attached between the Challenger and an explosives-laden 1967 Chevrolet Camaro with the motor and transmission removed. The tow vehicle was driven by Loftin, who pulled the Camaro into the blades of the bulldozers at high speed. Loftin expected the car to go end over end, but instead it stuck into the bulldozers, which he thought looked better.
The ending 
The ending (and implicitly the theme of the film) has been the source of much debate. The viewer is left guessing why Kowalski insists on driving to San Francisco immediately and then drives heedlessly across four states to his death. Kowalski says only, "I gotta be in Frisco 3 o'clock tomorrow afternoon." When Jake scoffs that he's being put on, Kowalski says, "I wish to God I was."
Barry Newman offered his interpretation of the film's ending in an interview printed in the March 1986 issue of Musclecar Review, "Kowalski smiles as he rushes to his death at the end of Vanishing Point because he believes he will make it through the roadblock." The August 2006 issue of Motor Trend magazine has a sidebar with Newman, in which he explains that Kowalski sees the light glinting from between the two bulldozers. "To Kowalski, it was still a hole to escape through. It symbolized that no matter how far they push or chase you, no one can truly take away your freedom and there is always an escape." Newman also thought that the entire film was an essay on existentialism. Kowalski drives to drive, with no real purpose for doing what he's doing. He decides to give his life its definition and meaning, with complete freedom over his actions.
Sarafian explained that he wanted to make Kowalski appear otherworldly and that the world within the film was a temporary existence that he was just making a stop in. At the end of the film, he was ascending from this existence into another. The lyrics of the end song underscore this interpretation: "Nobody knows, nobody sees, till the light of life stops burning, till another soul goes free."
UK theatrical release 
The UK theatrical release of the film differs slightly from the US release in plot and running time. In the UK release, Kowalski picks up a mysterious hitchhiker (Charlotte Rampling) toward the end of the film. Kowalski accepts marijuana from her, despite refusing marijuana in several previous scenes. He stops the car when he starts feeling stoned. She says she has been "waiting for him, everywhere and since forever." When he awakens the next morning, she is gone without a trace. According to interviews with Barry Newman and commentary from the director, the hitchhiker was meant to be an allegorical figure representing death. This scene was removed from the final US version, reducing the film from 105 minutes to 98 minutes. Newman felt that the scene gave the film "an allegorical lift" but the studio was afraid that the audience would not understand.
|Soundtrack album by Various Artists|
|Released||March 13, 1971|
|Genre||Country, pop, rock|
Sarafian wanted to score the majority of the film from an album called Motel Shot by Delaney, Bonnie & Friends. Lionel Newman, head of Fox's music department at the time, denied Sarafian's request because the studio did not want to spend a substantial amount of money obtaining rights to the tracks. The director then suggested that musician Randy Newman score the film, but Fox refused this request as well. After watching the film, musical supervisor Jimmy Bowen wrote three original songs. Delaney, Bonnie & Friends ended up performing a musical number in the film.
A soundtrack of the film was released in the United States by Amos Records. The original vinyl album is long out of print. There have been reissues of the soundtrack compact disc in the United States by A&M, including various record companies, and in Europe by Amos Records.
Track listing 
|1.||"Super Soul Theme" (The J.B. Pickers)||Jimmy Bowen||1:50|
|2.||"The Girl Done Got It Together" (Bobby Doyle)||Mike Settle||2:47|
|3.||"Where Do We Go From Here?" (Jimmy Walker)||Mike Settle||2:53|
|4.||"Welcome to Nevada" (Jerry Reed)||Barnhill, Lanier||1:52|
|5.||"Dear Jesus God" (Bob Segarini and Randy Bishop)||Segarini, Bishop||3:57|
|6.||"Runaway Country" (Doug Dillard Expedition)||Doug Dillard, Byron Berline||4:09|
|7.||"You Got to Believe" (Delaney, Bonnie & Friends)||Delaney Bramlett||3:00|
|8.||"Love Theme" (Jimmy Bowen Orchestra)||Jimmy Bowen||2:40|
|9.||"So Tired" (Eve)||Creamer, Sliwin, Temmer||2:10|
|10.||"Freedom of Expression" (The J.B. Pickers)||Jimmy Bowen||5:48|
|11.||"Mississippi Queen" (Mountain)||West, Laing, Pappalardi, Rea||2:32|
|12.||"Sing Out for Jesus" (Big Mama Thornton)||Kim Carnes||1:47|
|13.||"Over Me" (Bob Segarini and Randy Bishop)||Bob Segarini, Randy Bishop||3:04|
|14.||"Nobody Knows" (Kim & Dave)||Mike Settle||2:22|
"Nobody Knows" is the first ever recording by Kim Carnes, credited on the soundtrack as "Kim & Dave". Carnes also wrote the song performed by Big Mama Thornton. The pop music group Delaney, Bonnie & Friends had a small role as a Christian music band, which included singer Rita Coolidge and singer/songwriter David Gates at the piano.
Vanishing Point premiered in January 1971 and did not receive positive notices. In his review for the Los Angeles Times, Charles Champlin wrote, "Vanishing Point might have had a point, but it ... ah ... got lost. What's left is sophisticated craft and fashionably hokey cynicism". Variety magazine said, "While stock car addicts may be able to maintain interest in the ultra-fast manipulation of the car, many viewers will just get car-sick ... or sick of the car, which isn't the same thing". Larry Cohen, in the Reporter criticized the film for being "calculated, tedious and in desperate need of tightening, the picture, produced by Norman Spencer, is uninvolving and devoid of a cohesiveness that might have made it work".
Newman recalls that Fox had no faith in the film and released it in neighborhood theaters only to disappear in less than two weeks. However, it was a critical and commercial success in the UK and Europe which prompted the studio to re-release it in the United States on a double bill with The French Connection. A cult following began to develop due in large part to a broadcast on network television in 1976.
The film earned rentals of $4,250,000 in North America.
Vanishing Point was the inspiration for Primal Scream's 1997 album of the same name. It is meant to be an alternative soundtrack to the film. Leader singer Bobby Gillespie said, "The music in the film is hippy music, so we thought, 'Why not record some music that really reflects the mood of the film?' It's always been a favourite of the band, we love the air of paranoia and speed-freak righteousness ... It's a pure underground film, rammed with claustrophobia". In addition, a track from the album was named "Kowalski" after the character from the film. The track also featured samples of Super Soul's "last American hero" speech from the film. Author Irvine Welsh scripted the video for "Kowalski" which was directed by musician Douglas Hart. The video features a Dodge Challenger and super model Kate Moss beating up the band.
The film was the basis for Audioslave's 2004 music video "Show Me How to Live", directed by the AV Club and which included members of the band in the 1970 Challenger traveling across the desert, following the plot of the movie.
Death Proof, the Quentin Tarantino contribution to the faux-exploitation "double feature" Grindhouse, features a chase involving a Dodge Challenger resembling the one seen in Vanishing Point (not being an R/T model and having an automatic transmission). Death Proof also references the film by name repeatedly calling it – "one of the best American movies ever made". The car in the film also has the license plate OA 5599.
In an episode of Comedians in Cars Getting Coffee, comedian Jerry Seinfeld takes friend and fellow comedian Brian Regan for coffee in a 1970 Dodge Challenger, stating it was "all the rage" in the 1970s due to Newman and Vanishing Point.
A remake was created for Fox television, first airing in 1997, and also featuring a 1970 Dodge Challenger. The film stars Viggo Mortensen as Jimmy Kowalski (in this version, the character has a first name). Kowalski is rewritten as a suspected militia sympathizer from Idaho, and Jason Priestly as "The Voice", a libertarian talk radio shock jock who replaces Super Soul. The two films are similar, but the remake removed all of the original's mystical elements.
Home release 
There were two theatrical releases, a U.S. version and a UK version. Both are included on the Region 1 DVD.
Fox released Vanishing Point in the United States on Blu-ray on February 24, 2009.
See also 
- The UK theatrical release running time of Vanishing Point is 105 minutes.
- The film begins with an alternative ending. A white 1970 Dodge Challenger R/T 440 Magnum races towards two bulldozers, which have just dropped their blades blocking both lanes of a two lane road. At the last second, the driver manages to spin his car around and drive away from the roadblock. The film then goes into a flashback set two days earlier.
- Solomon, Aubrey. Twentieth Century Fox: A Corporate and Financial History (The Scarecrow Filmmakers Series). Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press, 1989. ISBN 978-0-8108-4244-1. p256
- Roger Greenspun (1971-03-25). "Vanishing Point (1971) A Lot of Speed and Loads of Hair". The New York Times.
- "Vanishing Point". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved December 1, 2011.
- Hollywood’s Hottest Car Chases – Vanishing Point (1971), Speed TV, November 1, 2010, retrieved 2012-03-23
- "Vanishing Point Credits and Transcript". Corky. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
- Siegel, Mike (Autumn 2008). "The Freedom of Speed". Cinema Retro. p. 26.
- Richard C. Sarafian (Director) (February 3, 2004). Vanishing Point Commentary (DVD).
- Siegel 2008, pp. 26–27.
- Siegel 2008, p. 27.
- Zazarine, Paul (March 1986). "Kowalski's Last Ride". Muscle Car Review.
- Siegel 2008, p. 28.
- Siegel 2008, p. 30.
- Siegel 2008, pp. 29–30.
- Siegel 2008, pp. 28–29.
- Siegel 2008, p. 29.
- "Filming locations for Vanishing Point". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved December 10, 2011.
- "Carey Loftin". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved December 10, 2011.
- Siegel 2008, p. 31.
- Champlin, Charles (March 18, 1971). "Chase is on in Vanishing". Los Angeles Times.
- "Vanishing Point". Variety. February 1, 1971.
- Cohen, Larry (February 1, 1971). "Vanishing Point". Reporter.
- Solomon, Aubrey. Twentieth Century Fox: A Corporate and Financial History (The Scarecrow Filmmakers Series). Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press, 1989. ISBN 978-0-8108-4244-1. p231. Please note figures are rentals accruing to distributors and not total gross.
- "Vanishing Point". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved January 23, 2012.
- Steven Spielberg: The EW Interview – EW.com. 12/2/2011
- Kessler, Ted (May 3, 1997). "Vortex, Drug & Rock n Roll". New Musical Express. Retrieved 2008-11-16.
- The Front Loader – Deeper Cuts: Guns N' Roses' "Breakdown"
- Kelly, Richard (February 12, 2007). "Southland Tales Teaser Trailer". Richard Kelly's MySpace blog.
- Vanishing Point at the Internet Movie Database
- Vanishing Point at AllRovi
- Vanishing Point at Rotten Tomatoes
- "How He Found America – an analysis of the film by cinematographer Janusz Kamiński in the New York Times
- Interview with director Richard C. Sarafian
- Essay by Geoff Ward Existential Criticism and the movie Vanishing Point