Varicocele

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Varicocele
Classification and external resources
Gray1147.png
Cross section showing the pampiniform plexus
ICD-10 I86.1
ICD-9 456.4
DiseasesDB 13731
MedlinePlus 001284
eMedicine radio/739
Patient UK Varicocele
MeSH D014646
Varicocele in ultrasound (left: testicle)

A varicocele /ˈværɨkɵsl/ is an abnormal enlargement of the pampiniform venous plexus in the scrotum. This plexus of veins drains the testicles. The testicular blood vessels originate in the abdomen and course down through the inguinal canal as part of the spermatic cord on their way to the testis. Upward flow of blood in the veins is ensured by small one-way valves that prevent backflow. Defective valves, or compression of the vein by a nearby structure, can cause dilatation of the testicular veins near the testis, leading to the formation of a varicocele. Varicoceles can be removed relatively safely and effectively by surgical procedures known as varicocelectomies.

Significant left-sided varicocele.

Signs and symptoms[edit]

Symptoms of a varicocele may include:

  • Visible or palpable (able to be felt) enlarged vein[1]
  • Dragging-like or aching pain within scrotum.
  • Feeling of heaviness in the testicle(s)
  • Atrophy (shrinking) of the testicle(s)
  • Higher testosterone levels (although testosterone levels seem to rise further after varicocelectomy)[2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11]

Cause[edit]

The idiopathic varicocele occurs when the valves within the veins along the spermatic cord do not work properly. This is essentially the same process as varicose veins, which are common in the legs. This results in backflow of blood into the pampiniform plexus and causes increased pressures, which on rare occasion can lead to permanent damage to the testicular tissue due to disruption of normal supply of oxygenated blood via the testicular artery.

Varicoceles develop slowly and may not have any symptoms. They are most frequently diagnosed when a patient is 15–30 years of age, and rarely develop after the age of 40. They occur in 15-20% of all males.

A majority of idiopathic varicoceles occur on the left side,[12] apparently because the left testicular vein connects to the renal vein (and does so at a 90-degree angle), while the right testicular vein drains at less than 90-degrees directly into the significantly larger inferior vena cava. Isolated right sided varicoceles are rare.[citation needed]

A secondary varicocele is due to compression of the venous drainage of the testicle. A pelvic or abdominal malignancy is a definite concern when a left-sided varicocele is newly diagnosed in a patient older than 40 years of age. One non-malignant cause of a secondary varicocele is the so-called "Nutcracker syndrome", a condition in which the superior mesenteric artery compresses the left renal vein, causing increased pressures there to be transmitted retrograde into the left pampiniform plexus.[13] The most common cause is renal cell carcinoma (a.k.a. hypernephroma) followed by retroperitoneal fibrosis or adhesions.

Pathophysiology[edit]

The term varicocele specifically refers to dilatation and tortuosity of the pampiniform plexus, which is the network of veins that drain the testicle. This plexus travels along the posterior portion of the testicle with the epididymis and vas deferens, and then into the spermatic cord. This network of veins coalesces into the gonadal, or testicular, vein. The right gonadal vein drains into the inferior vena cava, while the left gonadal vein drains into the left renal vein at right angle to the renal vein, which then drains into the inferior vena cava. One of the main functions of the plexus is to lower the temperature of the testicles; vericocele causes this function to be lost, hence the most common complication of untreated vericocele is higher temperature of the testes, resulting in testicular atrophy causing infertility.[citation needed]

The small vessels of the pampiniform plexus normally range from 0.5–1.5 mm in diameter. Dilation of these vessels greater than 2 mm is called a varicocele.[citation needed]

Recent studies have shown that the detrimental effect of varicocele on sperm production is progressive and due to reduction in supply of oxygenated blood and nutrient material to the sperm production sites, which persistently reduces the quality and the quantity of the sperms, leading to reduction in their fertility capacity with time.[citation needed]

Diagnosis[edit]

Upon palpation of the scrotum, a non-tender, twisted mass along the spermatic cord is felt. Palpating a varicocele can be likened to feeling a bag of worms.[14] When one is lying down, gravity may allow the drainage of the pampiniform plexus and thus make the mass not obvious.[14] This is especially true in primary varicocele, and absence may be a sign for clinical concern.[14] The testicle on the side of the varicocele may or may not be smaller compared to the other side.

Varicocele can be reliably diagnosed with ultrasound,[15][16] which will show dilation of the vessels of the pampiniform plexus to greater than 2 mm. The patient being studied should undergo a provocative maneuver, such as Valsalva's maneuver (attempting expiration against a closed airway) or standing up during the exam, both of which are designed to increase intra-abdominal venous pressure and increase the dilatation of the veins. Doppler ultrasound is a technique of measuring the speed at which blood is flowing in a vessel. An ultrasound machine that has a Doppler mode can see blood reverse direction in a varicocele with a Valsalva, increasing the sensitivity of the examination.

Recent studies have shown that varicocele is a bilateral disease[17] and the diagnosis of the right side is missed by physical examination and even by ultrasonography. The examination should be performed by ultrasonography — color flow doppler performed by highly experienced sonographer or radiologist that will diagnose varicocele by demonstrating back-flow in the right and in the left spermatic veins.[18]

Treatment[edit]

Sewn up wound after varicocele surgery

Varicocelectomy, the surgical correction of a varicocele, is performed on an outpatient basis.[19] The three most common approaches are inguinal (groin), retroperitoneal (abdominal), and infrainguinal/subinguinal (below the groin). Various other techniques may be used. Ice packs should be kept to the area for the first 2 days after surgery to reduce swelling. The patient may be advised to wear a scrotal support for some time after surgery.

Possible complications of this procedure include hematoma (bleeding into tissues), hydrocele (accumulation of fluid around the affected testicle), infection, or injury to the scrotal tissue or structures. In addition, injury to the artery that supplies the testicle may occur.

In the Gat-Goren nonsurgical method for treating varicoceles, performed under local anesthesia, a catheter is inserted through a vein in the upper thigh. Fluid injected through the catheter selectively closes off the malfunctioning veins, thus enabling the testicular tissues to recover and begin to produce normal sperm in normal amounts. The procedure lasts one to two hours and causes almost no discomfort. The patient can return to his regular routine within 24 hours.[20]

Picture taken 36 hours after embolization treating a varicocele. It shows the place where the wire was passed through.

An alternative to surgery is embolization,[21] a minimally invasive treatment for varicocele that is performed by an interventional radiologist. This involves passing a small wire through a peripheral vein and into the abdominal veins that drain the testes. Through a small flexible catheter, the doctor can obstruct the veins so that the increased pressures from the abdomen are no longer transmitted to the testicles. The testicles then drain through smaller collateral veins. The recovery period is significantly less than with surgery and the risk of complications is minimized with overall effectiveness similar to surgery, yet with fewer recurrence rates. However, radiation exposure to the testicles can often not be avoided with this technique.

Embolization is an effective treatment for post-surgical varicoceles. These are varicoceles that reappear after they have been surgically repaired. The main theory is the presence of redundant gonadal veins that provide collateralization cause the reappearance of the varicoceles. The use of NBCA glues during the embolization is as effective at embolizing these collaterals as coils.[22]

Medical treatment with L-carnitine has some beneficial effect on sperm parameters, but is not as effective as surgery.[23] Micronised purified flavonoid fractions (MPFF)(Daflon) have a beneficial effect on reducing varicocele pain and reducing reflux time of left spermatic vein during the Valsalva maneuver.[24]

Natural treatment methods typically involve improving blood circulation in the lower torso, e.g. by alleviating constipation, reducing inflammatory effects, and lowering blood viscosity[25] These methods could involve dietary supplementation, various exercises like swimming and cooling of the scrotum[26][27]

Indication of treatment[edit]

A Cochrane review in 2013 grossly estimated that when performing surgical or radiological treatment of varicocele in subfertile men with a clinically manifest varicocele and poor semen quality, one additional pregnancy will be obtained for approximately every 7 men treated.[clarification needed][28][29]

A meta-analysis in 2011 of the available literature concluded that varicocelectomy improves sperm parameters (count and total and progressive motility), reduces sperm DNA damage and seminal oxidative stress, and improves sperm ultramorphology. Studies also indicate that a microsurgical approach to a varicocele repair results in less recurrence and fewer complications than other techniques.[30]

Surgical treatment is generally reserved for those with symptomatic varicocele, a discrepancy in testicular size or marked semen abnormalities in patients with a palpable varicocele at rest. There are also non-invasive natural treatment options that may relieve symptoms.[26]

Prognosis[edit]

Varicocele can be harmless, but in some cases it can cause infertility and pain. Although there are studies showing improvement in sperm quality in 57%,[31] there are also studies showing that the regular surgery has no significant effect on infertility. Thus the surgery may not improve fertility and the patient will need to undergo a non-invasive treatment.[32][33]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Urologychannel: Varicoele, retrieved October 21, 2006
  2. ^ Chen, Shiou-Sheng; Chen, Li-Kuei (2012). "Risk Factors for Progressive Deterioration of Semen Quality in Patients with Varicocele". Urology 79 (1): 128–32. doi:10.1016/j.urology.2011.08.063. PMID 22055689. 
  3. ^ Al-Daghistani, Hala I.; Hamad, Abdul-Wahab R.; Abdel-Dayem, Muna; Al-Swaifi, Mohammad; Abu Zaid, Mohammad (2010). "Evaluation of Serum Testosterone, Progesterone, Seminal Antisperm Antibody, and Fructose Levels among Jordanian Males with a History of Infertility". Biochemistry Research International 2010: 1. doi:10.1155/2010/409640. 
  4. ^ Cantatore, C; Capuano, P; Cobuzzi, I; Vacca, M; Coretti, F; Falagario, D; Spilotros, M; Bettocchi, C; Palumbo, F; Depalo, R (2010). "Semen quality and hormonal levels in infertile patients with varicocele". Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia 82 (4): 291–3. PMID 21341585. 
  5. ^ Mohamad Al-Ali, Badereddin; Marszalek, Martin; Shamloul, Rany; Pummer, Karl; Trummer, Harald (2010). "Clinical Parameters and Semen Analysis in 716 Austrian Patients with Varicocele". Urology 75 (5): 1069–73. doi:10.1016/j.urology.2009.11.042. PMID 20138656. 
  6. ^ Sathya Srini, Vasan; Belur Veerachari, Srinivas (2011). "Does Varicocelectomy Improve Gonadal Function in Men with Hypogonadism and Infertility? Analysis of a Prospective Study". International Journal of Endocrinology 2011: 1. doi:10.1155/2011/916380. 
  7. ^ Li, Fuping; Yue, Huanxun; Yamaguchi, Kohei; Okada, Keisuke; Matsushita, Kei; Ando, Makoto; Chiba, Koji; Fujisawa, Masato (2012). "Effect of surgical repair on testosterone production in infertile men with varicocele: A meta-analysis". International Journal of Urology 19 (2): 149–54. doi:10.1111/j.1442-2042.2011.02890.x. PMID 22059526. 
  8. ^ Hsiao, Wayland; Rosoff, James S.; Pale, Joseph R.; Powell, Jonathan L.; Goldstein, Marc (2013). "Varicocelectomy is Associated with Increases in Serum Testosterone Independent of Clinical Grade". Urology 81 (6): 1213–7. doi:10.1016/j.urology.2013.01.060. PMID 23561709. 
  9. ^ Tanrikut, Cigdem; Goldstein, Marc; Rosoff, James S.; Lee, Richard K.; Nelson, Christian J.; Mulhall, John P. (2011). "Varicocele as a risk factor for androgen deficiency and effect of repair". BJU International 108 (9): 1480–4. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2010.10030.x. PMID 21435152. 
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  11. ^ Luo, De-Yi; Yang, Gang; Liu, Jian-Jun; Yang, Yu-Ru; Dong, Qiang (2010). "Effects of varicocele on testosterone, apoptosis and expression of StAR mRNA in rat Leydig cells". Asian Journal of Andrology 13 (2): 287–91. doi:10.1038/aja.2010.111. PMC 3739182. PMID 21076439. 
  12. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1476052/
  13. ^ Rudloff, Udo; Holmes, Raymond J.; Prem, Jeffrey T.; Faust, Glenn R.; Moldwin, Robert; Siegel, David (2006). "Mesoaortic Compression of the Left Renal Vein (Nutcracker Syndrome): Case Reports and Review of the Literature". Annals of Vascular Surgery 20 (1): 120–9. doi:10.1007/s10016-005-5016-8. PMID 16374539. 
  14. ^ a b c Moore, Keith L.; Dalley, Arthur F. (2006). Clinically Oriented Anatomy (5th ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 228. 
  15. ^ Bucci, Stefano; Liguori, Giovanni; Amodeo, Antonio; Salamè, Leonardo; Trombetta, Carlo; Belgrano, Emanuele (2007). "Intratesticular varicocele: Evaluation using grey scale and color Doppler ultrasound". World Journal of Urology 26 (1): 87–9. doi:10.1007/s00345-007-0216-1. PMID 17962950. 
  16. ^ Charboneau, J. William; Rumack, Carol M; Wilson, Stephanie R. (1998). Diagnostic ultrasound. St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 0-8151-8683-5. [page needed]
  17. ^ Gat, Yigal; Bachar, Gil N; Zukerman, Zvi; Belenky, Alexander; Gornish, Michael (2004). "Varicocele: A bilateral disease". Fertility and Sterility 81 (2): 424–9. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2003.08.010. PMID 14967384. 
  18. ^ Gat, Y; Bachar, G; Zukerman, Z; Belenky, A; Gorenish, M (2004). "Physical Examination May Miss the Diagnosis of Bilateral Varicocele: A Comparative Study of 4 Diagnostic Modalities". The Journal of Urology 172 (4): 1414–7. doi:10.1097/01.ju.0000138540.57137.5f. PMID 15371858. 
  19. ^ Hsu, Geng-Long; Ling, Pei-Ying; Hsieh, Cheng-Hsing; Wang, Chii-Jye; Chen, Cheng-Wen; Wen, Hsien-Sheng; Huang, Hsiu-Mei; Einhorn, E. Ferdinand; Tseng, Guo-Fang (2005). "Outpatient varicocelectomy performed under local anesthesia". Asian Journal of Andrology 7 (4): 439–44. doi:10.1111/j.1745-7262.2005.00080.x. PMID 16281094. 
  20. ^ Pirion.co.il[full citation needed]
  21. ^ Costanza, M.; Policha, A.; Amankwah, K.; Gahtan, V. (2007). "Treatment of Bleeding Varicose Veins of the Scrotum with Percutaneous Coil Embolization of the Left Spermatic Vein: A Case Report". Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 41 (1): 73–6. doi:10.1177/1538574406296074. PMID 17277247. 
  22. ^ Sze, Daniel Y.; Kao, Jeffrey S.; Frisoli, Joan K.; McCallum, Stuart W.; Kennedy Wa, William A.; Razavi, Mahmood K. (2008). "Persistent and Recurrent Postsurgical Varicoceles: Venographic Anatomy and Treatment with N-butyl Cyanoacrylate Embolization". Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology 19 (4): 539–45. doi:10.1016/j.jvir.2007.11.009. PMID 18375298. 
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  24. ^ Söylemez, Haluk; Kiliç, Süleyman; Atar, Murat; Penbegül, Necmettin; Sancaktutar, Ahmet Ali; Bozkurt, Yaşar (2011). "Effects of micronised purified flavonoid fraction on pain, semen analysis and scrotal color Doppler parameters in patients with painful varicocele; results of a randomized placebo-controlled study". International Urology and Nephrology 44 (2): 401–8. doi:10.1007/s11255-011-0038-3. PMID 21805085. 
  25. ^ https://www.varicocelehealing.com/
  26. ^ a b Mackay, D. (2001). "Hemorrhoids and varicose veins: a review of treatment options". Altern Med Rev 6 (2): 126–140. PMID 11302778. 
  27. ^ https://www.varicocelehealing.com/info.html
  28. ^ Library, Cochrane. "Surgery or embolization for varicoceles in subfertile men". Retrieved 04/09/2014. 
  29. ^ Kroese, A. C. J.; De Lange, N. M.; Collins, J. A.; Evers, J. L. H. (2013). "Varicocele surgery, new evidence". Human Reproduction Update 19 (4): 317. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmt004. PMID 23515200. 
  30. ^ Baazeem, Abdulaziz; Belzile, Eric; Ciampi, Antonio; Dohle, Gert; Jarvi, Keith; Salonia, Andrea; Weidner, Wolfgang; Zini, Armand (2011). "Varicocele and Male Factor Infertility Treatment: A New Meta-analysis and Review of the Role of Varicocele Repair". European Urology 60 (4): 796–808. doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2011.06.018. PMID 21733620. 
  31. ^ Mordel, N; Mor-Yosef, S; Margalioth, EJ; Simon, A; Menashe, M; Berger, M; Schenker, JG (1990). "Spermatic vein ligation as treatment for male infertility. Justification by postoperative semen improvement and pregnancy rates". The Journal of reproductive medicine 35 (2): 123–7. PMID 2406437. 
  32. ^ Evers, Johannes LH; Collins, John A (2003). "Assessment of efficacy of varicocele repair for male subfertility: A systematic review". The Lancet 361 (9372): 1849. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13503-9. 
  33. ^ Evers, JLH; Collins, JA; Vandekerckhove, P (2001). "Surgery or embolisation for varicocele in subfertile men". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1): CD000479. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000479. PMID 11279693. 

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