The Varieties of Religious Experience
|Original title||The Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study in Human Nature, Being the Gifford Lectures on Natural Religion Delivered at Edinburgh in 1901–1902|
|Subject||Philosophy of religion|
|Publisher||Longmans, Green & Co.|
|LC Class||BR110.J3 1902a|
|Followed by||Pragmatism: A New Name for Some Old Ways of Thinking (1907)|
The Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study in Human Nature is a book by Harvard University psychologist and philosopher William James. It comprises his edited Gifford Lectures on natural theology, which were delivered at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland in 1901 and 1902.
The lectures concerned the nature of religion and the neglect of science in the academic study of religion, in James' view. Soon after its publication, the book entered the canon of psychology and philosophy and has remained in print for over a century.
Proposition of value versus existential judgment
James believed that the study of the origin of an object or an idea does not play a role in the study of its value. He asserted that existential judgment, or the scientific examination of an object's origin, is a separate matter from that object's value. As an example, he alluded to the Quaker religion and its founder, George Fox. Many of the scientists in James' audience immediately reject all aspects of the Quaker religion because evidence suggests that Fox was schizophrenic. Calling this rejection medical materialism, James insisted that the origin of Fox's notions about religion should not come into account when assessing the value of the Quaker religion. James proposed, somewhat sarcastically, that his audience's atheism was perhaps a dysfunction of the liver. Some believe science to be superior to religion because of religion's seemingly vain, unfounded, or perhaps insane origin. In his lectures, James asserted that these claims, while perhaps historically or epistemologically interesting, play no role in the separate question of religion's value.
Reality versus symbols of reality
The lectures discussed the distinction between symbolism and reality. Symbols, such as the word "steak" on a menu, do not embody the actuality of the objects they represent. The word "steak" on a menu merely points to some slab of meat in the back of the restaurant. In a similar way, James posits that all of science is fundamentally detached from reality since the tools of science are merely pointers to some actual objective realm. He criticized his audience for the scientific tendency to ignore the unseen aspects of life and the universe. As an example, he discussed the way the notion of a lemon causes salivation in the mouth of an individual; while there is no lemon, there is clearly a process occurring worthy of academic inquiry.
The August 1902 New York Times review of the first edition ends with the following:
Everywhere there is a frolic welcome to the eccentricities and extravagances of the religious life. Many will question whether its more sober exhibitions would not have been more fruitful of results, but the interest and fascination of the treatment are beyond dispute, and so, too, is the sympathy to which nothing human is indifferent.
A July 1963 Time review of an expanded edition published that year, ends with quotes about the book from Peirce and Santayana:
In making little allowance for the fact that people can also be converted to vicious creeds, he acquired admirers he would have deplored. Mussolini, for instance, hailed James as a preceptor who had showed him that "an action should be judged by its result rather than by its doctrinary basis." James... had no intention of giving comfort to latter-day totalitarians. He was simply impatient with his fellow academicians and their endless hairsplitting over matters that had no relation to life. A vibrant, generous person, he hoped to show that religious emotions, even those of the deranged, were crucial to human life. The great virtue of The Varieties, noted pragmatist philosopher Charles Peirce, is its "penetration into the hearts of people." Its great weakness, retorted George Santayana, is its "tendency to disintegrate the idea of truth, to recommend belief without reason and to encourage superstition."
- James, William (1987), Writings 1902–1910, Library of America, pp. 1–477, ISBN 978-0-940450-38-7.
- The Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study in Human Nature. Being the Gifford Lectures on Natural Religion Delivered at Edinburgh in 1901–1902 (paperbackLibrary of America, 2010, ISBN 978-1-59853-062-9), Classics, .
- The Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study in Human Nature. Oxford, 2012, Oxford World's Classics paperback: ISBN 978-0199691647.
- The Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study in Human Nature. Being the Gifford Lectures on Natural Religion Delivered at Edinburgh in 1901–1902, London & Bombay: Longmans, Green, & Co, 1902, retrieved September 9, 2010; Google books full view.
- The Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study in Human Nature, BiblioLife, 2009, retrieved September 9, 2010
- The Varieties of Religious Experience, New York: Cosimo Classics, 2007, ISBN 978-1-60206-728-8, retrieved September 9, 2010
- 2005, Elibron Classics (Adamant Media) paperback: ISBN 1-4021-9903-1
- 2002, Centenary Edition, Routledge hardcover: ISBN 0-415-27809-0
- 2002, Dover Publications, ISBN 0-486-42164-3
- 1999, Modern Library paperback: ISBN 0-679-64011-8
- 1997, Touchstone mass market paperback: ISBN 0-684-84297-1
- 1994, Modern Library hardcover: ISBN 0-679-60075-2
- 1994, Audio Scholar audio cassette: ISBN 1-879557-02-9
- 1982, Penguin Classics paperback: ISBN 0-14-039034-0
- The Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study in Human Nature. Being the Gifford Lectures on Natural Religion Delivered at Edinburgh in 1901–1902, Audible, 2011.
- "A Study of Man: The Varieties of Religious Experience". The New York Times. August 9, 1902. Retrieved 2010-05-20.
- Poole, Randall A (2003). "William James in the Moscow Psychological Society". In Grossman, Joan DeLaney; Rischin, Ruth. William James in Russian Culture. Lanham MD: Lexington Books. p. 143. ISBN 978-0739105269.
- "Books: The Waterspouts of God". Time. July 19, 1963. Retrieved 2010-05-20.
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- The Varieties of Religious Experience at Project Gutenberg
- The Varieties of Religious Experience (PDF), Pink monkey.
- On The Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study of Human Nature, Emory University, with links to four online editions and commentaries
- Tom Butler-Bowdon (2005), "Short commentary on The Varieties of Religious Experience", 50 Spiritual Classics: 50 Great Books of Inner Discovery, Enlightenment and Purpose (London & Boston: Nicholas Brealey)
- Internet Archive listings for "Varieties of Religious Experience"