Vasanta (Sanskrit: वसन्तः, Hindi: बसंत, Malayalam: വസന്തം, Punjabi: ਬਸਨ ﺑﺴﻨﺖ), also known as Basant, is the Indian season, ritu, which represents spring. The word comes from Vasanta Panchami (Sanskrit: वसन्त पञ्चमी), an Indian cultural and religious festival, which is celebrated annually on the first day of spring, the fifth day (Panchami) of the Hindu month Magh (January–February).
In Sanskrit, Vasanta means spring. Panchami is the fifth day of Shukla Paksha, the fortnight of the waxing moon in the Hindu month of Magh, (January - February). Vasanta Panchami, which marks the end of the winter and heralds in spring, is dedicated to goddess Saraswati. She is a goddess of water and of a river bearing her name. Her water originates in the Himalayas, flows southeast and meets the Ganges at Prayag near its confluence with the Yamuna (Triveni). Saraswati is also a goddess of speech and learning who blesses the world with vach (words), hymns, Sanskrit and the wealth of knowledge. It is auspcious for children to begin school and learn their first word on this day. In the ancient Indian texts, the Vedas, the prayer for Sarasvati depicts her as a pristine lady in a white dress embellished with white flowers and white pearls. She sits on a white lotus blooming in a wide stretch of water (neluhini). She holds a veena, a string instrument similar to a sitar. No animal is sacrifices and Indians have a vegetarian meal. Saraswati's prayer concludes,
- "Oh, Mother Sarasvati, remove the darkness (ignorance) of my mind and bless me with the eternal knowledge."
In India, Vasanta is not a national holiday. However, it is celebrated in North and Eastern India. Students participate in the decoration and preparation of their place of worship. A few weeks before the celebration, schools become active in organizing various annual competitions of music, debate, sports and other activities. Prizes are distributed on the day of Vasanta Panchami. Many schools organize cultural activities in the evening of the Saraswati Puja day when parents and other community members attend the functions to encourage the children.
In the Punjab and Haryana, the Vasanta Pachami is known as the Basant Panchami. In the towns and villages of North India, Vasanta Pachami is celebrated as the Basant Festival of kites. On Vasanta Pachami day, everyone rises early to bath, dress in yellow clothes, adorn their forehead with the yellow of tumeric (tilak) and worship the sun goddess, Mother Ganga, and the earth. Books, articles, musical instruments, tools for art such as earthen inkpots and bamboo quills, are placed in front of the goddess to receive her blessings. The ink is made from unboiled milk water, red colour powder and silver glitter called avro. Although it is auspicious for children to learn their first word on this day of celebration, everyone abstains from their usual reading and writing in deference to the goddess.
The colour yellow represents good fortune, spirituality, the ripening of the spring crops and the recent harvest. Food is coloured with saffron. The goddess Saraswati is dressed in yellow. In some traditional homes, sweetmeats of yellowish hues, such as kesar halva are offered to relatives and friends. Yellow flowers are used in abundance to decorate the places of worship. The yellow flowers of the mustard crop covers the field in such a way that it seems as if gold is spread over the land, glittering in the rays of the sun. Fields of mustard present a colourful sight all over rural Punjab. The phrase Ayi Basant Pala Udant, meaning, "with the onset of spring, winter bids adieu" is used.
The Sufis introduced the festival to the Muslim community in India. By the Mughal period, Basant was a popular festival at major Sufi shrines. There are, for example, historical records of Nizam Auliya ki Basant, Khwaja Bakhtiar Kaki ki Basant, Khusrau ki Basant; festivals arranged around the shrines of these various Sufi saints. Amir Khusro (1253-1325) and Nizamuddin Auliya celebrated the festival with songs that used the word basant (festival). Khusrau, a Sufi-poet of the thirteenth century, composed verses about Vasanta:
Aaj basant manaalay, suhaagan, Aaj basant manaalay Anjan manjan kar piya mori, lambay neher lagaalay Tu kya sovay neend ki maasi, So jaagay teray bhaag, suhaagun, Aaj basant manaalay. Oonchi naar kay oonchay chitvan, Ayso diyo hai banaaye Shah Amir tuhay dekhan ko, nainon say naina milaaye, Suhaagun, aaj basant manaalay.
Celebrate basant today, O bride, Celebrate Basant today Apply kajal to your eyes, and decorate your long hair Oh why are you the servant of sleep? Even your fate is wide awake, Celebrate Basant today, O high lady with high looks, That is how you were made, When the king looks at you, your eyes meet his eyes, O Bride, Celebrate Basant today.
Besant mela, Lahore
Kalu Ram was a wealthy Hindu resident of Lahore. He began the Basant mela (fair) in Lahore in Marrhi, Kot Khwaja Saeed, Khoje Shahi, now, Baway di marrhi.[clarification needed] It was dedicated to the memory of Haqiqat Rai, a Hindu boy from Sialkot. Rai was accused of insulting Muhammad and Fatima by teasing Muslim boys. Despite protests and pleas of the Hindu population, the boy was executed by Zakariya Khan (1707–1759), the Muslim governor of Punjab.
Controversy about the celebration of Vasanta in Pakistan is due to its Hindu origin in a now Islamic republic and due to concerns about its safety. Safety concerns include the use of metal or glass coated kite strings (a slurry of fine glass shards which allowed one flyer to cut another's kite loose), power breakdowns due to damage from kites, overcrowding and the use of firearms. In small villages, disadvantaged children were trying to pull down kites. In 2005, kite flying was banned in Pakistan. In 2009, nine people in Pakistan died in kite flying related incidents. In January 2014, the Basant festival was allowed and kite flying event were organised.
- Arman A. U. K. Urs Aur Melay Kitab Manzil, Lahore 1959.
- "Hindu festivals." Hindu kids website
- "Basant Pachami." India site website.
- "Punjab fairs." Web India 123.
- "Basant muse colours itself in diverse hues." The Times of India 20 January 2010.
- Blum S. and Neuman D. M. "Ethnomusicology and modern music history." University of Illinois Press 1993.
- "Basant." Daily Times 15 March 2009.
- "Pakistan's Basant festival." Things Asian photoessay.
- Nijjar B. S. Punjab under the later Mughals. Patyala p279.
- "Pakistan province kite flying ban." BBC South Asia.
-  The News. 13 March 2009.
- "Kite ban sparks violent protests." CNN 9 December 2005.
- "Kites of blasphemy: an Islamic perspective on Basant." Albalagh blog.
- "Government praised for reviving cultural activities in province." Daily Times Punjab. 2 January 2014.