|Vasili Mikhailovich Blokhin
Russian: Василий Михайлович Блохин
|Vasili Blokhin's official photo|
|Chief Executioner and Commander
|Born||7 January 1895
Vladimir Governorate, Russian Empire
|Died||3 February 1955
Moscow, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
|Political party||Communist Party of the Soviet Union|
Vasili Mikhailovich Blokhin (January 7, 1895 – February 3, 1955) was a Soviet Major-General who served as the chief executioner of the Stalinist NKVD under the administrations of Genrikh Yagoda, Nikolai Yezhov and Lavrentiy Beria (after their respective falls from power, Yagoda and Yezhov were executed by Blokhin himself). Hand-picked for the position by Joseph Stalin in 1926, Blokhin led a company of executioners that performed and supervised numerous mass executions during Stalin's reign, mostly during the Great Purge and World War II. He is recorded as having executed tens of thousands of prisoners by his own hand, including his killing of about 7,000 Polish prisoners of war during the Katyn massacre in spring 1940, making him the most prolific official executioner in recorded world history. Forced into a retirement following the death of Stalin, Blokhin died in 1955, officially by suicide.
Early life and career
Blokhin, born into a peasant family on January 7, 1895, served in the Tsarist army during World War I, and joined the Soviet state security agency Cheka in March 1921. Though records are scant, he was evidently noted for both his pugnaciousness and his mastery of what Joseph Stalin termed chernaya rabota—"black work": assassinations, torture, intimidation, and executions conducted clandestinely. Once he gained Stalin's attention, he was quickly promoted and within six years was appointed the head of the purposely created Kommandatura Branch of the Administrative Executive Department of the NKVD. This branch was a company-sized element created by Stalin specifically for "black work". Headquartered at the Lubyanka in Moscow, its members were all approved by Stalin and took their orders directly from his hand, a fact that ensured the unit's longevity despite three bloody purges of the NKVD.
As senior executioner, Blokhin had the official title of commandant of the internal prison at the Lubyanka, which allowed him to perform his true job with a minimum of scrutiny and no official paperwork. Although most of the estimated 828,000 NKVD executions conducted in Stalin's lifetime were performed by local Chekists in concert with NKVD troikas, mass executions were overseen by specialist executioners from the Kommandantura. In addition to overseeing the mass operations, Blokhin also personally pulled the trigger of the gun during all of the individual high-profile executions conducted in the Soviet Union during his tenure, including those of the Old Bolsheviks condemned at the Moscow Show Trials; Marshal of the Soviet Union Mikhail Tukhachevsky (condemned at a secret trial); and two of the three fallen NKVD Chiefs (Genrikh Yagoda in 1938 and Nikolai Yezhov in 1940) he had once served under. He was awarded the Badge of Honor for his service in 1937.
Role in the Katyn massacre
Blokhin's most infamous act was the April 1940 execution by shooting of over 7,000 Polish prisoners interned in the Ostashkov prisoner of war camp—mostly military—and police officers who had been captured following the Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939—as part of the extended Katyn massacre. (The event's infamy also stems from the Stalin regime's orchestration of the murders and subsequent propaganda campaign in order to blame Nazi Germany for the massacres.) In 1990 as part of Glasnost, Gorbachev gave the Polish government the files on the massacres at Katyn, Starobelsk and Kalinin (now Tver), revealing Stalin's involvement. Based on the April 4 secret order from Stalin to NKVD Chief Lavrentiy Beria (as well as NKVD Order № 00485, which still applied), the executions were carried out over 28 consecutive nights at the specially-constructed basement execution chamber at the NKVD headquarters in Kalinin, and were assigned, by name, directly to Blokhin, making him the official executioner of the NKVD.
Blokhin initially decided on an ambitious quota of 300 executions per night; and engineered an efficient system in which the prisoners were individually led to a small antechamber—which had been painted red and was known as the "Leninist room"—for a brief and cursory positive identification, before being handcuffed and led into the execution room next door. The room was specially designed with padded walls for soundproofing, a sloping concrete floor with a drain and hose, and a log wall for the prisoners to stand against. Blokhin would stand waiting behind the door in his executioner garb: a leather butcher's apron, leather hat, and shoulder-length leather gloves. Then, without a hearing, the reading of a sentence or any other formalities, each prisoner was brought in and restrained by guards while Blokhin shot him once in the base of the skull with a German Walther Model 2 .25 ACP pistol. He had brought a briefcase full of his own Walther pistols, since he did not trust the reliability of the standard-issue Soviet TT-30 for the frequent, heavy use he intended. The use of a German pocket pistol, which was commonly carried by German police and intelligence agents, also provided plausible deniability of the executions if the bodies were discovered later.
An estimated 30 local NKVD agents, guards and drivers were pressed into service to escort prisoners to the basement, confirm identification, then remove the bodies and hose down the blood after each execution. Although some of the executions were carried out by Senior Lieutenant of State Security Andrei M. Rubanov, Blokhin was the primary executioner and, true to his reputation, liked to work continuously and rapidly without interruption. In keeping with NKVD policy and the overall "black" nature of the operation, the executions were conducted at night, starting at dark and continuing until just prior to dawn. The bodies were continuously loaded onto covered flat-bed trucks through a back door in the execution chamber and trucked, twice a night, to Mednoye, where Blokhin had arranged for a bulldozer and two NKVD drivers to dispose of bodies at an unfenced site. Each night, 24–25 trenches, measuring eight to ten meters (24.3 to 32.8 feet) total, were dug to hold the night's corpses, and each trench was covered up before dawn.
Blokhin and his team worked without pause for ten hours each night, with Blokhin executing an average of one prisoner every three minutes. At the end of the night, Blokhin provided vodka to all his men. On April 27, 1940, Blokhin secretly received the Order of the Red Banner and a modest monthly pay premium as a reward from Joseph Stalin for his "skill and organization in the effective carrying out of special tasks". His count of 7,000 shot in 28 days remains the most organized and protracted mass murder by a single individual on record; and saw him being named the Guinness World Record holder for 'Most Prolific Executioner' in 2010.
Retirement and death
Blokhin was forcibly retired in 1953 following Stalin's death that March, although his "irreproachable service" was publicly noted by Lavrenty Beria at the time of his departure. After Beria's fall from power in June of the same year, Blokhin's rank was stripped from him in the de-Stalinization campaigns of Nikita Khrushchev. He reportedly sank into alcoholism, went insane, and died February 3, 1955, with the official cause of death listed as "suicide".
Honours and awards
- This article incorporates information from the Russian Wikipedia.
- Honorary Worker of the Cheka-GPU (V) № 498
- Honorary Worker of the Cheka-GPU (XV) (1932)
- Order of the Red Star (1936)
- Order of the Badge of Honour (1937)
- Order of the Red Banner, twice (1940, 1944)
- Order of the Red Banner of Labour (1943)
- Order of Lenin (1945)
- Order of the Patriotic War, 1st class (1945)
- Glenday, Craig (2010). Guinness World Records 2010. Random House Digital. ISBN 0-553-59337-4.
- Montefiore, Simon Sebag (2005). Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar. New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 978-1-4000-7678-9.
- Parrish, Michael (1996). The Lesser Terror: Soviet state security, 1939–1953. Westport, CT: Praeger Press. ISBN 0-275-95113-8.
- Rayfield, Donald (2005). Stalin and His Hangmen: The tyrant and those who killed for him. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-375-75771-6.
- Remnick, David (1994). Lenin's Tomb. New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 0-679-75125-4.
- Sanford, George (2005). Katyn and the Soviet Massacre of 1940: Truth, Justice and Memory. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-33873-5.
- Brackman, Roman (2003). The Secret File of Joseph Stalin: A Hidden Life. Routledge. p. 287. ISBN 0-7146-8402-3.
- Cummins, Joseph (2009). The World's Bloodiest History: Massacre, Genocide, and the Scars They Left on Civilization. Fair Winds. pp. 176–7. ISBN 1-59233-402-4.
- Edwards, Robert. "Vasili Blokhin". Find A Grave. Retrieved on 2011-02-08.
- Parrish 1996, p. 324.
- Montefiore 2005, pp. 197–8, 332–4.
- Glenday, pp. 284–5.
- Montefiore 2005, p. 198
- Montefiore 2005, p. 325
- Rayfield 2005, p. 324.
- Rayfield 2005, p. 338.
- Parrish 1996, pp. 324–5.
- Remnick 1994, pp. 5–7
- David Remnick (1994). Lenin's Tomb: The Last Days of the Soviet Empire. Random House Digital, Inc. pp. 5–. ISBN 978-0-679-75125-0. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
- Sanford 2005, p. 112.
- Remnick 1994, p. 5.
- Sanford 2005, p. 102.
- Roman Brackman (1 May 2003). The Secret File of Joseph Stalin: A Hidden Life. Taylor & Francis. pp. 287–. ISBN 978-0-7146-8402-4. Retrieved 29 April 2012.
- Rayfield 2005, p. 488.
- George Sanford (21 October 2005). Katyn And The Soviet Massacre Of 1940: Truth, Justice And Memory. Psychology Press. pp. 103–. ISBN 978-0-415-33873-8. Retrieved 29 April 2012.
- Remnick 1994, p. 6.
- Michael Parrish (1996). The Lesser Terror: Soviet State Security, 1939-1953. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 57–. ISBN 978-0-275-95113-9. Retrieved 29 April 2012.
- Sanford 2005, p. 113.
- Simon Sebag Montefiore (13 September 2005). Stalin: The Court Of The Red Tsar. Random House Digital, Inc. pp. 198–. ISBN 978-1-4000-7678-9. Retrieved 29 April 2012.