Vavuniya District

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Vavuniya District
வவுனியா மாவட்டம்
වවුනියා දිස්ත්‍රික්කය
Administrative District
Vavuniya
Vavuniya
Location within Sri Lanka
Location within Sri Lanka
DS and GN Divisions of Vavuniya District, 2006
DS and GN Divisions of Vavuniya District, 2006
Coordinates: 08°50′N 80°30′E / 8.833°N 80.500°E / 8.833; 80.500Coordinates: 08°50′N 80°30′E / 8.833°N 80.500°E / 8.833; 80.500
Country Sri Lanka
Province Northern
Capital Vavuniya
DS Division
Government
 • District Secretary M. K. Bandula Harischandra
 • MPs
 • MPCs
Area[1]
 • Total 1,967 km2 (759 sq mi)
 • Land 1,861 km2 (719 sq mi)
 • Water 106 km2 (41 sq mi)  5.39%
Area rank 15th (3.00% of total area)
Population (2012 census)[2]
 • Total 171,511
 • Rank 22nd (0.85% of total pop.)
 • Density 87/km2 (230/sq mi)
Ethnicity(2012 census)[2]
 • Sri Lankan Tamil 141,269 (82.37%)
 • Sinhalese 17,191 (10.02%)
 • Sri Lankan Moors 11,700 (6.82%)
 • Indian Tamil 1,292 (0.75%)
 • Other 59 (0.03%)
Religion(2012 census)[3]
 • Hindu 119,286 (69.55%)
 • Christian 22,820 (13.31%)
 • Buddhist 16,688 (9.73%)
 • Muslim 12,341 (7.20%)
 • Other 376 (0.22%)
Time zone Sri Lanka (UTC+05:30)
Post Codes 43000-43999
Telephone Codes 024
ISO 3166 code LK-44
Vehicle registration NP
Official Languages Tamil, Sinhala
Website Vavuniya District Secretariat

Vavuniya District (Tamil: வவுனியா மாவட்டம் Vavuṉiyā Māvaṭṭam; Sinhala: වවුනියා දිස්ත්‍රික්කය) is one of the 25 districts of Sri Lanka, the second level administrative division of the country. The district is administered by a District Secretariat headed by a District Secretary (previously known as a Government Agent) appointed by the central government of Sri Lanka. The capital of the district is the city of Vavuniya.

History[edit]

Between 5th century BC and 13th century AD present day Vavuniya District was part of Rajarata. Vavuniya District was thereafter ruled by Vanniar Chieftains who paid tribute to the pre-colonial Jaffna kingdom.[4] The district then came under Portuguese, Dutch and British control. In 1815 the British gained control of the entire island of Ceylon. They divided the island into three ethnic based administrative structures: Low Country Sinhalese, Kandyan Sinhalese and Tamil. The district, which was then called Vanni District, was part of the Tamil administration. In 1833, in accordance with the recommendations of the Colebrooke-Cameron Commission, the ethnic based administrative structures were unified into a single administration divided into five geographic provinces.[5] Vanni District, together with Jaffna District and Mannar District, formed the new Northern Province.[6]

Vanni District was later renamed Mullaitivu District and then Vavuniya District. At the time that Ceylon gained independence, Vavuniya was one of the three districts located in the Northern Province. Mullaitivu District was carved out of the northern part of Vavuniya District in September 1978.

Parts of Vavuniya District were under the control of rebel Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam for many years during the civil war. The entire district was recaptured by the Sri Lankan military in 2008.

Geography[edit]

Vavuniya District is located in the north of Sri Lanka in the Northern Province. It has an area of 1,967 square kilometres (759 sq mi).[1]

Administrative units[edit]

Vavuniya District is divided into 4 Divisional Secretary's Division (DS Divisions), each headed by a Divisional Secretary (previously known as an Assistant Government Agent).[7] The DS Divisions are further sub-divided into 102 Grama Niladhari Divisions (GN Divisions).[7]

DS Division Main Town Divisional Secretary GN
Divisions
[7]
Area
(km2)
[8]
Population (2012 Census)[9] Population
Density
(/km2)
Sri Lankan
Tamil
Sinhalese Sri Lankan Moors Indian
Tamil
Other Total
Vavuniya Vavuniya K. Uthayarajah 42 614 107,668 3,424 4,868 1,167 26 117,153 191
Vavuniya North Nedunkeni K. Paranthaman 20 745 10,830 554 7 103 24 11,518 15
Vavuniya South M. S. Janaka 20 200 518 12,546 3 2 1 13,070 65
Venkalacheddikulam Cheddikulam N. Kamalathasan 20 408 22,253 667 6,822 20 8 29,770 73
Total 102 1,967 141,269 17,191 11,700 1,292 59 171,511 87

Demographics[edit]

Population[edit]

Vavuniya District's population was 171,511 in 2012.[2] The population of the district is mostly Sri Lankan Tamil.

The population of the district, like the rest of the north and east of Sri Lanka, has been heavily affected by the civil war. The war killed an estimated 100,000 people.[10] Several hundred thousand Sri Lankan Tamils, possibly as much as one million, emigrated to the West during the war.[11] Many Sri Lankan Tamils also moved to the relative safety of the capital Colombo. Most of the Sri Lankan Moors and Sinhalese who lived in the district fled to other parts of Sri Lanka or were forcibly expelled by the rebel Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, though most of them have returned to the district since the end of the civil war.

Ethnicity[edit]

Population of Vavuniya District by ethnic group 1881 to 2012[2][12][13]
Year Tamil[a] Sinhalese Muslim[b] Other Total
No.
No. % No. % No. % No. %
1881 Census 13,164 84.55% 1,157 7.43% 1,133 7.28% 115 0.74% 15,569
1891 Census 13,030 84.06% 1,199 7.73% 1,139 7.35% 133 0.86% 15,501
1901 Census 12,726 83.95% 1,128 7.44% 1,069 7.05% 236 1.56% 15,159
1911 Census 14,059 81.10% 1,848 10.66% 1,241 7.16% 188 1.08% 17,336
1921 Census 14,978 80.07% 2,215 11.84% 1,345 7.19% 168 0.90% 18,706
1946 Census 17,071 73.44% 3,870 16.65% 2,153 9.26% 152 0.65% 23,246
1963 Census 51,410 75.05% 12,020 17.55% 4,900 7.15% 170 0.25% 68,500
1971 Census 73,010 76.42% 15,541 16.27% 6,665 6.98% 320 0.33% 95,536
1981 Census 73,133 76.26% 15,876 16.55% 6,640 6.92% 255 0.27% 95,904
1990 Estimate n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 129,895
1998 Estimate n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 129,655
1999 Estimate n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 132,737
2000 Estimate n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 145,159
2001 Estimate[c] 123,268 88.64% 12,159 8.45% 8,471 5.89% 42 0.03% 143,940
2002 Estimate 121,635 84.34% 13,196 9.15% 9,389 6.51% 0 0.00% 144,220
2003 Estimate 123,704 83.99% 14,386 9.77% 9,192 6.24% 0 0.00% 147,292
2004 Estimate 127,604 84.43% 14,699 9.73% 8,839 5.85% 0 0.00% 151,142
2005 Estimate n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 180,949
2006 Estimate n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 182,808
2007 Estimate 157,917 86.27% 13,535 7.39% 11,594 6.33% 0 0.00% 183,046
2008 Estimate 152,927 86.67% 13,423 7.61% 10,090 5.72% 0 0.00% 176,440
2009 Estimate 179,850 86.93% 16,177 7.82% 10,858 5.25% 0 0.00% 206,885
2011 Enumeration 136,665 82.90% 16,555 10.04% 11,491 6.97% 141 0.09% 164,852
2012 Census 142,561 83.12% 17,191 10.02% 11,700 6.82% 59 0.03% 171,511

Religion[edit]

Population of Vavuniya District by religion 1981 to 2012[3][14]
Year Hindu Christian[d] Buddhist Muslim Others Total
No.
No. % No. % No. % No. % No. %
1981 Census 65,574 68.72% 7,338 7.69% 15,754 16.51% 6,740 7.06% 22 0.02% 95,428
2012 Census 119,286 69.55% 22,820 13.31% 16,688 9.73% 12,341 7.20% 376 0.22% 171,511

Politics and government[edit]

Local government[edit]

DS Divisions of Vavuniya District, 2006

Vavuniya District has 5 local authorities of which one is an Urban Council and the remaining 4 are Divisional Councils (Pradesha Sabhai or Pradeshiya Sabha).[7]

Local Authority Area
(km2)
[7]
Population
(2011)
[13]
Registered
Electors
(2011)[e]
Elected Members
(2011)[f]
TNA[g] UPFA UNP SLMC Other Total
Vavuniya North Divisional Council 769.60 10,392 10,955 8 4 1 0 0 13
Vavuniya South Sinhala Divisional Council 188.50 12,382 9,633 0 7 1 0 1 9
Vavuniya South Tamil Divisional Council 588.20 76,242 48,477 7 2 1 0 0 10
Vavuniya Urban Council 23.50 31,699 24,626 8 2 0 1 0 11
Venkalacheddikulam Divisional Council 412.98 30,609 18,925 5 2 0 2 0 9
Total 1,982.78 161,324 28 17 3 3 1 52

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Sri Lankan Tamil and Indian Tamil.
  2. ^ Sri Lankan Moors and Indian Moors.
  3. ^ 2001 Census was not carried out in Vavuniya District.
  4. ^ Roman Catholic and Other Christian.
  5. ^ 2009 for Vavuniya Urban Council.
  6. ^ 2009 for Vavuniya Urban Council.
  7. ^ Includes DPLF.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Area of Sri Lanka by province and district". Statistical Abstract 2011. Department of Census & Statistics, Sri Lanka. 
  2. ^ a b c d "A2 : Population by ethnic group according to districts, 2012". Census of Population & Housing, 2011. Department of Census & Statistics, Sri Lanka. 
  3. ^ a b "A3 : Population by religion according to districts, 2012". Census of Population & Housing, 2011. Department of Census & Statistics, Sri Lanka. 
  4. ^ de Silva, K. M. (1981). A History of Sri Lanka. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. pp. xvii. 
  5. ^ Mills, Lennox A. (1933). Ceylon Under British Rule (1795 - 1932). London: Oxford University Press. pp. 67–68. 
  6. ^ Medis, G. C. (1946). Ceylon Under the British (2nd (revised) ed.). Colombo: The Colombo Apothecaries Co. pp. 39–40. 
  7. ^ a b c d e "Statistical Information 2012". Northern Provincial Council. 
  8. ^ "Land area by province, district and divisional secretariat division". Statistical Abstract 2011. Department of Census & Statistics, Sri Lanka. 
  9. ^ "A6 : Population by ethnicity and district according to Divisional Secretary's Division, 2012". Census of Population & Housing, 2011. Department of Census & Statistics, Sri Lanka. 
  10. ^ "Up to 100,000 killed in Sri Lanka's civil war: UN". ABC News (Australia). 20 May 2009. 
  11. ^ Harrison, Frances (23 July 2003). "Twenty years on - riots that led to war". BBC News. 
  12. ^ "Statistical Information 2010". Northern Provincial Council. 
  13. ^ a b "Enumeration of Vital Events 2011 - Northern Province". Department of Census & Statistics, Sri Lanka. 
  14. ^ "Population by religion and district, Census 1981, 2001". Statistical Abstract 2011. Department of Census & Statistics, Sri Lanka. 

External links[edit]