Vega (rocket)

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Vega
Vega VV02 ready for liftoff.jpg
Vega VV02 rocket on the ELV pad
Function Small orbital launch vehicle
Manufacturer Avio for ASI and ESA
Country of origin Italy, Europe
Size
Height 30 m (98 ft)
Diameter 3 m (9.8 ft)
Mass 137,000 kg (302,000 lb)
Stages 4
Capacity
Payload to LEO 1,500 kg (3,300 lb)
Launch history
Status Active
Launch sites ZLV (ELA-1), Centre Spatial Guyanais
Total launches 3
Successes 3
Failures 0
Partial failures 0
First flight 13 February 2012 (2012-02-13)[1]
First stage
Engines 1 P80
Thrust 3040 kN
Burn time 109.8 seconds
Fuel Solid
Second stage
Engines 1 Zefiro 23
Thrust 1200 kN
Burn time 77.7 seconds
Fuel Solid
Third stage
Engines 1 Zefiro 9
Thrust 213 kN
Burn time 117 seconds
Fuel Solid
Fourth stage
Engines 1 RD-869
Thrust 2.45 kN
Burn time 315.2 seconds
Fuel UDMH/N2O4

Vega (Vettore Europeo di Generazione Avanzata,[2] Advanced Generation European Carrier Rocket) is an expendable launch system in use by Arianespace jointly developed by the Italian Space Agency and the European Space Agency. Development began in 1998 and the first launch took place from the Guiana Space Centre on 13 February 2012.[3] Arianespace has ordered launchers covering the period till at least the end of 2018.[4]

It is designed to launch small payloads — 300 to 2,500 kg satellites for scientific and Earth observation missions to polar and low Earth orbits.[5] The reference Vega mission is a polar orbit bringing a spacecraft of 1,500 kilograms to an altitude of 700 kilometers.

Vega, named after the brightest star in the constellation Lyra,[6] is a single-body launcher (no strap-on boosters) with three solid rocket stages, the P80 first stage, the Zefiro 23 second stage, the Zefiro 9 third stage, and a liquid rocket upper module called AVUM. The technology developed for the P80 program will also be used for future Ariane developments. Italy is the leading contributor to the Vega program (65%), followed by France (13%).[7] Other participants include Spain, Belgium, The Netherlands, Switzerland and Sweden.[8]

Payload capacity[edit]

Arianespace indicates a Vega launcher is able to carry 1,500 kilograms (3,300 lb) to a circular polar orbit at an altitude of 700 kilometres (430 mi).[9]

Arianespace is marketing Vega as a launch system tailored for missions to polar and sun-synchronous orbits.[10] In its qualification flight VEGA put its main payload of 386.8 kg, the LARES satellite, into a circular orbit at the altitude of 1450 km with an inclination of 69.5 degrees.[11]

Specifications[edit]

Stages[edit]

[12][13] P80 Zefiro 23 Zefiro 9 AVUM
Height 11.7 m (38 ft) 7.5 m (25 ft) 3.5 m (11 ft) 1.7 m (5.6 ft)
Diameter 3 m (9.8 ft) 1.9 m (6.2 ft) 1.9 m (6.2 ft) 2.31 m (7.6 ft)
Propellant mass 88 t 24 t 10.5 t 0.55 t
Motor dry mass 7,330 kg (16,160 lb) 1,950 kg (4,300 lb) 915 kg (2,017 lb) 131 kg (289 lb)
Motor case mass 3,260 kg (7,190 lb) 900 kg (2,000 lb) 400 kg (880 lb) 16 kg (35 lb)
Average thrust 2,200 kN (490,000 lbf) 871 kN (196,000 lbf) 260 kN (58,000 lbf) 2.42 kN (540 lbf)
Burn time 110 s 77 s 120 s 6672 s
Specific impulse 280 s 287.5 s 296 s 315.5 s

Payload Fairing[edit]

Vega's payload fairing is designed and manufactured by RUAG Space of Switzerland. It has a diameter of 2.6 meters, a height of 7.8 meters and a mass of 400 kg.

Three solid motor stages[edit]

The first three stages are solid propellant engines produced by Avio, that is Prime Contractor for the Vega launcher through its company ELV.[14]

Each of the three engine types intended for the three stages of the Vega had to be commissioned with two test-firings - one for design evaluation and one in the final flight configuration.[15][16]

Zefiro 9[edit]

The first engine completed was Zefiro 9, the third stage engine. The first test firing was carried out on 20 December 2005, at the Salto di Quirra Inter-force Test Range, on the Mediterranean coast in southeast Sardinia. The test was a complete success.[17]

After a critical design review based on the completed first test firings,[18] the second test-firing of the Zefiro 9 took place at Salto di Quirra on 28 March 2007. After 35 seconds, there was a sudden drop in the motor's internal pressure, leading to an increased combustion time.[19] No public information is available for this sudden drop of internal pressure, and what if any flaws were present in the motor's design.

On 23 October 2008 an enhanced version of the Zefiro 9 with a modified nozzle design, the Zefiro 9-A, was successfully tested.[20]

On 28 April 2009, the final qualification test firing of Zefiro 9-A took place at the Salto di Quirra Interforce Test Range in Sardinia, Italy.[21]

Zefiro 23[edit]

The development of the Zefiro motor was initiated by Avio, partially funded by the company and partially funded by a contract from the Italian Space Agency. A Zefiro 23 forms the second stage of Vega. Its carbon-epoxy case is filament-wound and its carbon phenolic nozzle includes a carbon-carbon throat insert. The propellant loading is 23 tons.[22]

The Zefiro 23 second stage engine was first fired on 26 June 2006 at Salto di Quirra. This test was successful.[23]

The second test firing of the Zefiro 23 second stage engine took place on 27 March 2008 also at Salto di Quirra. This successful test qualified the rocket engine.[24]

P80[edit]

The P80 is the first stage of VEGA, its name is derived from the design phase propellant weight of 80 tons that was later increased to 88 tons. The P80 includes a Thrust Vector Control (TVC) system(developed and made in Belgium) consisting of two electromechanical actuators that operate a movable nozzle with flexible joint using lithium ion batteries.[22] The 3 m diameter case is composed of graphite epoxy filament wound case and low density rubber is used for the internal insulation. The nozzle is made of light low-cost carbon phenolic material; a consumable casing are used for the igniter. The solid propellant loaded has low binder content and high aluminium percentage (HTPB 1912).[25]

The first test firing of the P80 engine took place on 30 November 2006 in Kourou, and the test was concluded successfully.[26]

The second test firing of the P80 first stage engine took place on 4 December 2007 in Kourou. Delivering a mean thrust of 190 tonnes over 111 seconds, the engine's behaviour was in line with predictions.[27]

Future versions of the stage would increase the propellant mass to 100 tons (P100) and 120 tons (P120).[28]

AVUM[edit]

The AVUM (Attitude Vernier Upper Module) upper stage, developed by Avio, has been designed to place the payload in the required orbit and to perform roll and attitude control functions. The AVUM consists of two modules: APM (AVUM Propulsion Module) and AAM (Avum Avionics Module).[29] The propulsion module uses a RD-869 rocket engine liquid-fuel rocket burning pressure-fed UDMH and nitrogen tetroxide as propellants, built by Yuzhnoye Design Bureau.[8][30] The AVUM avionics module contains the main components of the avionics sub-system of the vehicle.[31]

Flights[edit]

Lead-up to first launch[edit]

Enrico Saggese, at that time head of the Italian Space Agency, suggested in October 2008 that the first flight of VEGA might be delayed, stating "We have to decide if we want to wait until we have another programme", and referring to plans to have German participation to develop new third and fourth stages.[32]

In 2009 the first launch of the system was anticipated to take place in November 2010;[33][34] later press suggested that the launch would slip to early 2012, until ESA publicized the launch for "end of January 2012".[35]

Vega launches[edit]

The maiden flight occurred on 13 February 2012.[36]

No. Date/Time
(UTC)
Type Serial-no. Startplace Payload Type of payload Orbit Outcome Remarks
1 2012-02-13
10:00:00
Vega VV01 ELV LARES / ALMASat 1 / e-st@r / Goliat / MaSat-1 /
PW-Sat / ROBUSTA / UniCubeSat-GG / XaTcobeo
Geodetic and nanosatellites LEO Success First Vega launch
2 2013-05-07
02:06:31
VERTA VV02 ELV Proba-V / VNREDSat 1A / ESTCube-1 Earth observation satellite SSO Success First commercial launch[37]
3 2014-04-30
01:35:15
VERTA VV03 ELV KazEOSat-1[38] Earth observation satellite SSO Success
4 2014-11[39] VERTA ELV IXV[40] Reentry technology demonstration Suborbital
2015[41] VERTA ELV ADM-Aeolus Weather satellite SSO
2Q 2015[42][43] Vega ELV Sentinel 2A[44][45] Earth observation satellite SSO
2016-17[46] Vega ELV Sentinel 3B[44] Earth observation satellite SSO
2015 VERTA ELV LISA Pathfinder[40] Technology demonstrator Halo orbit Earth-Sun L1
2015[47] ELV Göktürk-1 Earth observation satellite SSO
2016 Vega ELV OPTSAT 3000 / VENµS[48] IMINT / Earth observation satellite SSO
2017[49] VERTA ELV PRISMA[50] Earth observation satellite SSO
2017[51] ELV TARANIS Earth observation satellite SSO

Planned future launches[edit]

Having successfully completed the maiden qualification flight, and waiting the outcome of the second flight, ESA has plans for four more flights in its VERTA (Vega Research and Technology Accompaniment) programme. The VERTA flights will carry several ESA missions such as Proba-V, ADM-Aeolus, LISA Pathfinder and the Intermediate Experimental Vehicle (IXV).[52] The launch of LISA Pathfinder is now planned for 2015 but some source identifies it as the payload of the VEGA third flight.[53][54]

In a meeting held on 14 December 2011 in Evry, France, representatives from Arianespace and the European Space Agency (ESA) signed a contract that binds the company to launch the Sentinel-2B and Sentinel-3B satellites aboard a Vega rocket.[55] Later, the launch of Sentinel-2A, replaced the initially planned Sentinel-2B.

Arianespace announced on 20 June 2012 that Kazakhstan’s KazEOSat 2 optical Earth observation satellite will be the first commercial satellite launched aboard Vega.[38]

The Italian Aerospace Research Centre plans to launch its "FTB-X" test vehicle [56] on a Vega launcher in the future although there are no updates in the project since 2012.[57]

In November 2013, Arianespace ordered from ELV 10 Vega launchers, with the first to be ready for launch starting at the end of 2015. These are intended to cover more than three years of operations.[4]

Costs[edit]

Developments costs for the Vega rocket were €710 million, with ESA spending an additional €400 million to sponsor five development flights between 2012 and 2014.[58] Commercial launch costs have been estimated at €32 million with an assumed launch rate of 2 per year, a price set to compete with converted Russian ballistic missiles (around €12 million) and launchers from emerging economies, such as India's PSLV system that costs about €15 million.[59]

Future developments[edit]

There was a concept study for a new medium-size launcher based on Vega and Ariane 5 elements. This launcher would use an Ariane 5 P230 first stage, a Vega P80 second stage and an Ariane 5 third stage using either storable or cryogenic fuel.[22] The addition of Soyuz to the Arianespace launch vehicle lineup removed momentum from this initiative.[citation needed]

The future upgraded Vega (LYRA program) has exceeded the feasibility study and is planned to have new third and fourth low cost LOX/HC stages and a new guidance system. The purpose of the program is to upgrade the performance by about 30% without significant price increase.[60]

On 14 February 2012, one day after the successful first launch of Vega, the German space agency moved to be included in the program. Johann-Dietrich Woerner, head of the German Aerospace Agency DLR, said Germany wanted to join the project. Germany would provide a replacement for the RD-869 engine on the AVUM fourth stage, currently made in Ukraine. The Vega Launcher Manager stated that it will not fly in the near future because it takes some time to develop, but he confirmed it will be on agenda in the next meeting of ministers in late 2012. That way, all components of the rocket would be built inside the EU, excluding the Swiss made ones.[61]

The Vega first stage is under consideration as the first stage of the next generation Ariane 6 rocket.[62]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Vega liftoff". ESA. 
  2. ^ ESA: Antonio Fabrizi: from "nuts and bolts" to Europe’s launchers of today and tomorrow [1]
  3. ^ "ESA – Vega". Esa.int. 3 February 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2012. 
  4. ^ a b Arianespace orders ten new Vega launchers from ELV, Arianespace media release, 20 November 2013, accessed 22 November 2013
  5. ^ Amos, Jonathan (13 February 2012). "Vega launcher makes first flight". BBC News. Retrieved 13 February 2012. 
  6. ^ Tariq Malik (2012-02-13). "Europe Launches New Vega Rocket on Maiden Voyage". Space.com. Retrieved 2014-05-29. "The Italian-built Vega rocket is named after the second-brightest star in the northern hemisphere" 
  7. ^ "Vega Launcher Targets Government Market". Aviation Week. 6 February 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2012. 
  8. ^ a b CLARK, S. (14 February 2012). "Vega launcher program courts German participation". Spaceflight Now. p. 1. Retrieved 14 February 2012. 
  9. ^ "Vega — Overview". Arianespace. 
  10. ^ "Vega — Performance". Arianespace. 
  11. ^ I. Ciufolini et al. The Design of LARES: A Satellite for Testing General Relativity, IAC-07-B4.2.07, proceedings of the 58th International Astronautical Congress, India, Hyderabad, 2007
  12. ^ "Vega Satellite Launcher". Avio. Retrieved 2014-04-23. 
  13. ^ "Vega - Launcher composition (interactive)". ELV. Retrieved 2014-04-23. 
  14. ^ "Space Propulsion". Aviogroup.com. Retrieved 16 February 2012. 
  15. ^ "VEGA Satellite Launcher". Aviogroup.com. 
  16. ^ Neri, Agostino (04/08/2011). "Vega Launch System Final Preparation for Qualification Flight". Proceedings of 47th AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference. San Diego, California (USA): AIAA. 
  17. ^ ESA: Successful first test for Vega's Zefiro 9 engine
  18. ^ ESA: Vega Critical Design Review begins
  19. ^ ESA: Anomalous behaviour affects firing test of Vega’s Zefiro 9 motor
  20. ^ "Successful first test for Vega’s Zefiro 9-A solid-fuel rocket motor". ESA. 24 October 2008. 
  21. ^ "Successful second test for Vega’s Zefiro 9-A solid-fuel rocket motor". ESA. 30 April 2009. 
  22. ^ a b c M. Caporicci (November 2000). "The Future of European Launchers: The ESA Perspective". ESA. 
  23. ^ ESA: Vega's second stage motor roars to life
  24. ^ Successful qualification firing test for Zefiro 23
  25. ^ "Solid propellant rocket stage". astronautix.com. Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 4 July 2013. 
  26. ^ ESA: Successful firing of Vega’s first-stage motor in Kourou
  27. ^ ESA: Vega main engine test in Kourou
  28. ^ "ASI SpaceMag n° 1". asi.it (in Italian). Agenzia Spaziale Italiana. March 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2012. 
  29. ^ "AVUM" (in Italian). Avio. Retrieved 2014-04-23. 
  30. ^ "The Ukrainian engine operated successfully on the new European rocket". Youzhnoye KB. 14 February 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2012. 
  31. ^ "Vega Launcher". ESA. 6 February 2012. Retrieved 16 February 2012. 
  32. ^ "Italian Space Agency Plans its Relaunch". Flight International. 31 October 2008. 
  33. ^ "Avio: Vega's motors qualify but maiden launch slips to 2010". Flight International. 29 April 2009. 
  34. ^ "Delays seen for Soyuz, VEGA launches at Europe's Space Base". AFP. 15 June 2009. 
  35. ^ "Vega moves closer to its first liftoff". ESA. 15 December 2011. 
  36. ^ "ESA’s new Vega launcher scores success on maiden flight.". 
  37. ^ "Vega delivers three Satellites to Orbit to achieve second Success". spaceflight101. 2013-05-07. Retrieved 2014-01-14. 
  38. ^ a b Greg Delaney (2012-06-22). "Kazakhstan to launch sastellite on new Arianespace Vega vehicle". kazakhstanlive.com. Retrieved 2013-05-07. 
  39. ^ Bergin, Chris (July 3, 2014). "ESA’s experimental space plane gearing up for November debut". NASA spaceflight. Retrieved 3 July 2014. 
  40. ^ a b "Vega to fly ESA experimental reentry vehicle". ESA. 2013-03-29. Retrieved 2013-05-07. 
  41. ^ "Wind laser survives extremes". ESA. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
  42. ^ "Sentinel-2". ESA. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
  43. ^ "Soyuz orbits Sentinel-1A on 7th successful launch from French Guiana". CNES. Retrieved 30 April 2014. 
  44. ^ a b "Vega milestones". Arianespace. Retrieved 2013-05-07. 
  45. ^ "ESA books Eurockot Launch for Sentinel-5p Satellite". Eurockot Launch Services. Retrieved 30 April 2014. 
  46. ^ "Sentinel-3 stacks up". ESA. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
  47. ^ "Arianespace Inks Deal for 2015 Vega Launch of Turkish Imaging Satellite". Earsc. Retrieved 1 May 2014. 
  48. ^ "Arianespace to launch OPTSAT 3000 and VENµS satellites". Arianespace. 19 February 2014. Retrieved 2014-02-24. 
  49. ^ "ASI report to SpaceOps CaL". Retrieved 30 April 2014. 
  50. ^ "PRISMA". ASI. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
  51. ^ Depasquale, Francesco. "The Launchers: Vega a winning project Capability , Opportunities and Future Prospective". Retrieved 1 May 2014. 
  52. ^ "VERTA programme". ESA. 2013-04-29. 
  53. ^ "Lisa pathfinder overview". ESA. 2013-01-10. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  54. ^ Gunter Dirk Krebs. "Vega". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  55. ^ Tudor Vieru (2011-12-19). "Vega Rocket to Launch Two ESA Sentinel Satellites". 
  56. ^ "Flying Test Beds, FTB-X". 
  57. ^ Tariq Malik (12 March 2007). "Italian Firm Hails Test of Unmanned Spacecraft Prototype". 
  58. ^ de Selding, Peter B. (2012-02-13). "Europe’s Italian-led Vega Rocket Succeeds in Debut". SPACE NEWS. 
  59. ^ Messier, Doug (2012-02-16). "Officials Eye New Upper Stage for Vega Rocket". Parabolic Arc. 
  60. ^ "LIRA | VEGA evolution". Agenzia Spaziale Italiana. Retrieved 17 February 2012. 
  61. ^ CLARK, S. (14 February 2012). "Vega launcher program courts German participation". Spaceflight Now. p. 1. Retrieved 14 February 2012. 
  62. ^ Stephen Clark (21 November 2012). "European ministers decide to stick with Ariane 5, for now". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 22 November 2012. 

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