Vehicle identification number

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"VIN" redirects here. For other uses, see Vin (disambiguation).
"VINs" redirects here. For the non-profit organization, see Vermont Institute of Natural Science. For the Russian Baptist pastor, see Vins.
VIN on a Chinese moped
VIN on a 1996 Porsche 993 GT2
VIN visible in the windshield

A vehicle identification number, commonly abbreviated to VIN, is a unique code including a serial number, used by the automotive industry to identify individual motor vehicles, towed vehicles, motorcycles, scooters and mopeds as defined in ISO 3833.

VINs were first used in 1954.[1] From 1954 to 1981, there was no accepted standard for these numbers, so different manufacturers used different formats.

In 1981, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration of the United States standardized the format.[1] It required all over-the-road-vehicles sold to contain a 17-character VIN, which does not include the letters I (i), O (o), or Q (q) (to avoid confusion with numerals 1 and 0).

There are vehicle history services in several countries that can help potential car owners use VINs to find lemons and branded vehicles. See the used car article for a list of countries where this service is available.

VIN: classification[edit]

There are at least four competing standards used to calculate VIN.

  • FMVSS 115, Part 565: Used in United States and Canada[2]
  • ISO Standard 3779: Used in Europe and many other parts of the world
  • SAE J853: Very similar to the ISO standard
  • ADR 61/2 used in Australia, referring back to ISO 3779 and 3780.[3]

Components of the VIN[edit]

Modern-day VIN systems are based on two related standards, originally issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1979 and 1980; ISO 3779[4] and ISO 3780,[5] respectively. Compatible but somewhat different implementations of these ISO standards have been adopted by the European Union and the United States of America, respectively.[6]

The VIN is composed of the following sections:

Standard 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
ISO 3779 World manufacturer identifier VDS VIS
European Union[7]

more than 500 vehicles/year

World manufacturer identifier Indication of "the general characteristics of the vehicle" Indication which provide "clear identification of a particular vehicle"
European Union[7]

fewer than 500 vehicles/year

World manufacturer identifier 9 Indication of "the general characteristics of the vehicle" Indication which provide "clear identification of a particular vehicle"
North America

more than 500 vehicles/year

World manufacturer identifier Vehicle Attributes Check Digit Model Year Plant Code Sequential Number
North America

fewer than 500 vehicles/year

World manufacturer identifier 9 Vehicle Attributes Check Digit Model Year Plant Code Manufacturer Identifier Sequential Number
VIN in a GM-T-Platform body next to a passenger seat

World manufacturer identifier[edit]

The first three characters uniquely identify the manufacturer of the vehicle using the world manufacturer identifier or WMI code. A manufacturer who builds fewer than 500 vehicles per year uses a 9 as the third digit, and the 12th, 13th and 14th position of the VIN for a second part of the identification. Some manufacturers use the third character as a code for a vehicle category (e.g., bus or truck), a division within a manufacturer, or both. For example, within 1G (assigned to General Motors in the United States), 1G1 represents Chevrolet passenger cars; 1G2, Pontiac passenger cars; and 1GC, Chevrolet trucks.

The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) in the U.S. assigns WMIs to countries and manufacturers.[8]

The first character of the WMI is the region in which the manufacturer is located. In practice, each is assigned to a country of manufacture, although in Europe the country where the continental headquarters is located can assign the WMI to all vehicles produced in that region (Example: GM Europe cars whether produced in Germany, Spain, UK, Belgium or Poland carry the W0 WMI because GM Europe is based in Germany).

In the notation below, assume that letters precede numbers and that zero is the last number. For example, 8X-82 denotes 8X, 8Y, 8Z, 81, 82. In particular this does not include 80.

Country codes[edit]

A–H = Africa J–R = Asia S–Z = Europe 1–5 = North America 6–7 = Oceania 8–9 = South America

AA-AH South Africa
AJ-AN Ivory Coast
AP-A0 not assigned
BA-BE Angola
BF-BK Kenya
BL-BR Tanzania
BS-B0 not assigned
CA-CE Benin
CF-CK Madagascar
CL-CR Tunisia
CS-C0 not assigned
DA-DE Egypt
DF-DK Morocco
DL-DR Zambia
DS-D0 not assigned
EA-EE Ethiopia
EF-EK Mozambique
EL-E0 not assigned
FA-FE Ghana
FF-FK Nigeria
FL-F0 not assigned
GA-G0 not assigned
HA-H0 not assigned

JA-J0 Japan
KA-KE Sri Lanka
KF-KK Israel
KL-KR Korea (South)
KS-K0 not assigned
LA-L0 China
MA-ME India
MF-MK Indonesia
ML-MR Thailand
MS-M0 not assigned
NA-NE Iran
NF-NK Pakistan
NL-NR Turkey
NS-N0 not assigned
PA-PE Philippines
PF-PK Singapore
PL-PR Malaysia
PS-P0 not assigned
RA-RE United Arab Emirates
RF-RK Taiwan
RL-RR Vietnam
RS-R0 Saudi Arabia

SA-SM United Kingdom
SN-ST Germany
SU-SZ Poland
S1-S4 Latvia
S5-S0 not assigned
TA-TH Switzerland
TJ-TP Czech Republic
TR-TV Hungary
TW-T1 Portugal
T2-T0 not assigned
UA-UG not assigned
UH-UM Denmark
UN-UT Ireland
UU-UZ Romania
U1-U4 not assigned
U5-U7 Slovakia
U8-U0 not assigned
VA-VE Austria
VF-VR France
VS-VW Spain
VX-V2 Serbia
V3-V5 Croatia
V6-V0 Estonia
WA-W0 Germany
XA-XE Bulgaria
XF-XK Greece
XL-XR Netherlands
XS-XW USSR
XX-X2 Luxembourg
X3-X0 Russia
YA-YE Belgium
YF-YK Finland
YL-YR Malta
YS-YW Sweden
YX-Y2 Norway
Y3-Y5 Belarus
Y6-Y0 Ukraine
ZA-ZR Italy
ZS-ZW not assigned
ZX-Z2 Slovenia
Z3-Z5 Lithuania
Z6-Z0 not assigned

1A-10 United States
2A-20 Canada
3A-37 Mexico
38-30 Cayman Islands
4A-40 United States
5A-50 United States

6A-6W Australia
6X-60 not assigned
7A-7E New Zealand
7F-70 not assigned

8A-8E Argentina
8F-8K Chile
8L-8R Ecuador
8S-8W Peru
8X-82 Venezuela
83-80 not assigned
9A-9E Brazil
9F-9K Colombia
9L-9R Paraguay
9S-9W Uruguay
9X-92 Trinidad & Tobago
93–99 Brazil
90 not assigned

Vehicle descriptor section[edit]

The 4th to 8th positions in the VIN are the vehicle descriptor section or VDS. This is used, according to local regulations, to identify the vehicle type, and may include information on the automobile platform used, the model, and the body style. Each manufacturer has a unique system for using this field. Most manufacturers since the 1980s have used the 8th digit to identify the engine type whenever there is more than one engine choice for the vehicle. Example: for the 2007 Chevrolet Corvette U= 6.0L V8, E= 7.0L V8.

North American check digits[edit]

One element that is fairly consistent is the use of position 9 as a check digit, compulsory for vehicles in North America, and used fairly consistently even outside this rule.

Vehicle identifier section[edit]

The 10th to 17th positions are used as the vehicle identifier section or VIS. This is used by the manufacturer to identify the individual vehicle in question. This may include information on options installed or engine and transmission choices, but often is a simple sequential number. In North America, the last five digits must be numeric.

Model year encoding[edit]

One consistent element of the VIS is the 10th digit, which is required worldwide to encode the model year of the vehicle. Besides the three letters that are not allowed in the VIN itself (I, O and Q), the letters U and Z and the digit 0 are not used for the model year code. Note that the year code is the model year for the vehicle.

The year 1980 was encoded by some manufacturers, especially General Motors and Chrysler, as "A" (since the 17-digit VIN wasn't mandatory until 1981, and the "A" or zero was in the manufacturer's pre-1981 placement in the VIN), yet Ford and AMC still used a zero for 1980. Subsequent years increment through the allowed letters, so that "Y" represents the year 2000. 2001 to 2009 are encoded as the digits 1 to 9, and subsequent years are encoded as "A", "B", "C", etc.

Code Year Code Year Code Year Code Year Code Year Code Year
A = 1980 L = 1990 Y = 2000 A = 2010 L = 2020 Y = 2030
B = 1981 M = 1991 1 = 2001 B = 2011 M = 2021 1 = 2031
C = 1982 N = 1992 2 = 2002 C = 2012 N = 2022 2 = 2032
D = 1983 P = 1993 3 = 2003 D = 2013 P = 2023 3 = 2033
E = 1984 R = 1994 4 = 2004 E = 2014 R = 2024 4 = 2034
F = 1985 S = 1995 5 = 2005 F = 2015 S = 2025 5 = 2035
G = 1986 T = 1996 6 = 2006 G = 2016 T = 2026 6 = 2036
H = 1987 V = 1997 7 = 2007 H = 2017 V = 2027 7 = 2037
J = 1988 W = 1998 8 = 2008 J = 2018 W = 2028 8 = 2038
K = 1989 X = 1999 9 = 2009 K = 2019 X = 2029 9 = 2039

On April 30, 2008, the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration adopted a final rule amending 49 CFR Part 565, "so that the current 17 character vehicle identification number (VIN) system, which has been in place for almost 30 years, can continue in use for at least another 30 years", in the process making several changes to the VIN requirements applicable to all motor vehicles manufactured for sale in the United States. There are three notable changes to the VIN structure that affect VIN deciphering systems:

  1. The make may only be identified after looking at positions 1–3 and another position, as determined by the manufacturer in the second section or 4–8 segment of the VIN.
  2. In order to identify exact year in passenger cars and multipurpose passenger vehicles with a GVWR of 10,000 or less, one must read position 7 as well as position 10. For passenger cars, and for multipurpose passenger vehicles and trucks with a gross vehicle weight rating of 10,000 lb (4,500 kg) or less, if position 7 is numeric, the model year in position 10 of the VIN refers to a year in the range 1980–2009. If position 7 is alphabetic, the model year in position 10 of VIN refers to a year in the range 2010–2039.
  3. The model year for vehicles with a GVWR greater than 10,000 lb (4,500 kg), as well as buses, motorcycles, trailers and low speed vehicles may no longer be identified within a 30-year range. VIN characters 1–8 and 10 that were assigned from 1980–2009 can be repeated beginning with the 2010 model year.

Plant code[edit]

Another consistently-used element (which is compulsory in North America) is the use of the 11th character to encode the factory of manufacture of the vehicle. Although each manufacturer has its own set of plant codes, the location in the VIN is standardized.

Production number[edit]

In the United States, the 12th to 17th digits are the vehicle's serial or production number. This is unique to each vehicle and every manufacturer uses their own sequences as there is no fixed standard for this number.

Check digit calculation[edit]

Check digit validation is compulsory for cars made in North America, as well as for all vehicles destined for sale in North America. It also may be used voluntarily by manufacturers who choose to do so for vehicle destined for markets where it is not required. In particular, it does not apply to vehicles, not destined for the North American market, produced by the following manufacturers: Citroën, BMW, Renault, Audi, Korean Chevrolets, Fiat and European Fords, among others.[citation needed]

If trying to validate a VIN with a check digit, first either: (a) remove the check digit for the purpose of calculation; or (b) utilize the multiplicative property of zero in the weight to cancel it out. The original value of the check digit is then compared with the calculated value. If the two values do not match (and there was no error in the calculation), then there is a mistake in the VIN. However, a match does not prove the VIN is correct because there is still a 1 in 11 chance of any two distinct VINs having a matching check digit: an example of this would be the valid VINs 5GZCZ43D13S812715 (correct with leading five) and SGZCZ43D13S812715 (incorrect with leading character "S").

Transliterating the numbers[edit]

Transliteration consists of removing all of the letters, and substituting them with their appropriate numerical counterparts. These numerical alternatives (based on IBM's EBCDIC) can be found in the following chart. I, O and Q are not allowed, and can not exist in a valid VIN; for the purpose of this chart, they have been filled in with N/A (not applicable). Numerical digits use their own values.

Transliteration key: values for VIN Decoding
A: 1 B: 2 C: 3 D: 4 E: 5 F: 6 G: 7 H: 8 N/A
J: 1 K: 2 L: 3 M: 4 N: 5 N/A P: 7 N/A R: 9
S: 2 T: 3 U: 4 V: 5 W: 6 X: 7 Y: 8 Z: 9

S is 2, and not 1. There is no left-alignment linearity.

Weights used in calculation[edit]

The following is the weight factor for each position in the VIN. The 9th position is that of the check digit. It has been substituted with a 0, which will cancel it out in the multiplication step.

Weight Factor Table
Position 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
Weight 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 10 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

Worked example[edit]

Consider the hypothetical VIN 1M8GDM9A_KP042788, where the underscore will be the check digit.

VIN 1 M 8 G D M 9 A K P 0 4 2 7 8 8
Value 1 4 8 7 4 4 9 1 0 2 7 0 4 2 7 8 8
Weight 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 10 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
Products 28 48 35 16 12 18 10 18 56 24 10 28 24 16
  1. The VINs value is calculated from the above transliteration table, this number will be used in the rest of the calculation.
  2. Copy over the weights from the above Weight Factor Table.
  3. The products row is a result of the multiplication of the vertical columns: Value and Weight.
  4. The products (8,28,48,35..24,16) are all added together to yield a sum of 351
  5. Find the remainder after dividing by 11
    351 MOD 11 = 10
    351 ÷ 11 = 31 10/11
  6. The remainder is the check digit. If the remainder is 10 then the check digit is X. In this example the remainder is 10, so the check digit is transliterated into X.

With a check digit of 'X' the VIN: 1M8GDM9A_KP042788 is written as: 1M8GDM9AXKP042788.

Straight-ones (seventeen consecutive '1's) will suffice the check-digit. This is because a value of one, multiplied against 89 (sum of weights), is still 89. And 89 divided by 11 is 8 with the remainder being the fraction "1 over 11," thus 1 is the check digit. This is an easy way to test a VIN-check algorithm.

VIN scanning[edit]

VINs may be optically read with barcode scanners or digital cameras, or digitally read via OBD-II in newer vehicles. There are smartphone applications that can pass the VIN to websites to decode the VIN.

List of common WMI[edit]

The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) assigns the WMI (world manufacturer identifier) to countries and manufacturers. The following list shows a small selection of world manufacturer codes.

WMI Manufacturer
AAV (South Africa) Volkswagen
AFA (South Africa) Ford
CL9 (Tunisia) Wallyscar
JA (Japan) Isuzu
JF (Japan) Fuji Heavy Industries
JH (Japan) Honda
JMB (Japan) Mitsubishi
JMZ (Japan) Mazda
JN (Japan) Nissan
JS (Japan) Suzuki
JT (Japan) Toyota
KL (South Korea) Daewoo
KMH (South Korea) Hyundai
KN (South Korea) Kia
KPT (South Korea) SsangYong
SAJ (United Kingdom) Jaguar
SAL (United Kingdom) Land Rover
SAR (United Kingdom) Rover
SCC (United Kingdom) Lotus Cars
TMA (Czech Republic) Hyundai
TMB (Czech Republic) Škoda
TRU (Hungary) Audi
UU (Romania) Dacia
VA0 (Austria) ÖAF
VF1 (France) Renault
VF3 (France) Peugeot
VF6 (France) Renault Trucks/Volvo
VF7 (France) Citroën
VFE (France) IvecoBus
VSS (Spain) SEAT
VV9 (Spain) Tauro Sport Auto
WAU (Germany) Audi
WAP (Germany) Alpina
WBA (Germany) BMW
WBS (Germany) BMW M
WDB (Germany) Mercedes-Benz
WDC, WDD, WMX (Germany) DaimlerChrysler AG/Daimler AG
WEB (Germany) EvoBus
WF0 (Germany) Ford Germany
WJM (Germany) Iveco
WJR (Germany) Irmscher
WKK (Germany) Kässbohrer
WMA (Germany) MAN
WME (Germany) Smart
WMW (Germany) Mini
WP0 (Germany) Porsche car
WP1 (Germany) Porsche SUV
WUA (Germany) Quattro
WVG (Germany) Volkswagen
WVW (Germany) Volkswagen
WV1 (Germany) Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles
WV2 (Germany) Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles
W0L (Germany) Opel/Vauxhall
W0SV (Germany) Opel Special Vehicles
YK1 (Finland) Saab
YS3 (Sweden) Saab
YTN (Sweden) Saab NEVS
YV1 (Sweden) Volvo Cars
ZAM (Italy) Maserati
ZAR (Italy) Alfa Romeo
ZCF (Italy) Iveco
ZFA (Italy) Fiat Automobiles
ZFF (Italy) Ferrari
ZGA (Italy) IvecoBus
ZHW (Italy) Lamborghini
ZLA (Italy) Lancia
1C (United States) Chrysler
1F (United States) Ford
1G (United States) General Motors
1G3 (United States) Oldsmobile
1GC (United States) Chevrolet
1GM (United States) Pontiac
1H (United States) Honda
1J (United States) Jeep
1L (United States) Lincoln
1M (United States) Mercury
1N (United States) Nissan
1VW (United States) Volkswagen
1YV (United States) Mazda
2F (Canada) Ford
2G (Canada) General Motors
2G1 (Canada) Chevrolet
2G2 (Canada) Pontiac
2H (Canada) Honda
2HM (Canada) Hyundai
2M (Canada) Mercury
2T (Canada) Toyota
3F (Mexico) Ford
3G (Mexico) General Motors
3N (Mexico) Nissan
3VW (Mexico) Volkswagen
4F (United States) Mazda
4J (United States) Mercedes-Benz
4M (United States) Mercury
4S (United States) Subaru
4T (United States) Toyota
4US (United States) BMW
5F (United States) Honda
5L (United States) Lincoln
5T (United States) Toyota
5YJ (United States) Tesla
6F (Australia) Ford
6G (Australia) General Motors
6G1 (Australia) Chevrolet
6G2 (Australia) Pontiac
6H (Australia) Holden
6MM (Australia) Mitsubishi
6T1 (Australia) Toyota
8AP (Argentina) Fiat
8AT (Argentina) Iveco
9BD (Brazil) Fiat Automóveis
9BW (Brazil) Volkswagen
93H (Brazil) Honda
93W (Brazil) Fiat Professional
93Z (Brazil) Iveco
9BH (Brazil) Hyundai

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Vehicle Identification Numbers (VINs)". National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Retrieved 2011-07-24. 
  2. ^ "eCFR – Code of Federal Regulations – Title 49: Transportation – PART 565—VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (VIN) REQUIREMENTS". www.ecfr.gov. Retrieved 2013-04-09. 
  3. ^ "ComLaw Legislative Instruments – Vehicle Standard (Australian Design Rule 61/02 – Vehicle Marking) 2005 (ADR 61/02)". Comlaw.gov.au. Retrieved 2010-09-27. 
  4. ^ ISO 3779:2009 Road vehicles -- Vehicle identification number (VIN) -- Content and structure
  5. ^ ISO 3780:2009 Road vehicles -- World manufacturer identifier (WMI) code
  6. ^ "United States Federal VIN Requirements (Title 49, Chapter V, Part 565)". Access.gpo.gov. Retrieved 2010-09-27. 
  7. ^ a b "Directive 76/114/EEC - Automotive - Enterprise and Industry". European Commission. Retrieved 2013-07-08. 
  8. ^ "ISO 3780 Road vehicles – World manufacturer identifier (WMI) code". Iso.org. 2009-10-05. Retrieved 2010-09-27. 

External links[edit]