A vehicle brake is a brake used to slow down a vehicle by converting its kinetic energy into heat. The basic hydraulic system, most commonly used, usually has six main stages. The brake pedal, the brake boost (vacuum servo), the master cylinder, the apportioning valves and finally the roadwheel brakes themselves.
A friction brake is a type of automotive brake that slows or stops a vehicle by converting kinetic energy into heat energy, via friction. The heat energy is then dissipated into the atmosphere. In most systems, the brake acts on the vehicle's roadwheel hubs, but some vehicles use brakes which act on the axles or transmission. Friction brakes may be of either drum or disc type.
The disc brake is a device for slowing or stopping the rotation of a road wheel. A brake disc (or rotor in U.S. English), usually made of cast iron or ceramic, is connected to the wheel or the axle. To stop the wheel, friction material in the form of brake pads (mounted in a device called a brake caliper) is forced mechanically, hydraulically, pneumatically or electromagnetically against both sides of the disc. Friction causes the disc and attached wheel to slow or stop.
Electromagnetic brakes slow an object through electromagnetic induction, which creates resistance and in turn either heat or electricity. Friction brakes apply pressure on two separate objects to slow the vehicle in a controlled manner.
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