Vehicle inspection in the United States

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Vehicle inspection laws by state:
  Periodic safety inspection required
  Safety inspection required upon sale or transfer
  Safety inspection required when registering a vehicle from another jurisdiction
  Emissions testing required in some areas
  Emissions testing required in all areas
  No inspection required
Striped: Both safety and emissions testing required

In the United States, vehicle safety inspection and emissions inspection are governed by each state individually. 17 states have a periodic (annual or biennial) safety inspection program, while Maryland and Alabama require a safety arrived vehicles which were previously registered in another state. New Jersey discontinued its passenger vehicle safety inspection program on August 1, 2010.[1]

Under the Clean Air Act (1990), states are required to implement vehicle emissions inspection programs, known as I/M programs (for Inspection and Maintenance), in metropolitan areas whose air quality does not meet federal standards. The specifics of those programs vary from state to state. Some states, including Kentucky and Minnesota, have discontinued their testing programs in recent years with approval from the federal government.

Jurisdictions requiring periodic vehicle safety inspections[edit]

PennDOT-issued sign at an auto garage stating that it does vehicle inspections for cars.
  • Delaware—annually or biennially, new cars are exempt from inspection for the first five years provided the car remains with the same owner.
  • District of Columbia—biennially,[2] the requirement for safety inspection for privately owned cars ended October 1, 2009.[3]
  • Hawaii—annually, with the following exceptions: Brand new vehicles receive an inspection valid for two years. Emergency vehicles, school vehicles, rental cars, and vehicles used in public transportation must be inspected every six months. Sticker placed on rear bumper to right on license plate.
  • Illinois—According to Illinois EPA, "Ensure your vehicle is safe to operate. Your vehicle may be rejected [for emissions testing] if the test cannot be safely conducted."[4] Emissions testing is required biennually only for vehicles registered in specific counties and zip codes (see below).
  • Louisiana—annually. However, as of September, 2012, people in most jusrisdictions have the option of getting a sticker good for two years, rather than one, by paying double the usual fee.[5] Note that, in New Orleans, Inspection Stickers are commonly referred to as "Brake Tags"; they are placed on the inside of the windshield, in the lower-left corner of the windshield (on the driver's side). Colors change every year.
  • Maine—annually; color of sticker changes annually; Sticker placed in top center of windshield behind rear view mirror.[6]
  • Massachusetts—annually.[7] Stickers are placed in the lower right corner of the windshield.
  • Mississippi—annually.[8]
  • Missouri—biennially, based on the vehicle's model year. Odd-numbered model year renews in odd-numbered year, even-numbered model year renews in even-numbered year.[9] New vehicles not previously titled are exempt from inspection during the vehicle's model year and the year following. Vehicles displaying historical plates are completely exempt from inspection.[10]
  • New Hampshire—annually, except the first inspection of a new vehicle or upon an ownership transfer is adjusted to expire in the month of the registrant's birthday and is therefore valid for 4 to 15 months.[11] Sticker placed in top center of windshield under rear view mirror.
  • New Jersey—annually for commercial vehicles (including taxis, limosines, jitneys, and buses), effective January 1, 2010. Passenger vehicles are exempt from safety inspections, effective August 1, 2010.[12]
  • New York—annually. Newly registered vehicles with a current inspection sticker from another state are exempt until the out-of-state sticker expires or for one year after registration in New York, whichever is sooner. Stickers are placed on lower left corner of windshield.
  • North Carolina—annually until the vehicle is 35 years of age, at which point inspections are no longer required.
  • Pennsylvania[13]—annually for most vehicles; every six months for all vehicles over 17,000 pounds (7,700 kg) GVW, which includes tractor-trailers, most non-articulated trucks, school vehicles (including school buses and school vans), motor coaches, mass transit buses, ambulances, fire department trucks, etc., and even though they fall below that gross vehicle weight, taxicabs and most vehicles that carry passengers for hire. Limousines are inspected annually, although they carry passengers for hire. Annual inspection (AI# serial numbers, which become BI# when AI# is exhausted at 10 million stickers), emission (IM#), and semi-annual (SI#) inspection stickers are color-coded - each type of sticker has its own distinct color which is changed at random every year (for example, colors for stickers expiring from October 2013-September 2014 are as follows: annual inspection-blue, annual emissions-red, semiannual inspection-yellow; colors for stickers expiring from October 2014-September 2015 are as follows: annual inspection-green, annual emissions-orange, semiannual inspection-purple). Stickers are placed on the lower left corner of the windshield. The new issue stickers appear in October in time for the January expiration stickers to be available on their first day of issue, which is November 1 of the previous year, for example, stickers bearing an expiration date of January 2016 will be available starting on November 1, 2014 (new stickers are available 3 calendar months before the current sticker's expiration). The annual color change makes it easier for police to be aware of expired stickers. Vehicles bearing antique vehicle license plates are exempt from inspection, but vehicles bearing classic or collectible license plates are subject to inspection. Trailers in excess of 3,000 pounds (1,400 kg) GVW are also inspected annually as are motorcycles.
  • Rhode Island—biennially.
  • Texas—annually.
  • Utah—biennially for the first eight years, annually thereafter.[14]
  • Vermont—annually; inspections are due at the end of even-numbered months only. Inspections performed in an odd-numbered month will receive a sticker for the next even-numbered month (e.g., a car inspected in November 2011 will receive a sticker good until December 31, 2012). Inspection stickers are placed behind the rearview mirror and are color-coded by year.
  • Virginia[15]—annually;.[16] Newly registered vehicles with a valid inspection from another state are exempt from inspection until the out-of-state inspection expires. Stickers are yellow and are placed in the lower center part of the windshield.
  • West Virginia[17]—annually; color of sticker changes annually; sticker placed in lower left corner of windshield.

Jurisdictions requiring a safety inspection only prior to sale or transfer of ownership[edit]

Jurisdictions requiring a safety inspection only when bringing a vehicle from another jurisdiction[edit]

Jurisdictions requiring periodic vehicle emissions inspections[edit]

Vehicle emissions inspection station in Wisconsin.
  • Arizona—biennially, in Phoenix and Tucson metro areas only, depending on age and type of vehicle.[21]
  • California—biennially for all vehicles from out-of-state, regardless of age; and all vehicles made after 1975 which are more than six years old (in most ZIP codes and in most major metropolitan areas including Los Angeles, Sacramento, San Diego, and San Francisco).[22]
  • Colorado—biennially. Required in Denver, Boulder, and the Front Range. Includes Adams, Arapahoe, Boulder, Broomfield, Denver, Douglas, Jefferson, Larimer, and Weld Counties.[23]
  • Connecticut—biennially.[24]
  • Delaware—annually or biennially. Older cars registered as antiques are exempt from emissions testing.
  • District of Columbia—biennially.[25]
  • Georgia—annually, required in the metropolitan Atlanta area only.[26] Vehicles from the most recent two model years are exempt from inspection.
  • Idaho—required in Ada County and Canyon County only.[27]
  • Illinois—biennially after the vehicle is four years old. Required only in the Chicago metropolitan area and eastern suburbs of St. Louis, Missouri.[28]
  • Indiana—biennially, required in Lake County and Porter County (Chicago metropolitan area)/Northwest Indiana only.
  • Louisiana—annually, only in the Baton Rouge metropolitan area parishes of Ascension, East Baton Rouge, Iberville, Livingtston, and West Baton Rouge.
  • Maryland—biennially, required in 13 (out of 23) counties and the independent city of Baltimore.[29] The most recent two model years of vehicles are exempt from emissions testing.[30]
  • Massachusetts—annually, as of 2008. Prior to 2008, an emissions inspection was required biennially based on the vehicle's model year (odd-numbered model years were inspected in odd-numbered years, even-numbered model years were inspected in even-numbered years). Also in 2008, the tailpipe test for 1995 model year and older vehicles was discontinued, vehicles without OBD-II (1995 and older) systems receive a visual check of exhaust components.[7]
  • Missouri—biennially, based on the vehicle's model year, required only in St. Louis City, St. Louis County, St. Charles County, Franklin County, and Jefferson County.[10]
  • Nevada—required only in Clark County (Las Vegas) and Washoe County (Reno).
  • New Hampshire—annually, except the first inspection of a new vehicle or upon an ownership transfer is adjusted to expire in the month of the registrant's birthday and is therefore valid for 4 to 15 months. Emissions inspection is required only for model year 1996 and newer vehicles.[31]
  • New Jersey—biennially. Effective January 1, 2010, commercial vehicles (including taxis, limousines, jitneys, and buses) are subject to an annual inspection. Effective August 1, 2010, new non-commercial vehicles are exempt for the first five years. Used non-commercial vehicles are also exempt for the first five model years, as indicated on the New Car Dealer inspection decal. Used non-commercial vehicles originally purchased outside of New Jersey will receive a decal valid for five years from the model year of the vehicle. Effective August 1, 2010, vehicles exempt from inspection include motorcycles, non-commercial diesel vehicles between 8,500 pounds (3,900 kg) and 10,000 pounds (4,500 kg) GVWR or older than model year 1997 and under 10,000 pounds (4,500 kg) GVWR, diesel trucks between 10,000 pounds (4,500 kg) and 18,000 pounds (8,200 kg) GVWR (subject to self-inspection), farm vehicles, collector vehicles, historic vehicles, trailers, and mopeds.[12]
  • New Mexico - biennially, required only for vehicles registered in Bernalillo County
  • New York—annually. Newly registered vehicles with a current inspection sticker from another state are exempt until the out-of-state sticker expires or for one year after registration in New York, whichever is sooner. Model year 1996 and newer vehicles are subject to an OBD-II emissions inspection, while older cars receive a visual check of exhaust components. Until December 31, 2010, vehicles registered in the five boroughs of New York City, as well as on Long Island, in Westchester County or in Rockland County required a tailpipe smog-test if they are not OBD II equipped (they now receive a visual only check of emissions control devices). All OBD II vehicles in those areas (1996 model year or newer) require only the OBD II test. Any vehicle 26 model years old or more does not require an emissions check of any sort.
  • North Carolina—annually, required for vehicles in the 48 (out of 100) most populated counties for model year 1996 or newer vehicles, except brand new vehicles, which get safety inspections only. Non-gasoline powered vehicles and cars 1995 or older and vehicles with a GVWR of more than 8500 lbs. are exempt from emissions inspection. Effective November 1, 2008, no inspection decal is issued upon passing. All state inspection records both emissions and safety are now kept via electronic database, and are required for being awarded new license plates, and/or registration.[32]
  • Ohio—currently required only in the Cleveland metropolitan area (Cuyahoga County, Geauga County, Lake County, Lorain County, Medina County, Portage County, and Summit County). Vehicles up to four years old are exempt. Testing is based on an odd-even year system. If a car was purchased in 2000, it is not required to be tested until 2010, if a car was purchased in 2003, then it will need to be tested in 2009. Ohio does not charge a fee for emission testing, due to Ohio's tobacco settlement.
  • Oregon—required only in the Portland and Medford metro areas[33]
  • Pennsylvania[13]—annually for most vehicles under 9,000 pounds (4,100 kg) GVW. Required in 25 (out of 67) counties. Diesel-powered vehicles are exempt from emissions inspection.[34]
  • Rhode Island—biennially.
  • Tennessee—annually, in conjunction with registration renewal. Required only in Davidson County, Hamilton County, Rutherford County, Sumner County, Williamson County, Wilson County,[35] and the city of Memphis.[36]
  • Texas—annually, required only in the largest urban areas: Houston, Dallas-Fort Worth, Austin, and El Paso. Vehicles less than 2 model years old and greater than 24 model years old - including those registered as an antique or classic, are exempted from emission testing. Motorcycles and diesel vehicles are exempt from any state emissions testing.[37]
  • Utah—in its four most populated counties of Weber, Davis, Salt Lake, and Utah, biennially if less than six years old; annually, if older, but not older than 1967; otherwise, none is required.[14]
  • Vermont-annually, done at time of State Inspection 1996 and new with OBDII, some cars are exempt
  • Virginia—biennially, in conjunction with registration renewal, required only in urban and suburban jurisdictions in Northern Virginia.[38] Newly registered vehicles with a valid inspection from another state are exempt from inspection until the out-of-state inspection expires.
  • Washington—required only in urban areas of Clark County, King County, Pierce County, Snohomish County, and Spokane County.
  • Wisconsin—biennially, required only in Kenosha County, Milwaukee County, Ozaukee County, Racine County, Sheboygan County, Washington County, and Waukesha County.

Jurisdictions requiring VIN inspections[edit]

  • Colorado - Required when registering an out-of-state vehicle
  • Connecticut - Required when registering an out-of-state vehicle
  • Florida - Required when registering an out-of-state vehicle
  • Illinois - The main VIN tag is inspected at emissions testing stations. If the VIN tag is not acceptable or is missing, the vehicle is "rejected" for emissions testing.[39] Emissions testing is required biennually only for vehicles registered in specific counties and zip codes (see above).
  • Kansas - Required when registering an out-of-state vehicle
  • Kentucky - Required when registering an out-of-state vehicle
  • Nevada - Required when registering an out-of-state vehicle for the first time in the state [40]
  • New Mexico - Required when registering an out-of-state vehicle
  • Oklahoma - Required when registering an out-of-state vehicle
  • Pennsylvania - Required as part of the annual safety inspection. The inspection procedure only requires checking the main VIN tag. [41]
  • Washington—required only when registering an out-of-state vehicle for the first time in the state,[42] or for rebuilt vehicles.[43]
  • Wyoming - Required when registering an out-of-state vehicle

States without safety, emissions, or VIN inspections[edit]

  • Alaska[44]
  • Arkansas
  • Florida
  • Iowa
  • Kentucky
  • Michigan
  • Minnesota
  • Montana
  • North Dakota
  • South Carolina
  • South Dakota

Summary of Periodic Inspection Requirements for Non-Commercial Vehicles[edit]

State Periodic Safety Inspections Periodic Emissions Inspections
Alabama no no
Alaska no no
Arizona no biennially for Phoenix and Tucson metros
Arkansas no no
California no biennially
Colorado no biennially
Connecticut no biennially
Delaware yes yes
District of Columbia biennially biennially
Florida no no
Georgia no annually for Atlanta metro
Hawaii annually no
Idaho no yes for Ada and Canyon counties
Illinois no (not actively checked, see above) biennially for Chicago and St. Louis metros
Indiana no biennially for Lake and Porter counties
Iowa no no
Kansas no no
Kentucky no no
Louisiana annually annually for Baton Rouge metro
Maine annually yes for Cumberland county only
Maryland no biennially for 13/23 counties and Baltimore
Massachusetts annually annually
Michigan no no
Minnesota no no
Mississippi biennially no
Missouri biennially biennially for St. Louis metro
Montana no no
Nebraska no no
Nevada no yes for Clark and Washoe counties
New Hampshire annually annually
New Jersey no biennially
New Mexico no biennially for Bernalillo county only
New York annually annually
North Carolina annually annually for 48/100 counties
North Dakota no no
Ohio no odd/even for Cleveland metro
Oklahoma no no
Oregon no yes for Portland and Medford metros
Pennsylvania annually annually in 25 of 67 counties
Rhode Island biennially biennially
South Carolina no no
South Dakota no no
Tennessee no annually for select Nashville counties and Memphis
Texas annually annually for large urban areas
Utah biennially yes for four most populated counties
Vermont annually annually
Virginia annually annually for urban and suburban northern Virginia
Washington no yes for urban areas of select counties
West Virginia annually no
Wisconsin no biennially for select counties
Wyoming no no

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ KYW-TV article on discontinuation of New Jersey inspection Retrieved 2010-08-02
  2. ^ "Vehicle Inspection". Dmv.dc.gov. Retrieved 2013-12-22. 
  3. ^ Craig, Tim (2009-09-15). ""D.C. Ending Safety Checks On Private Cars ," ''The Washington Post,'' September 15, 2009". Washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2011-11-13. 
  4. ^ "Vehicle Emissions Testing Program". 
  5. ^ "2-year vehicle inspection option takes effect today". Nola.com / The Times-Picayune / New Orleans Net LLC. Retrieved 2013-02-20. 
  6. ^ "State Police: Vehicle Inspections & Crashes: Motor Vehicle Investigations". Maine.gov. Retrieved 2011-11-13. 
  7. ^ a b "Massachusetts Vehicle Check". Massvehiclecheck.com. Retrieved 2011-11-13. 
  8. ^ Frequently Asked Questions[dead link]
  9. ^ [1][dead link]
  10. ^ a b "Motor Vehicle - Additional Help Resource". Dor.mo.gov. 2010-01-01. Retrieved 2011-11-13. 
  11. ^ Saf-C 3200[dead link]
  12. ^ a b "State of New Jersey - Motor Vehicle Commission". State.nj.us. Retrieved 2011-11-13. 
  13. ^ a b "PENNDOT Driver and Vehicle Services - Vehicle Safety Inspections". Dmv.state.pa.us. Retrieved 2011-11-13. 
  14. ^ a b "Utah Vehicle Inspections". Dmv.utah.gov. 2012-01-24. Retrieved 2012-05-03. 
  15. ^ "Commonwealth of Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles". Dmv.state.va.us. 2007-05-14. Retrieved 2011-11-13. 
  16. ^ Virginia Motor Vehicle Safety Inspection Program, from the Virginia State Police
  17. ^ "Vehicle Inspection". Transportation.wv.gov. Retrieved 2011-11-13. 
  18. ^ "Motor Vehicle Division - Registration FAQs". Ador.alabama.gov. Retrieved 2011-11-13. 
  19. ^ "Vehicle Safety Inspection". Mva.maryland.gov. Retrieved 2011-11-13. 
  20. ^ "Nebraska Department of Motor Vehicles". Dmv.state.ne.us. 2010-08-19. Retrieved 2011-11-13. 
  21. ^ "Arizona Vehicle Emissions Program". Myazcar.com. Retrieved 2011-11-13. 
  22. ^ "Smog Information". Dmv.ca.gov. Retrieved 2011-11-13. 
  23. ^ "Program Area Maps". aircarecolorado.com. 2013-03-02. Retrieved 2013-03-02. 
  24. ^ "CT Emissions Testing". Ctemissions.com. 2003-03-17. Retrieved 2011-11-13. 
  25. ^ "District of Columbia: Department of Motor Vehicles - Services - Inspections". Dmv.dc.gov. 2009-10-01. Retrieved 2011-11-13. 
  26. ^ "Georgia Clean Air Force". Cleanairforce.com. Retrieved 2011-11-13. 
  27. ^ "Treasure Valley Vehicle Emissions Testing". deq.idaho.gov. Retrieved 2013-05-30. 
  28. ^ "Air Team - Illinois Vehicle Emission Test Program". Epa.state.il.us. 2011-05-26. Retrieved 2011-11-13. 
  29. ^ "VEIP General Requirements". Mva.maryland.gov. Retrieved 2011-11-13. 
  30. ^ "General Requirements". Mva.maryland.gov. Retrieved 2011-11-13. 
  31. ^ "Saf-C 3200". Gencourt.state.nh.us. Retrieved 2011-11-13. 
  32. ^ http://www.ncdot.gov/dmv/vehicle/registration/inspection/ from North Carolina Department of Transportation Division of Motor Vehicles
  33. ^ "Oregon DMV Emissions Testing & DEQ Requirements". Oregon.gov. 2010-12-20. Retrieved 2011-11-13. 
  34. ^ (PA DEP I/M - Drive Clean Pennsylvania Program Maps
  35. ^ "Vehicle Inspection Program". State.tn.us. 2005-04-01. Retrieved 2011-11-13. 
  36. ^ "City of Memphis, Motor Vehicle Inspection Bureau". Mvib.org. Retrieved 2011-11-13. 
  37. ^ http://www.txdps.state.tx.us/rsd/vi/inspection/inspectionCriteria.aspx
  38. ^ Emissions Inspections, Virginia (U.S.A.) Department of Motor Vehicles
  39. ^ "What to do if Your Vehicle is Rejected". 
  40. ^ http://www.dmvnv.com/newresident.htm
  41. ^ Pennsylvania inspection procedure Retrieved 2014-04-09
  42. ^ "WA State Licensing: Title and registration fees". Dol.wa.gov. Retrieved 2011-11-13. 
  43. ^ "Vehicle Identification Inspections - Washington State Patrol". Wsp.wa.gov. 2010-12-21. Retrieved 2011-11-13. 
  44. ^ "Emission Inspections and Waiver Information". Doa.alaska.gov. Retrieved 2012-03-03. 

External links[edit]