Vehicle size class
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Vehicle size classes are a way of classifying cars. The common North American parlance is word-based, while English-speaking European writers also use words to describe car sizes. In parts of Asia, segment letters are sometimes used.
American government defined size of Federal Regulations, Title 40—Protection of Environment, Section 600.315-82 Classes of comparable automobiles. Passenger car classes are defined based on interior volume index or seating capacity, except the ones classified as special vehicle. A two seater is classified as a car with no more than two designated seating positions. Others as follows:
|Class||Minicompact car||Subcompact car||Compact car||Midsize car||Large car|
|Interior combined passenger and cargo volume index in cubic feet (liters)||under 85 (2407)||85–99.9 (2407–2831)||100–109.9 (2832–3114)||110–119.9 (3115–3397)||120 (3398) or over|
|Class||Small station wagon||Midsize station wagon||Large station wagon|
|Interior volume index in cubic feet (liters)||under 130 (3681)||130–160 (3681–4531)||over 160 (4531)|
Nonpassenger automobiles are defined as small pickup trucks, standard pickup trucks, vans, and special purpose vehicles. Pickup trucks is separated from car line based on gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR). For pickup truck car lines with more than one GVWR (gross vehicle weight rating), the GVWR of the pickup truck car line is the arithmetic average of all distinct GVWR's less than or equal to 8,500 pounds available for that car line.
|Class||Small pickup truck||Standard pickup truck||Van|
|GVWR in pound (kg)||under 4500 (2041)||4500–8500 (2041–3856)||undefined|
Special purpose vehicle is defined as automobile with GVWR less than or equal to 8,500 pounds which possess special features that are more appropriately classified separately from typical automobiles or which do not meet the definitions of above mentioned classes.
Interior volume index is calculated differently for different vehicle classes:
- For passenger automobiles, it is calculated for each car line which is not a two seater. For car lines with more than one body style, the interior volume index for the car line is the arithmetic average of the interior volume indexes of each body style in the car line.
- For all body styles except station wagons and hatchbacks with more than one seat (e.g., with a second or third seat) equipped with seatbelts as required by DOT safety regulations, interior volume index is the sum, rounded to the nearest 0.1 cubic feet (2.8 L), of the front seat volume, the rear seat volume, if applicable, and the luggage capacity.
- For all station wagons and hatchbacks with more than one seat (e.g., with a second or third seat) equipped with seat belts as required by DOT safety regulations, interior volume index is the sum, rounded to the nearest 0.1 cubic feet (2.8 L), of the front seat volume, the rear seat volume, and the cargo volume index.
All dimensions and volumes shall be determined from the base vehicles of each body style in each car line, and do not include optional equipment.
Front seat volume is calculated as product of:
- Effective head room-front
- Average of shoulder and hip room-front, if hip room is more than 5 inches (130 mm) less than shoulder room; Shoulder room-front, if hip room is not more than 5 inches (130 mm) less than shoulder room
- Maximum effective leg room-accelerator
Rear seat volume is calculated for vehicles within a rear seat equipped with rear seat belts (as required by DOT), as product of:
- Effective head room-second
- Average of shoulder and hip room-second, if hip room is more than 5 inches (130 mm) less than shoulder room; Shoulder room-second, if hip room is not more than 5 inches (130 mm) less than shoulder room
- Minimum effective leg room-second
For passenger automobiles with no rear seat or with a rear seat but no rear seat belts, the area to the rear of the front seat shall be included in the determination of usable luggage capacity.
Cargo volume index is calculated as follows:
- For station wagon, it is the product of Shoulder room-second, Cargo height, Cargo length at belt-second.
- For hatchback, it is the product of:
- Average cargo length, the arithmetic average of the cargo compartment length at the second setback height and the cargo compartment length at the floor
- Shoulder room-second (essentially, rear seat width at the shoulder level)
- Second seatback to load floor height.
Cars are divided into six classes based on interior volume. An interior volume index is calculated from the combined passenger and trunk or cargo space. Pickup trucks, special purpose vehicles and vans are segmented in their own respective classes.
|Class||Two-seater||Subcompact car||Compact car||Mid-size car||Full-size car|
|Interior size in litres (cubic feet)||undefined||under 2830 (99.9)||2830–3115 (99.9–110)||3115–3400 (110–120)||over 3400 (120)|
|Class||Station wagon||Pickup truck||Special purpose vehicle||Minivan||Large van|
The above definitions of vehicle classes are not defined in Canadian regulations, but by Fuel Consumption Guide published by Natural Resources Canada.
Other vehicle classes are listed in On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations (SOR/2003-2), officially published in Canada Gazette Part 2, Vol. 137 No. 1:
|Class||light light-duty truck||light-duty truck||heavy light-duty truck||heavy-duty vehicle||medium-duty passenger vehicle|
|GVWR in kg (pounds)||2722 (6000) or under||3856 (8500) or under||over 2722–3856 (6000–8500)||over 3856 (8500)||same as heavy-duty vehicle|
|Curb weight in kg (pounds)||2722 (6000) or under||2722 (6000) or under||2722 (6000) or under||over 2722 (6000)||under 4536 (10000)|
|Frontal area in m² (square feet)||max 4.2 (45.2)||max 4.2 (45.2)||max 4.2 (45.2)||over 4.2 (45.2)||same as heavy-duty vehicle|
In case of light-duty trucks, all 3 conditions must be met, otherwise it is classified as heavy-duty vehicle. In addition, light-duty must also be:
- designed primarily for the transportation of property or that is a derivative of a vehicle that is designed for that purpose;
- designed primarily for the transportation of persons and has a designated seating capacity of more than 12 persons; or
- available with special features that enable it to be operated and used off-road, the special features being four-wheel drive and at least four of the following characteristics, that are calculated when the vehicle is at curb weight and on a level surface with the front wheels parallel to the vehicle's longitudinal centreline and the tires are inflated to the manufacturer's recommended pressure:
- an approach angle of not less than 28 degrees
- break-over angle of not less than 14 degrees,
- a departure angle of not less than 20 degrees,
- ground clearances of not less than 17.8 cm under the front and rear axles, and
- a ground clearance of not less than 20.3 cm under any point other than the front or rear axle.
Medium-duty passenger vehicle is classified as a heavy-duty vehicle that is designed primarily for the transportation of persons but does not include any vehicle that
- is a truck that is incomplete because it does not have a primary load carrying device or container attached;
- has a seating capacity of more than 12 persons;
- is designed to seat more than 9 persons behind the driver; or
- is equipped with an open cargo area (for example, a pick-up truck box or bed) of 183 cm in interior length or more or with a covered box not readily accessible from the passenger compartment.
Motorcycle is classified as an on-road vehicle with a headlight, taillight and stoplight that has two or three wheels and a curb weight of 793 kg or less, but does not include a vehicle that has an engine displacement of less than 50 cc, or that, with an 80 kg (176 pound) driver:
- cannot start from a dead stop using only the engine; or
- cannot exceed a speed of 40 km/h on a level paved surface.
Vehicle segments in Europe do not have formal characterization or regulations. Models segments tend to be based on comparison to well-known brand models. For example, a car such as the Volkswagen Golf might be described as being in the Ford Focus size class, or vice versa. The VW Polo is smaller, so it belongs one segment below the Golf, while the bigger Passat is one segment above.
This is a table listing several different methods of car classification.
EuroNCAP applies a standard safety test to all new cars, the results are listed in separate categories to allow prospective vehicle purchasers to compare models of a similar size and shape:
- Superminis (including city cars)
- Small family cars (also for stand-alone saloon superminis, like the Dacia Logan)
- Large family cars (includes compact executive cars)
- Executive cars (for expensive cars over 4.80 m long)
- Small off-roaders (similar to the North American crossover SUV category)
- Large off-roaders (similar to the North American SUV category)
- Small MPVs (both mini MPVs and compact MPVs)
- Large MPVs
Vehicle size categories for passenger vehicles for the China NCAP program as defined by the China Automotive Technology and Research Center (CATARC) may appear similar to the European system, but are closer to the Japanese in application.
- Small cars, sometimes referred to as the A0-segment, are vehicles including MPVs of less than 4 m in length (roughly corresponding to the European A- and B-segments, and the US EPA's mini- and subcompact classes).
- Category A (A-segment) vehicles are 2-box vehicles (hatchbacks, MPVs or wagons) of between 4 and 4.5 meters in length, or three-box vehicles (i.e., sedans with a trunk) with engines of less than 1600 cc.
- Category B (B-segment) vehicles are longer than 4.5 m in length with engines of over 1600 cc.
- Multi-Purpose Vehicles, or MPVs: those with more than two rows of seats.
- Sport Utility vehicles or SUVs.
- Sections of this article are translated from Japanese Wikipedia.
Vehicle size classes in Japan are rather simple compared to other regions. The classifications were established under the Japanese Government's Road Vehicle Act of 1951. There are just three different classes defined by regulations. The law doesn't have revised classifications for roadsters, minivans, station wagons, SUVs, MPVs, or Crossovers. These standards of classification are enforced on all vehicles within the jurisdiction of Japan, and no special consideration is made for the vehicles origination of manufacture. The Japanese law regulates all vehicles that do not travel on railroads, or are not powered by physically contacting overhead power lines. The law regulates vehicles that are powered by an autonomous power source.
- Keijidosha (light cars): Buyers of Kei cars enjoy a number of tax, registration and other benefits to encourage the purchase of these tiny vehicles (among road vehicles requiring a license only). Regulations have been updated a number of times over the years to allow larger, more powerful cars to be developed and maintain demand as buyers become more affluent, and to improve collision protection performance. The current regulations state that a kei car is a vehicle less than 3.4 m (11.2 ft) long, 1.48 m (4.9 ft) wide, 2 m (6.6 ft) high and with an engine under 660 cc (40 cu in). Extra small microcars are available with an engine size no larger than 49 cc (3.0 cu in), identified with a light blue license plate and blue text.
- Small size Passenger vehicles, commonly called "5 number" vehicles in reference to their license-plate prefix. This class is defined as limited to vehicles less than 4.7 m (15.4 ft) long, 1.7 m (5.6 ft) wide, 2 m (6.6 ft) high and with engines at or under 2,000 cc (120 cu in). Vans, trucks and station wagons (considered commercial vehicles in Japan) in the compact size class receive a "4 number" license prefix. This size classification is the most popular in Japan, and Japanese manufacturers make regular improvements to compact sized products to maximize interior accommodation while remaining within the exterior boundaries.
- Normal size Passenger vehicles, commonly called "3 number" in reference to their license-plate prefix (trucks and buses over 2000 cc have license plates numbers beginning with 1 and 2 respectively), are those more than 4.7 m (15.4 ft) long, 1.7 m (5.6 ft) wide, 2 m (6.6 ft) high or with engines larger than 2,000 cc (120 cu in). This regulation also mandates that all passenger vehicles can not exceed 5 m (16.4 ft) length or 1.8 m (5.9 ft) width. The tax paid on the size of vehicles in this class is ¥39,500 yen per year for private use and ¥9,500 yen per year for business use (taxi). Based on market conditions, vehicles such as the first generation Honda Legend, and the Mitsubishi Starion were produced in both "compact size" (just under 4.7 m long and 1.7 m wide) for the Japanese market, and longer and/or wider "passenger size" versions, primarily for export.
Motorcycles also have classification definitions based on engine size:
- Class I Moped — engine size must be at or less than 50cc, identified by blue text and white extra small license plate.
- Class II Moped (B) — engine size is between 50cc–90cc, identified by blue text and yellow extra small license plate.
- Class II Moped (MIG) — engine size is between 90cc–125cc, identified by blue text and pink extra small license plate (color of plate can vary according to regional requirements)
- Motorcycle Light — engine size is between 125cc–250cc, identified by green text and white small license plate.
- Motorcycle Medium — engine size is between 250cc–400cc, identified by green outline and green text with white small license plate.
- Motorcycle Large — engine size is over 400cc, identified by green outline and green text with white small license plate.
All vehicles with an engine displacement over 250cc are required to undergo an inspection (called "Shaken" in Japan). The tax charged for the size and engine displacement of the vehicle is paid when the inspection is successful. This is separate from the road tax paid yearly.