Velarized alveolar lateral approximant
||This article needs additional citations for verification. (June 2007)|
|Velarized alveolar lateral approximant|
|Unicode (hex)||U+006C U+02E0|
The velarized alveolar lateral approximant, also known as dark l, is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The regular symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨lˠ⟩, though the dedicated letter ⟨ɫ⟩ is perhaps more common.
Depending on language and dialect, this sound may instead be pharyngealized. Velarization and pharyngealization are generally associated with more dental articulations of coronal consonants so that dark l tends to be dental or denti-alveolar while clear l tends to be retracted to an alveolar position.
Features of the velarized alveolar lateral approximant:
- Its manner of articulation is approximant, which means it is produced by narrowing the vocal tract at the place of articulation, but not enough to produce a turbulent airstream.
- Its place of articulation is dental or alveolar, which means it is articulated with the tip (or, more rarely, the blade) of the tongue against the alveolar ridge. It also has a secondary articulation of velarization or pharyngealization, meaning that the back or root of the tongue approaches the soft palate (velum), or the back of the throat, respectively.
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a lateral consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream over the sides of the tongue, rather than down the middle.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|Arabic||Standard||الله ʼAllah||[ʔɑɫˈɫɑːh]||'God'||Also transcribed as ⟨lˤ⟩. Many accents and dialects lack the sound and instead pronounce [l]. See Arabic phonology|
|Catalan||Eastern dialects||cel·la||[ˈsɛɫːə]||'cell'||Can be always dark in many dialects. See Catalan phonology|
|Dutch||bal||[bɑɫ]||'ball'||Postvocalic allophone of /l/. Can be always dark in some Netherlandic dialects. See Dutch phonology|
|English||Australian||peel||[pʰiːɫ]||'peel'||Can be always dark in North America, Australia and New Zealand. See English phonology|
|Scottish||loch||[ɫɔx]||'loch'||Can be always dark, except in some borrowings from Scottish Gaelic|
|Greek||Northern dialects||μπάλα bálla||[ˈbaɫa]||'ball'||Allophone of /l/ before /a o u/. See Modern Greek phonology|
|Icelandic||sigldi||[sɪɫtɪ]||'sailed'||Rare. See Icelandic phonology|
|Irish||lá||[ɫɑː]||'day'||See Irish phonology|
|[ɫuk]||'onion'||Only before back vowels (/a o u/) and syllable-finally. See Macedonian phonology|
|Norwegian||Northern||spelle||[spæɫːe]||'to play'||See Norwegian phonology|
|Southeastern||tale||[ˈtʰɑːɫə]||'speech', 'to speak'||Allophone of /l/ after [ɑ(ː)], [ɔ] and [oː]. See Norwegian phonology|
|Ossetian||Алани Alani||[aˈɫaːni] (help·info)||'Alania'|
|Polish||Eastern dialects||łapa||[ˈɫapa]||'paw'||Corresponds to /w/ in standard Polish. See Polish phonology|
|Portuguese||European||mil||[miɫ̪]||'one thousand'||Coda is now vocalized to [u̯ ~ ʊ̯] in most of Brazil (as in rural parts of Alto Minho and Madeira). Can be always dark in most dialects, mainly before back/rounded and close/unrounded vowels. See Portuguese phonology|
|Most dialects||Lituânia||[ɫ̪ituˈɐ̃ɲ̟ɐ] (help·info)||'Lithuania'|
|Older General Brazilian||álcool||[ˈaɫ̪ko̞ɫ̪]||'alcohol', 'ethanol'|
|Russian||малый||[ˈmɑɫ̪ɨj]||'small'||See Russian phonology|
|Scottish Gaelic||Mallaig||[ˈmaʊɫækʲ]||'Mallaig'||See Scottish Gaelic phonology|
|Taos||[kīǣˈwǣɫmã̄]||'be strong'||See Taos phonology|
|Turkish||kızıl||[kɯzɯɫ]||'red'||See Turkish phonology|
See also 
- Recasens & Espinosa (2005:4)
- Watson (2002:16)
- Recasens & Espinosa (2005:1, 20)
- Verhoeven (2005:245)
- Booij, Geert. 1999. The Phonology of Dutch. P.8
- Roca & Johnson (1999:73)
- Northern Greek Dialects Portal for the Greek Language
- Cruz-Ferreira (1995:93)
- MELO, Gladstone Chaves de. "A língua do Brasil". 4. Ed. Melhorada e aum., Rio de Janeiro: Padrão, 1981
- (Italian) Accenti romanze: Portogallo e Brasile (portoghese) – The influence of foreign accents on Italian language acquisition
- (Portuguese) The process of Norm change for the good pronunciation of the Portuguese language in chant and dramatics in Brazil during 1938, 1858 and 2007 Page 36.
- TEYSSIER, Paul. "História da Língua Portuguesa", Lisboa: Livraria Sá da Costa, pp. 81-83.
- Bisol (2005:211)
- Jones & Ward (1969:168)
- Bisol, Leda (2005), "Introdução a estudos de fonologia do português brasileiro", editora EDIPUCRS (4th ed.) (Porto Alegre - Rio Grande do Sul), ISBN 85-7430-529-4
- Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223
- Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press
- Recasens, Daniel; Espinosa, Aina (2005), "Articulatory, positional and coarticulatory characteristics for clear /l/ and dark /l/: evidence from two Catalan dialects", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (1): 1–25, doi:10.1017/S0025100305001878
- Roca, Iggy; Johnson, Wyn (1999), A Course in Phonology, Essex: Blackwell Publishing, ISBN 0-631-21346-5
- Verhoeven, Jo (2005), "Belgian Standard Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (2): 243–247, doi:10.1017/S0025100305002173
- Watson, Janet (2002), The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic, Oxford University Press