Venezuelan bolívar

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Venezuelan bolívar
Bolívar fuerte venezolano (Spanish)
Lata con monedas de Venezuela 2013 000.JPG 100 Venezuelan Bolivares banknote of the 1940s..jpg
Various venezuelan coins 100 Bolivares banknote of the 1940s
ISO 4217 code VEF
Central bank Banco Central de Venezuela
 Website www.bcv.org.ve
User(s)  Venezuela
Inflation +40% (July 2013) [1]
Pegged with U.S. dollar = Bs.F. 6.30
(Greatly different black market rate; see article text)[2]
Subunit
 1/100 céntimo
Symbol Bs.F.[3] or Bs.
Nickname bolo(s), luca(s), real(es)
Plural bolívares fuertes
Coins
 Freq. used 50c, Bs.F. 1 [3]
 Rarely used 1c, 5c, 10c, 12½c, 25c
Banknotes Bs.F. 2; 5; 10; 20; 50; 100[3]

The bolívar fuerte (sign: Bs.F.[3] or Bs.;[4] plural: bolívares fuertes; ISO 4217 code: VEF) is the currency of Venezuela since 1 January 2008. It is subdivided into 100 céntimos[5] and replaced the bolívar (sign: Bs.;[3] plural: bolívares; ISO 4217 code: VEB) at the rate of Bs.F. 1 = Bs. 1,000 because of inflation.

History[edit]

Bolívar[edit]

5-venezolano coin

The bolívar was adopted by the monetary law of 1879, replacing the short-lived venezolano at a rate of five bolívares to one venezolano. Initially, the bolívar was defined on the silver standard, equal to 4.5g fine silver, following the principles of the Latin Monetary Union. The monetary law of 1887 made the gold bolívar unlimited legal tender, and the gold standard came into full operation in 1910. Venezuela went off gold in 1930, and in 1934 the bolívar exchange rate was fixed in terms of the U.S. dollar at a rate of 3.914 bolívares = 1 U.S. dollar, revalued to 3.18 bolívares = 1 U.S. dollar in 1937, a rate which lasted until 1941. Until 18 February 1983 (now called Black Friday (Viernes Negro) by many Venezuelans[6]), the bolívar had been the region's most stable and internationally accepted currency. It then fell prey to high devaluation. Exchange controls were adopted since February 5, 2003 to limit capital flight,[7] pegged to the U.S. dollar at a fixed exchange rate of 1600 VEB to the dollar.

Bolívar fuerte[edit]

The government announced on 7 March 2007 that the bolívar would be revalued at a ratio of 1 to 1000 on 1 January 2008 and renamed the bolívar fuerte in an effort to facilitate the ease of transaction and accounting.[8] The new name is literally translated as "strong bolívar",[9][10] but also references an old coin called the Peso fuerte worth 10 Spanish reales.[11]

The name "bolívar fuerte" is only used temporarily to distinguish it from the older currency that is being used along with the bolívar fuerte.[12]

The Central Bank of Venezuela is promoting the new currency with an ad campaign and the slogan: "Una economía fuerte, un bolívar fuerte, un país fuerte" (lit. "a strong economy, a strong bolívar, a strong country").[8] Nevertheless, the black market value of the bolívar fuerte has been significantly lower than the fixed exchange rate of 6.3 (in November 2013 it was almost as high as 10 to 1).[13] It is illegal to publish this "parallel exchange rate" in Venezuela.[2]

Some estimations suggest that the government spent more than US$320 million to introduce the new currency.[citation needed]

On 8 January 2010, the value was changed by the government from the fixed exchange rate of 2.15 bolívares fuertes to 2.60 bolívares for some imports (certain foods and healthcare goods) and 4.30 bolívares for other imports like cars, petrochemicals, and electronics.[14]

On 4 January 2011, the fixed exchange rate became 4.30 bolívares for 1.00 USD for both sides of the economy.

It should be noted that the official exchange rate is restricted to individuals by CADIVI, which imposes an annual limit on the amount available for travel (up to $3000 annually depending on the location and duration of travel) and $400 for electronic purchases.

Since Hugo Chavez imposed strict currency controls in 2003, there have been a series of five currency devaluations, disrupting the economy.[15] There was another devaluation on 13 February 2013 (to 6.30 bolivars per dollar), in an attempt to counter budget deficits.[16]

Coins[edit]

Bolívar[edit]

In 1879, silver coins were introduced in denominations of 15, ½, 1, 2, and 5 bolívares, together with gold 20 bolívares. Gold 100 bolívares were also issued between 1886 and 1889. In 1894, silver ¼ bolívar coins were introduced, followed by cupro-nickel 5 and 12½ céntimos in 1896.

In 1912, production of gold coins ceased, whilst production of the 5 bolívares ended in 1936. In 1965, nickel replaced silver in the 25 and 50 céntimos, with the same happening to the 1 and 2 bolívares in 1967. In 1971, cupro-nickel 10 céntimo coins were issued, the 12½ céntimos having last been issued in 1958. A nickel 5 bolívares was introduced in 1973. Clad steel (first copper, then nickel and cupro-nickel) was used for the 5 céntimos from 1974. Nickel clad steel was introduced for all denominations from 25 céntimos up to 5 bolívares in 1989.

In 1998, after a period of high inflation, a new coinage was introduced consisting of 10, 20, 50, 100 and 500 bolívar denominations.

The former coins were:

  • 10 bolívares
  • 20 bolívares
  • 50 bolívares
  • 100 bolívares
  • 500 bolívares
  • 1000 bolívares (minted 2005, issued late 2006, incorrectly rumored as recalled due to official Coat of Arms change during the interval)[17]

All the coins had the same design. On the obverse the left profile of the Libertador Simón Bolívar is depicted, along with the inscription "Bolívar Libertador" within a heptagon, symbolizing the seven stars of the flag. On the reverse the coat of arms is depicted, circled by the official name of the country, with the date and the denomination below. In 2001, the reverse design was changed, putting the denomination of the coin at the right of the shield of the coat of arms, Semi-Circled by the official name of the country and the year of its emission below.

Bolívar fuerte[edit]

Coins are in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 12½, 25, 50 céntimos, and 1 bolívar. However, the coin of 1 céntimo is not widely used as most prices are rounded up to the next 5 céntimos. It will be noticed that there is a coin of 12½ céntimos and a coin of 1 céntimo; but no coin of ½ céntimo. It is therefore inconvenient to give correct change for a purchase of (for example) 53½ céntimos; this is however a largely academic "problem" as goods are priced (if they use the ½ at all) in 12½ céntimos increments. This nevertheless still presents theoretical mathematical problems, as there is also no 2½ céntimos coin.

Denomination Shape Composition Diameter Edge Obverse Reverse Obverse image Reverse image
1 céntimo Round Copper plated steel 15 mm Milled Denomination of the coin, the eight stars and the waves representing the patterns of the national flag Coat of Arms of Venezuela and the name of the country of emission 1ca.jpg 1cr.jpg
5 céntimos Round Copper plated steel 17 mm Smooth Denomination of the coin, the eight stars and the waves representing the patterns of the national flag Coat of Arms of Venezuela and the name of the country of emission 5cr.jpg 5ca.jpg
10 céntimos Round Nickel plated steel 18 mm Milled Denomination of the coin, the eight stars and the waves representing the patterns of the national flag Coat of Arms of Venezuela and the name of the country of emission 10ca.jpg 10cr.jpg
12,5 céntimos Round Nickel plated steel 23 mm Smooth Denomination of the coin, the eight stars of the national flag and two palm branches Coat of Arms of Venezuela and the name of the country of emission 12ca.jpg 12cr.jpg
25 céntimos Round Nickel plated steel 20 mm Smooth Denomination of the coin, the eight stars and the waves representing the patterns of the national flag Coat of Arms of Venezuela and the name of the country of emission 0.25 Bs..jpg 25cr.jpg
50 céntimos Round Nickel plated steel 22 mm Smooth and Milled Denomination of the coin, the eight stars and the waves representing the patterns of the national flag Coat of Arms of Venezuela and the name of the country of emission 0.50 Bs.jpg 0,50 Bs..jpg
Bs. 1 Round Copper-Nickel center, Brass ring 24 mm Smooth 'BCV1' Effigy of the Liberator Simón Bolívar, waves representing the patterns of the national flag Denomination of the coin, the eight stars and the waves representing the patterns of the national flag, the Coat of Arms of Venezuela and the name of the country of emission 1 Bs. R.jpg 1 Bs..jpg

Banknotes[edit]

Bolívar[edit]

In TACO 1940, the Banco Central de Venezuela began issuing paper money, introducing by 1945 denominations of 10, 20, 50, 100 and 500 bolívares. 5 bolívar notes were issued between 1966 and 1974, when they were replaced by coins. In 1989, notes for 1, 2 and 5 bolívares were issued.

As inflation took hold, higher denominations of banknotes started being introduced: 1,000 bolívares in 1991, 2,000 and 5,000 bolívares in 1994, and 10,000, 20,000 and 50,000 bolívares in 1998. The first 20,000 banknotes were made in a green color similar to the one of the 2,000 banknotes, which caused confusion, and new banknotes were made in the new olive green color.

The following is a list of a former Venezuelan bolívar banknotes.

Pre-1998 series banknotes (from various series)
Image Denomination Emission Year Obverse Reverse
500 bolívares 1981 Simón Bolívar A branch of orchids
1,000 bolívares 1991 Simón Bolívar Signing of the Venezuelan Declaration of Independence
2,000 bolívares 1994 Antonio José de Sucre The Battle of Junín
5,000 bolívares 1994 Simón Bolívar and his coat of arms A reproduction of the painting El 19 de Abril de 1810 by Juan Lovera
[2] [3] 10,000 bolívares 1998
1998 Series
2,000 bolívares 1998 Andrés Bello A picture of frailejones and a view of the Pico Bolívar
5,000 bolívares 2000 Francisco de Miranda Picture of two angelfishes and a panorama of the Guri Dam.
10,000 bolívares 2000 Antonio José de Sucre A Marpesia petreus butterfly and the Supreme Tribunal of Justice
20,000 bolívares 2000 Simón Rodríguez and the Angel Falls in the background A Blue-and-yellow Macaw and the Angel Falls
[4] [5] 50,000 bolívares 2005 José María Vargas Central University of Venezuela, Caracas

Bolívar fuerte[edit]

Banknotes are in denominations of 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 bolívares.

2008 Series
Image Denomination Emission Year Obverse Reverse
[6] [7] 2 bolívares 2008 Francisco de Miranda Orinoco River Dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) with Coro Dunes in background; Gusano flower
[8] [9] 5 bolívares 2008 Pedro Camejo Giant Armadillo (Priodontes maximus) with the plains of Los Llanos in the background
[10] [11] 10 bolívares 2008 Cacique Guaicaipuro American Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja) with the Ucaima Falls at Canaima National Park in the background
[12] [13] 20 bolívares 2008 Luisa Cáceres de Arismendi Hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) with Macanao Mountain in the background
[14] [15] 50 bolívares 2008 Simón Rodríguez Spectacled Bear (Tremarctos ornatos) with Laguna Santo Cristo at Sierra Nevada National Park in the background
[16] [17] 100 bolívares 2008 Simón Bolívar Red Siskin (Carduelis cucullata) with Cerro El Ávila at El Ávila National Park in the background
Current VEF exchange rates
From Google Finance: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD INR
From Yahoo! Finance: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD INR
From XE.com: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD INR
From OANDA.com: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD INR
From Investing.com: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD INR
From fxtop.com: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD INR

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rachael Boothroyd (May 4, 2011). "Venezuela’s Inflation Rate Down from 2010". Venezuelanalysis. 
  2. ^ a b Simon Romero (February 9, 2008). "In Venezuela, Faith in Chávez Starts to Wane". New York Times. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Banco Central de Venezuela. "B.C.V. Bolívar Fuerte." Accessed 26 Feb 2011.
  4. ^ http://eldiariodeguayana.com.ve/nacionales/2523-eliminaran-expresion-bolivares-fuertes-obsf-.html
  5. ^ Rueda, Jorge (2008-01-01). "Venezuela Introduces New Currency". ABC News. Retrieved 2008-02-04. [dead link]
  6. ^ The Economist
  7. ^ CADIVI, Sistema Cambiario
  8. ^ a b The Scotsman (Edinburgh) http://news.scotsman.com/latest.cfm?id=257062007 |url= missing title (help). [dead link]
  9. ^ television advertisements [1] for the new currency repeatedly use "fuerte" as meaning "strong" such as in "Una economía fuerte" (a strong economy) and "¡Aquí hay fuerza!" (There's strength in this!)
  10. ^ Rueda, Jorge (2008-01-01). "Venezuela cuts three zeros off bolivar currency". Reuters. Retrieved 2008-02-04. 
  11. ^ Numismatic Catalog of Venezuela. "Coins in Pesos Fuerte". Retrieved 2008-02-04. 
  12. ^ "Chavez Passes Law-Decree on Monetary Reform in Venezuela". 
  13. ^ "Stuck in Venezuela with those currency exchange blues". Los Angeles Times. 12 November 2013. Retrieved 7 January 2014. 
  14. ^ "Venezuela will slash value of currency, the bolivar". BBC. 2010-01-09. Retrieved 2010-01-09. 
  15. ^ Mander, Benedict (10 February 2013). "Venezuelan devaluation sparks panic". Financial Times. Retrieved 11 February 2013. 
  16. ^ "Chavez Devaluation Puts Venezuelans to Queue on Price Raise". Bloomberg. 11 February 2013. Retrieved 11 February 2013. 
  17. ^ Numismatic Catalog of Venezuela. "Coins from Venezuela : 1000 Bolívares - Design B, Type A". Retrieved 2011-01-07. 

http://eldiariodeguayana.com.ve/nacionales/2523-eliminaran-expresion-bolivares-fuertes-obsf-.html

External links[edit]