Venice Biennale

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Venice Biennale
Biennale di Venezia
Genre biennale. It starts with a focus on contemporary art. Now there are specific events also for cinema and theatre.
Begins 1895
Frequency biennial, every two years
Location(s) Venice, Italy
Website
http://www.labiennale.org
Biennalist Giardini Main Entrance
Detail of exhibition.
View of "Pump Room", a work by the Hungarian artist Balázs Kicsiny at the Venice Biennale in 2005.
Works at 54th Venice Biennale, special edition for the 150 Anniversary of Italian Unification, 2011-2012[1]

The Venice Biennale (Italian: Biennale di Venezia; also called in English the "Venice Biennial") is a major contemporary art exhibition that takes place once every two years (in odd years) in Venice, Italy. The Venice Film Festival is part of it. So too is the Venice Biennale of Architecture, which is held in even years. A dance section, the "International Festival of Contemporary Dance", was established in 1999.[2]

History[edit]

The first Biennale was held in 1895; during the first editions, decorative arts played an important role. The event became more and more international in the first decades of the 20th century: from 1907 on, several countries started installing national pavilions at the exhibition. After World War I, the Biennale showed increasing interest in innovative traditions in modern art. Between the two World Wars, many important modern artists had their work exhibited there.

In 1930, control of the Biennale passed from the Venice city council to the national Fascist government. In the 1930s, several new sections of the event were established: the Music Festival in 1930, the International Film Festival in 1932 and the Theatre Festival in 1934. From 1938, Grand Prizes were awarded in the art exhibition section.

After a six-year break during World War II, the Biennale was resumed in 1948 with renewed attention to avant-garde movements in European, and later worldwide, movements in contemporary art. Abstract expressionism was introduced in the 1950s, and the Biennale is credited with importing Pop Art into the canon of art history by awarding the top prize to Robert Rauschenberg in 1964.[3] From 1948 to 1972, Italian architect Carlo Scarpa did a series of remarkable interventions in the Biennales exhibition spaces.

The protests of 1968 marked a crisis for the Biennale; the Grand Prizes were abandoned and more emphasis went to thematic exhibitions instead of monographic ones. In 1972, for the first time the Biennale adopted a theme: 'work and behaviour'. The 1974 edition was entirely dedicated to Chile, as a major cultural protest against the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet. New prizes - Golden Lions, like the awards for the Venice Film Festival - were installed; postmodern art entered the scene with increasingly varied and popular exhibitions.

In 1980, Achille Bonito Oliva and Harald Szeemann introduced "Aperto", a section of the exhibition designed to explore emerging art. Italian art historian Giovanni Carandente directed the 1988 and 1990 editions. A three-year gap was left afterwards to make sure that the 1995 edition would coincide with the 100th anniversary of the Biennale. The 1993 edition was directed by Achille Bonito Oliva. In 1995, Jean Clair was appointed to be the Biennale's first non-Italian director of visual arts[4] while Germano Celant served as director in 1997.

In 1999 and 2001, Harald Szeemann directed two editions in a row (48th & 49th) bringing in a larger representation of artists from Asia and Eastern Europe and more young artist than usual and expanded the show into several newly restored spaces of the Arsenale.

The 50th edition, 2003, directed by Francesco Bonami, had a record number of seven co-curators involved, including Hans Ulrich Obrist, Catherine David, Igor Zabel, Hou Hanru and Massimiliano Gioni. The 51st edition of the Biennale opened in June 2005, curated, for the first time by two women, Maria de Corral and Rosa Martinez. De Corral organized "The Experience of Art" which included 41 artists, from past masters to younger figures. Rosa Martinez took over the Arsenale with "Always a Little Further." Drawing on "the myth of the romantic traveler" her exhibition involved 49 artists, ranging from the elegant to the profane. In 2007, Robert Storr became the first director from the United States to curate the Biennale (the 52nd), with a show entitled Think with the Senses – Feel with the Mind. Art in the Present Tense. Swedish curator Daniel Birnbaum was artistic director of the 2009 edition, followed by the Swiss Bice Curiger in 2011.

The latest biennale, in 2013, was curated by the Italian Massimiliano Gioni. His title and theme, Il Palazzo Enciclopedico / The Encyclopedic Palace, was adopted from an architectural model by the self-taught Italian-American artist Marino Auriti. Auriti's work, The Encyclopedic Palace of the World was lent by the American Folk Art Museum and exhibited in the first room of the Arsenale for the duration of the biennale. For Gioni, Auriti's work, "meant to house all worldly knowledge, bringing together the greatest discoveries of the human race, from the wheel to the satellite," provided an analogous figure for the "biennale model itself...based on the impossible desire to concentrate the infinite worlds of contemporary art in a single place: a task that now seems as dizzyingly absurd as Auriti's dream."[5]

Curator Okwui Enwezor is responsible for the 2015 edition.[6] He will be the first African-born curator of the biennial.

The Biennale has an attendance today of over 300,000 visitors.[7]

Role in the art market[edit]

When the Venice Biennale was founded in 1895, one of its main goals was to establish a new market for contemporary art. Between 1942 and 1968 a sales office assisted artists in finding clients and selling their work,[8] a service for which it charged 10% commission. Sales remained an intrinsic part of the biennale until 1968, when a sales ban was enacted. An important practical reason why the focus on non-commodities has failed to decouple Venice from the market is that the biennale itself lacks the funds to produce, ship and install these large-scale works. Therefore the financial involvement of dealers is widely regarded indispensable.[3] Furthermore, every other year the Venice Biennale coincides with nearby Art Basel, the world's prime commercial fair for modern and contemporary art. Numerous galleries with artists on show in Venice usually bring work by the same artists to Basel.[9]

Central Pavilion and Arsenale[edit]

The formal Biennale is based at a park, the Giardini. The Giardini includes a large exhibition hall that houses a themed exhibition curated by the Biennale's director.

For the 2013 edition, the main exhibition's budget was about $2.3 million; in addition, more than $2 million were raised mostly from private individuals and foundations and philanthropists.[10]

Initiated in 1980, the Aperto began as a fringe event for younger artists and artists of a national origin not represented by the permanent national pavilions. This is usually staged in the Arsenale and has become part of the formal biennale programme. In 1995 there was no Aperto so a number of participating countries hired venues to show exhibitions of emerging artists.

A special edition of the 54th Biennale was held at Padiglione Italia of Torino Esposizioni - Sala Nervi (December 2011 - February 2012) for the 150th Anniversary of Italian Unification. The event was directed by Vittorio Sgarbi.[11]

National Pavilions[edit]

The Giardini houses 30 permanent national pavilions. Alongside the Central Pavilion, built in 1894 and later restructured and extended several times, the Giardini are occupied by a further 29 pavilions built at different periods by the various countries participating in the Biennale. The Giardini are the property of the individual countries and are managed by their ministries of culture.[12]

Countries not owning a pavilion in the Giardini are exhibited in other venues across Venice. The number of countries represented is still growing. In 2005, China was showing for the first time, followed by the African Pavilion and Mexico (2007), the United Arab Emirates (2009), and India (2011).[13]

The assignment of the permanent pavilions was largely dictated by the international politics of the 1930s and the Cold War. There is no single format to how each country manages their pavilion, established and emerging countries represented at the biennial maintain and fund their pavilions in different ways.[12] The pavilion for Great Britain is always managed by the British Council while the United States assigns the responsibility to a public gallery chosen by the Department of State which, since 1985, has been the Peggy Guggenheim Collection.[14] The countries at the Arsenale that request a temporary exhibition space pay a hire fee per square meter.[12]

In 2011, the countries were Albania, Andorra, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Congo, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech and Slovak Republics, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Haiti, Hungary, Iceland, India, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Mexico, Moldova, Montenegro, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Syrian Arab Republic, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States of America, Uruguay, Venezuela, Wales and Zimbabwe. In addition to this there are two collective pavilions: Central Asia Pavilion and Istituto Italo-Latino Americano. In 2013, ten new participant countries developed national pavilions for the Biennale: Angola, the Bahamas, Bahrain, the Ivory Coast, Kosovo, Kuwait, the Maldives, Paraguay, Tuvalu, and the Holy See.

Argentina[edit]

In 1901, Argentina was the first Latin American nation to participate in the Biennale. In 2011, it was granted a pavilion in the Sale d'Armi, which it will restore.[15]

List of exhibitors in the Argentinian Pavilion:

Australia[edit]

The Australian Pavilion, designed by Philip Cox to be a temporary structure, was opened in 1988.[16] Cox and other generous donors gifted this pavilion to the Commonwealth Government.[17] A new pavilion is to be designed by architectural practice Denton Corker Marshall and due to be completed in 2015. Australia's participation at the Venice Biennale is managed by the Australia Council for the Arts. However, all of the A$6m ($6.04m) needed for the new building is to be raised from the private sector.[18]

List of exhibitors in the Australian Pavilion:

Austria[edit]

Designed by Joseph Hoffmann with the collaboration of Robert Kramreiter, 1934 (restored by Hans Hollein, 1984).[16] The clear symmetrical building, conceived as a white cube from the outset, was the first Venice pavilion to have been designed by a leading Classical Modern architect. The Hoffmann pavilion was not used following the annexation of Austria by the Third Reich in 1938, nor in the subsequent Biennale years of 1940 and 1942. Austrian artists with close ties to the Nazi regime were shown in the German Pavilion.[19]

List of exhibitors in the Austrian Pavilion:

Azerbaijan[edit]

List of exhibitors in the Azerbaijan Pavilion:

Belgium[edit]

Designed by Leon Sneyers, 1907 (totally restored by Virgilio Vallot, 1948).[16]

List of exhibitors in the Belgian Pavilion:

Brazil[edit]

Designed by Amerigo Marchesin, 1964.[16]

List of exhibitors in the Brazilian Pavilion:

Canada[edit]

Canadian Pavilion.

The Canadian pavilion was designed by the Milan-based architecture firm BBPR (Gian Luigi Banfi, Ludovico Barbiano di Belgiojoso, Enrico Peressutti, Ernesto Nathan Rogers) and was first used at the 1958 biennale.[16] The nation has been participating in the international exhibition since 1952.[21] The National Gallery of Canada took over the Venice selection process from the Canada Council in 2010.

List of exhibitors in the Canadian Pavilion:

Central Asia[edit]

The first Central Asian Pavilion was an initiative of Victor Miziano in 2005. In the following years the second pavilion was organized by Yulia Sorokina (Almaty) and the third by Beral Madra (Istanbul). Each of these exhibitions was different in format and approach. The first one – Art from Central Asia. A Contemporary Archive – aimed at placing Central Asia on the ‘map’ of international art. Along the works of invited artists, there were many video compilations of films, performance and happenings presented by Central Asian artists from the end of 1990s and beginning of 2000.

List of exhibitors in the Central Asia Pavilion:

  • 2005 — Said Atabekov, Vyacheslav Akhunov & Sergey Tychina, Maksim Boronilov & Roman Maskalev, Elena Vorobyeva & Viktor Vorobyev, Kasmalieva & Djumaliev, Sergey Maslov, Almagul Menlibaeva, Erbossyn Meldibekov, Alexander Nikolaev, Rustam Khalfin & Yulia Tikhonova (Curators: Viktor Misiano, Commissioner: Churek Djamgerchinova)
  • 2007 — Roman Maskalev, Almagul Menlibaeva & German Popov, Gulnur Mukazhanova, Alexander Nikolaev, Aleksey Rumyantsev, Alexander Ugay, Аsia Animation, Said Atabekov, Vyacheslav Akhunov, Alla Girik & Oksana Shatalova, Digsys, Natalia Dyu, Zadarnovsky Brothers, Gaukhar Kiyekbayeva, Vyacheslav Useinov, Jamol Usmanov, Aytegin Muratbek Uulu, Jamshed Kholikov, ZITABL (Commissioner and curator: Yulia Sorokina)
  • 2009 — Ermek Jaenish, Jamshed Kholikov, Anzor Salidjanov, Oksana Shatalova, Elena Vorobyeva & Viktor Vorobyev (Curator: Beral Madra, Commissioner: Vittorio Urbani)
  • 2011 — Natalia Andrianova, Said Atabekov, Artyom Ernst, Galim Madanov and Zauresh Terekbay, Yerbossyn Meldibekov, Alexander Nikolaev, Marat Raiymkulov, Aleksey Rumyantsev and Alla Rumyantseva, Adis Seitaliev (Curators: Boris Chukhovich, Georgy Mamedov, Oksana Shatalova, Commissioners: Asel Akmatova, Andris Brinkmanis)

Chile[edit]

List of exhibitors in the Chilean Pavilion:

  • 2009 — Iván Navarro (Curators: Antonio Arévalo, Justo Pastor Mellado)
  • 2011 — Fernando Prats
  • 2013 — Alfredo Jaar (Curator: Madeleine Grynsztejn)

Croatia[edit]

List of exhibitors in the Croatian Pavilion:[23]

Czech Republic and Slovakia[edit]

Designed by Otakar Novotný, 1926 (annex built by Boguslav Rychlinch, 1970).[16]

List of exhibitors in the Czech and Slovak Pavilion:

  • 1993 — Jiří Surůvka, Ilona Németh, František Skála (Curator: Katarína Rusnáková)
  • 2001 — Viera Levitt
  • 2007 — Irena Jůzová
  • 2009 — Roman Ondák
  • 2011 — Dominik Lang (Curator: Yvona Ferencová)
  • 2013 — Petra Feriancová, Zbyněk Baladrán (Curator: Marek Pokorný)

Denmark[edit]

Designed by Carl Brummer, 1932 (annex designed by Peter Koch, 1958).[16]

The Danish Arts Council Committee for International Visual Arts serves as commissioner for the Danish Pavilion at the Biennale, where Denmark has taken part since 1895.[24]

List of exhibitors in the Danish Pavilion:

Egypt[edit]

Egypt was assigned a pavilion in 1952.

List of exhibitors in the Egyptian Pavilion:

Estonia[edit]

The expositions at the Estonian Pavilion are regularly commissioned by the Center for Contemporary Arts, Estonia.

List of exhibitors in the Estonian Pavilion:

  • 2003 — Kaido Ole
  • 2005 — Mark Raidpere
  • 2007 — Marko Mäetamm (Curator: Mika Hannula)
  • 2009 — Kristina Norman (Curator: Marko Laimre)
  • 2011 — Liina Siib
  • 2013 — Dénes Farkas

Finland[edit]

Designed by Alvar Aalto to be a temporary construction for the architecture biennale in 1956, the pavilion was later restored by Fredrik Fogh with the collaboration of Elsa Makiniemi, 1976–1982. Also used by Iceland.[16] In 2011, a big tree fell over the pavilion in Venice, effectively interrupting the Finnish exhibition in the 2011 biennale. The pavilion and the works exhibited there were damaged and the show had to be closed ahead of time. The pavilion was later restored.[26]

  • 2005 — Jaakko Heikkilä
  • 2007 — Maaria Wirkkala
  • 2011 — Vesa-Pekka Rannikko (Curator: Laura Köönikkä)
  • 2013 — Antti Laitinen, Terike Haapoja (Curators: Mika Elo, Marko Karo Harri Laakso)

France[edit]

French Pavilion.

France will be celebrating nearly a century in its pavilion at the 2011 Venice Biennale, which was designed by Faust Finzi in 1912.[21]

List of exhibitors in the French Pavilion:

Georgia[edit]

List of exhibitors in the Georgian Pavilion:

  • 2009 — Koka Ramishvili (Curator: Khatuna Khabuliani)
  • 2013 — Bouillon Group, Thea Djordjadze, Nikoloz Lutidze, Gela Patashuri with Ei Arakawa and Sergei Tcherepnin, Gio Sumbadze (Commissioner: Marine Mizandari, curator: Joanna Warsza)

Germany[edit]

German Pavilion.

The commissioner for the German contribution to Biennial is the German Foreign Ministry. On the recommendation of an advisory committee of museum directors and art experts, the ministry appoints a curator (formerly called a commissioner) who is responsible for the selection of the artists and the organisation of the contribution. This appointment is usually for two years in succession. The Sparkassen-Kulturfonds (culture fund) of the Deutscher Sparkassen- und Giroverband is the pavilion's main sponsor. The Goethe-Institut and, since 2013, the ifa Friends of the German Pavilion are also funders.[12]

From 1982 until 1990 the German Democratic Republic organized its own exhibitions in the former Pavilion of Decorative Art. Germany's pavilion was redesigned by Ernst Haiger and inaugurated in 1938 by the ruling Nazi government, a fact that has inspired artistic responses from some presenters.[21] It was originally designed by Daniele Donghi in 1909.[16]

List of exhibitors in the German Pavilion:

Great Britain[edit]

British Pavilion.

Designed by Edwin Alfred Rickards, 1909.[16]

Since 1938 the British Council has been responsible for the British Pavilion in Venice, showing British artists at the Venice Biennale.

List of exhibitors in the British Pavilion:

Greece[edit]

Designed by Brenno Del Giudice, M. Papandre, 1934.[16] In 1934, after the Biennale had organised a second exhibition in Athens (1993) — Greece officially took part for the first time in the Venice exhibition. The exhibitions at the pavilion are commissioned by the Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Tourism.

List of exhibitors in the Greek Pavilion:

Artists:

  • 1936 — Maria Anagnostopoulou, Umberto Argyros, Constantinos Artemis, Nicolas Asprogerakas (Commissioner: Typaldo Forestis)
  • 1936 — Konstantinos Maleas, Nikolaos Lytras, C. Stefanopoulo Alessandridi, Umberto Argyros, Aglae Papa (Commissioner: Typaldo Forestis)
  • 1938 — Constantin Parthenis, Michalis Tombros, Angelos Theodoropoulos (Commissioners: Antonios Benakis, Typaldo Forestis)
  • 1940 — Aginor Asteriadis, Yannis Mitarakis, Pavlos Rodokanakis, Dimitris Vitsoris, Bella Raftopoulou, Costis Papachristopoulos, George Zongolopoulos, Dimitrios Ghianoukakis, Alexandros Korogiannakis, Efthimios Papadimitriou
  • 1950 — Bouzianis Giorgos
  • 1976 — Michael Michaeledes, Aglaia Liberaki (Commissioner: Sotiris Messinis)
  • 1978 — Yannis Pappas (Commissioner: Sotiris Messinis)
  • 1980 — Pavlos (Dionysopoulos) (Commissioners: Sotiris Messinis, Emmanuel Mavrommatis)
  • 1982 — Diamantis Diamantopoulos, Costas Coulentianos (Commissioner: Sotiris Messinis)
  • 1984 — Christos Caras, George Georgiadis (Commissioner: Sotiris Messinis)
  • 1986 — Costas Tsoclis (Commissioners: Nelli Missirli, Sotiris Messinis)
  • 1988 — Vlassis Caniaris, Nikos Kessanlis (Commissioner: Emmanuel Mavrommatis)
  • 1990 — Georges Lappas, Yannis Bouteas (Commissioner: Manos Stefanidis)
  • 1993 — George Zongolopoulos (Commissioner: Efi Andreadi)
  • 1995 — Takis (Commissioner: Maria Marangou)
  • 1997 — Dimitri Alithinos, Stephen Antonakos, Totsikas, Alexandros Psychoulis (Commissioner: Efi Strousa)
  • 1999 — Costas Varotsos, Danae Stratou, Evanthia Tsantila (Commissioner: Anna Kafetsi)
  • 2001 — Nikos Navridis, Ilias Papailiakis, Ersi Chatziargyrou (Commissionner: Lina Tsikouta)
  • 2003 — Athanasia Kyriakakos, Dimitris Rotsios (Commissioner: Marina Fokidis)
  • 2005 — George Hadjimichalis (Commissioner: Katerina Koskina)
  • 2007 — Nikos Alexiou (Commissioner: Yorgos Tzirtzilakis)
  • 2009 — Lucas Samaras (Curator: Matthew Higgs)
  • 2011 — Diohandi (Curator: Maria Marangou)
  • 2013 — Stefanos Tsivopoulos (Curator: Syrago Tsiara)

Hong Kong[edit]

List of exhibitors in the Hong Kong Pavilion:

  • 2009 — Pak Sheung Chuen (Curator: Tobias Berger)
  • 2011 — Kwok Mang-ho (known as Frog King)
  • 2013 — Lee Kit (Curators: Lars Nittve, Yung Ma)
  • 2015 — Tsang Kin-wah (Curators: Doryun Chong, Stella Fong)[29]

Hungary[edit]

Designed by Géza Rintel Maróti, 1909 (restored by Agost Benkhard, 1958).[16]

List of exhibitors in the Hungarian Pavilion:

  • 1968 — Ignác Kokas, Béla Kondor, Tibor Vilt
  • 1982 — Erzsébet Schaár (Commissioner: Géza Csorba)
  • 1984 — Imre Varga, György Vadász (Commissioner: Géza Csorba)
  • 1986 — Imre Bak, Ákos Birkás, Károly Kelemen, István Nádler (Commissioner: Katalin Néray)
  • 1988 — Imre Bukta, Sándor Pinczehelyi, Géza Samu (Commissioner: Katalin Néray)
  • 1990 — László Fehér (Commissioner: Katalin Néray)
  • 1993 — Joseph Kosuth, Viktor Lois (Commissioner: Katalin Keserü)
  • 1995 — György Jovánovics (Commissioner: Márta Kovalovszky)
  • 1997 — Róza El-Hassan, Judit Herskó, Éva Köves (Commissioner: Katalin Néray)
  • 1999 — Imre Bukta, Emese Benczúr, Attila Csörgö, Gábor Erdélyi, Mariann Imre (Curator: János Sturcz)
  • 2001 — Antal Lakner, Tamás Komoróczky (Curator: Júlia Fabényi, Barnabás Bencsik)
  • 2003 — Little Warsaw (András Gálik, Bálint Havas) (Curator: Zsolt Petrányi)
  • 2005 — Balázs Kicsiny (Curator: Péter Fitz)
  • 2007 — Andreas Fogarasi (Curator: Katalin Timár)
  • 2009 — Péter Forgács (Curator: András Rényi)
  • 2011 — Hajnal Németh (Curator: Miklós Peternák)
  • 2013 — Zsolt Asztalos (Curator: Gabriella Uhl)

Iceland[edit]

In 1984, as Finland had joined Norway and Sweden in the Nordic Pavilion, Iceland was given the opportunity to rent the Finnish pavilion until 2006.[16] The Icelandic Art Center commissions the Icelandic Pavilion at the Venice Biennale.[30]

List of exhibitors in the Icelandish Pavilion:[31]

  • 1960 — Jóhannes Sveinsson Kjarval, Ásmundur Sveinsson
  • 1972 — Svavar Guðnason, Þorvaldur Skúlason
  • 1980 — Magnús Pálsson
  • 1982 — Gunnar Árnason, Kristján Guðmundsson
  • 1984 — Kristján Davidsson
  • 1986 — Erró
  • 1988 — Gunnar Örn
  • 1990 — Helgi Thorgils Frídjónsson
  • 1995 — Birgir Andrésson
  • 1997 — Steina Vasulka
  • 1999 — Sigurdur Árni Sigurdsson
  • 2001 — Finnbogi Pétursson
  • 2003 — Rúrí
  • 2005 — Gabríela Fridriksdóttir
  • 2007 — Steingrimur Eyfjörd (Curator: Hanna Styrmisdóttir)
  • 2009 — Ragnar Kjartansson (Curators: Markús Thór Andrésson, Dorothée Kirch)
  • 2011 — Libia Castro & Ólafur Ólafsson (Curator: Ellen Blumenstein)
  • 2013 — Katrin Sigurdardottir (Curators: Mary Ceruti, Ilaria Bonacossa)

India[edit]

In 2011, India was featured for the first time after 116 years, with the support of the culture ministry and the organizational participation of the Lalit Kala Akademi.[21] Biennale organizers have reportedly invited the country to participate in past years, but the government has declined until now — a decision attributed to a lack of communication between the culture ministry and the country's National Gallery of Modern Art.[21]

  • 2011 — Mriganka Madhukaliya, Sonal Jain, Zarina Hashmi, Gigi Scaria, Praneet Soi (Curator: Ranjit Hoskote)

Iraq[edit]

In 2011, Iraq returned to the Biennale for the first time after a 35-year absence. The title of the Iraq Pavilion was "Acqua Ferita" (translated as "Wounded Water"). Six important Iraqi artists from two generations interpreted the theme of water in their works, which made up the exhibition.

  • 2011 — Adel Abidin, Halim Al Karim, Ahmed Alsoudani, Ali Assaf, Azad Nanakeli, Walid Siti

website: www.pavilionofiraq.org

Ireland[edit]

List of exhibitors in the Irish Pavilion:

  • 1950 — Norah McGuinness, Nano Reid
  • 1956 — Louis le Brocquy, Hilary Heron
  • 1960 — Patrick Scott
  • 1993 — Dorothy Cross, Willie Doherty
  • 1995 — Kathy Prendergast
  • 1997 — Jaki Irvine, Alistair McLennan
  • 1999 — Anne Tallentire
  • 2001 — Siobhan Hapaska, Grace Weir
  • 2003 — Katie Holten (Commissioner: Valerie Connor)
  • 2005 — Stephen Brandes, Mark Garry, Ronan McCrea, Isabel Nolan, Sarah Pierce, Walker and Walker (Commissioner: Sarah Glennie)
  • 2007 — Gerard Byrne (Commissioner: Mike Fitzpatrick)
  • 2009 — Sarah Browne, Gareth Kennedy, Kennedy Browne
  • 2011 — Corban Walker (Commissioner: Emily-Jane Kirwan)
  • 2013 — Richard Mosse (Commissioner: Anna O'Sullivan)

Israel[edit]

Designed by Zeev Rechter, 1952 (modified by Fredrik Fogh, 1966).[16] Somewhat unusual in the Giardini, the pavilion has three exhibition floors.

Partial list of exhibitors at the Israeli Pavilion:

Italy[edit]

"Palazzo Pro Arte": Enrico Trevisanato, façade by Marius De Maria and Bartholomeo Bezzi, 1895; new façade by Guido Cirilli, 1914; "Padiglione Italia", present façade by Duilio Torres, 1932. The pavilion has a sculpture garden by Carlo Scarpa, 1952 and the "Auditorium Pastor" by Valeriano Pastor, 1977.[16]

Partial list of exhibitors at the Italian Pavilion:

  • 1895 — Giuseppe Ferrari
  • 1905 — Giuseppe Ferrari
  • 1912 — Aldo Carpi
  • 1922 — Giuseppe Ferrari (posthumus)
  • 1934 — Aldo Carpi, Carlo Martini
  • 1936 — Aldo Carpi, Carlo Martini, Quinto Martini
  • 1942 — Aldo Carpi, Trento Longaretti
  • 1948 — Aldo Carpi, Trento Longaretti, Carlo Martini
  • 1950 — Aldo Carpi, Trento Longaretti, Carlo Martini
  • 1966 — Ferruccio Bortoluzzi, Trento Longaretti
  • 1968 — Maurizio Nannucci, Maurizio Mochetti, Eliseo Mattiacci, Paolo Masi, Enzo Mari
  • 1995 — Lorenzo Bonechi, Ida Cadorin Barbarigo, Roberto Capucci, Francesco Clemente, Amalia Del Ponte, Stefano Di Stasio, Paolo Gallerani, Paola Gandolfi, Nunzio, Luigi Ontani, Claudio Parmiggiani, Gianni Pisani, Pier Luigi Pizzi, Angelo Savelli, Ruggero Savino, Ettore Spalletti, Vito Tongiani, Mino Trafeli, Giuliano Vangi (curator: Jean Clair)
  • 1997 — Maurizio Cattelan, Enzo Cucchi, Ettore Spalletti (Curator: Germano Celant)
  • 1999 — Monica Bonvicini, Bruna Esposito, Luisa Lambri, Paola Pivi, Grazia Toderi (Curator: Harald Szeemann)
  • 2001 — Alighiero Boetti, Barry McGee, Todd James, Steve Powers (Curators: Pio Baldi, Paolo Colombo, Sandra Pinto)
  • 2003 — Charles Avery, Avish Khebrehzadeh, Sara Rossi, Carola Spadoni. (curators: Pio Baldi, Monica Pignatti Morano and Paolo Colombo)
  • 2005 — Carolina Antich, Manfredi Beninati, Loris Cecchini, Lara Favaretto. (curators: Pio Baldi, Monica Pignatti Morano and Paolo Colombo)
  • 2007 — Giuseppe Penone, Francesco Vezzoli. (curator: Ida Gianelli)
  • 2009 — Collaudi, a group show with Matteo Basilé, Manfredi Beninati, Valerio Berruti, Bertozzi & Casoni, Nicola Bolla, Sandro Chia, Marco Cingolani, Giacomo Costa, Aron Demetz, Roberto Floreani, Daniele Galliano, Marco Lodola, MASBEDO, Gian Marco Montesano, Davide Nido, Luca Pignatelli, Elisa Sighicelli, Sissi, Nicola Verlato, Silvio Wolf. (curators: Luca Beatrice and Beatrice Buscaroli)
  • 2011 — L'Arte non è Cosa Nostra, a group show with 250 artists, including Vanessa Beecroft, Michelangelo Pistoletto, Roberto Ferri and Rabarama (Curator: Vittorio Sgarbi)
  • 2013 — Vice Versa, a group show with Francesco Arena, Massimo Bartolini, Gianfranco Baruchello, Elisabetta Benassi, Flavio Favelli, Luigi Ghirri, Piero Golia, Francesca Grilli, Marcello Maloberti, Fabio Mauri, Giulio Paolini, Marco Tirelli, Luca Vitone, Sislej Xhafa (Curator: Bartolomeo Pietromarchi)

Japan[edit]

Designed by Takamasa Yoshizaka, 1956.[16] Japan has the longest history at the Venice Biennale compared to any other Asian nation.

List of exhibitors in the Japanese Pavilion:

  • 1952 — Taikan Yokoyama, Kokei Kobayashi, Kiyotaka Kaburaki, Heihachiro Fukuda, Kyujin Yamamoto, Kenji Yoshioka, Sotaro Yasui, Shinsen Tokuoka, Ryuzaburo Umehara, Ichiro Fukuzawa, Kigai Kawaguchi
  • 1954 — Hanjiro Sakamoto, Taro Okamoto
  • 1956 — Kunitaro Suda, Kazu Wakita, Takeo Yamaguchi, Shigeru Ueki, Toyoichi Yamamoto, Shiko Munakata
  • 1958 — Ichiro Fukuzawa, Kawabata Ryushi, Seison Maeda, Kenzo Okada, Yoshi Kinouchi, Shindo Tsuji
  • 1960 — Toshimitsu Imai, Yoshishige Saito, Kei Sato, Kaoru Yamaguchi, Tadahiro Ono, Tomonori Toyofuku, Yoshitatsu Yanagihara, Yozo Hamaguchi
  • 1962 — Kinuko Emi, Minoru Kawabata, Kumi Sugai, Tadashi Sugimata, Ryokichi Mukai
  • 1964 — Yoshishige Saito, Toshinobu Onosato, Hisao Domoto, Tomonori Toyofuku
  • 1966 — Toshinobu Onosato, Masuo Ikeda, Morio Shinoda, Ay-O
  • 1968 — Tomio Miki, Kumi Sugai, Jiro Takamatsu, Katsuhiro Yamaguchi
  • 1970 — Nobuo Sekine
  • 1972 — Kenji Usami, Shintaro Tanaka
  • 1976 — Kishin Shinoyama
  • 1978 — Koji Enokura, Kishio Suga
  • 1980 — Koji Enokura, Susumu Koshimizu, Isamu Wakabayashi
  • 1982 — Naoyoshi Hikosaka, Yoshio Kitayama, Tadashi Kawamata
  • 1984 — Kosho Ito, Kyoji Takubo, Kosai Hori
  • 1986 — Isamu Wakabayashi, Masafumi Maita
  • 1988 — Shigeo Toya, Keiji Umematsu, Katsura Funakoshi
  • 1990 — Toshikatsu Endo, Saburo Muraoka
  • 1993 — Yayoi Kusama
  • 1995 — Katsuhiko Hibino, Yoichiro Kawaguchi, Hiroshi Senju, Jae Eun Choi
  • 1997 — Rei Naito
  • 2003 — Yutaka Sone, Motohiko Odani
  • 2005 — Ishiuchi Miyako
  • 2007 — Masao Okabe (Commissioner: Chihiro Minato)
  • 2009 — Miwa Yanagi
  • 2011 — Tabaimo (Curator: Yuka Uematsu)
  • 2013 — Koki Tanaka (Curator: Mike Kuraya)

Republic of Kosovo[edit]

List of exhibitors in the Kosovo Pavilion:

  • 2013 — Petrit Halilaj (Curator: Kathrin Rhonberg, commissioner: Erzen Shkololli)

Kuwait[edit]

List of exhibitors in the Kuwait Pavilion:

  • 2013 — "National Works" featuring works by Sami Mohammad and Tarek Al-Ghoussein (Curator: Ala Younis, Commissioner: National Council for Culture, Arts and Letters)[33]

Lebanon[edit]

Lebanon was present at the Biennale for the first time in 2007.[34] After being absent in 2009 and 2011, it is coming back in 2013.[35]

Luxembourg[edit]

The Cà del Duca, situated on the Canale Grande, has been the site for Luxembourg's participations in the Venice Biennale since 1999.

List of exhibitors in the Luxembourg Pavilion:

  • 1999 — Simone Decker
  • 2003 — Su-Mei Tse
  • 2007 — Jill Mercedes
  • 2009 — Gast Bouschet, Nadine Hilbert
  • 2011 — Martine Feipel, Jean Bechameil (Curator: René Kockelkorn)
  • 2013 — Catherine Lorent
  • 2015 — Filip Markiewicz


Maldives[edit]

The Maldives Pavilion was introduced in 2013.[36] List of exhibitors in the Maldives Pavilion:

  • 2013 — Mohamed Ali, Sama Alshaibi, Ursula Biemann, Stefano Cagol, Wael Darwesh, Moomin Fouad, Thierry Geoffrey (aka Colonel), Khaled Hafez, Heidrun Holzfeind & Christoph Draeger, Hanna Husberg, Laura McLean & Kalliopi Tsipni-Kolaza, Achilleas Kentonis & Maria Papacaharalambous, Paul Miller (aka DJ Spooky), Gregory Niemeyer, Khaled Ramada, Oliver Ressler, Klaus Schafler, Patrizio Travagli, Wooloo (Sixten Kai Nielsen and Martin Rosengaard), (Curators CPS – Chamber of Public Secrets: Alfredo Cramerotti, Aida Eltorie, Khaled Ramadan)

Netherlands[edit]

In 1914, the Swedish Pavilion, designed by Gustav Ferdninand Boberg, was handed over to the Netherlands. In 1954 the Dutch pavilion was demolished and reconstructed on the same site, designed by Gerrit Thomas Rietveld in 1954.[16]

Since 1995, the Mondriaan Foundation has been responsible for the Dutch entry at the Biennale di Venezia, appointing a curator for each entry.

Dutch artists and curators of previous editions:

Northern Ireland[edit]

List of exhibitors in the Northern Ireland Pavilion:

  • 2005 — "The Nature of Things", group show with Patrick Bloomer, Patrick Keogh, Ian Charlesworth, Factotum, Séamus Harahan, Michael Hogg, Sandra Johnston, Mary McIntyre, Katrina Moorhead, William McKeown, Darren Murray, Aisling O’Beirn, Peter Richards and Alistair Wilson (curator: Hugh Mulholland)
  • 2007 — Willie Doherty (Curator: Hugh Mulholland)
  • 2009 — Susan MacWilliam (Curator: Karen Downey)

New Zealand[edit]

List of exhibitors in the New Zealand Pavilion:

  • 2001 — Peter Robinson and Jacqueline Fraser (Curator: Gregory Burke)
  • 2003 — Michael Stevenson (Curators: Robert Leonard and Boris Kremer)
  • 2005 — et al. (Curator: Natasha Conland)
  • 2007 — no participation
  • 2009 — Judy Millar (Curator: Leonhard Emmerling) and Francis Upritchard (Curators: Heather Galbraith and Francesco Manacorda)
  • 2011 — Michael Parekowhai
  • 2013 — Bill Culbert (Curator: Justin Paton)

Philippines[edit]

List of exhibitors in the Philippines Pavilion:

Poland[edit]

List of exhibitors in the Polish Pavilion:

Republic of Macedonia[edit]

List of exhibitors in the Republic of Macedonia Pavilion:

  • 1993 — Gligor Stefanov and Petre Nikoloski
  • 1997 — Aneta Svetieva
  • 1999 — Iskra Dimitrova
  • 2001 — Javon Sumkovski
  • 2003 — Zaneta Bangeli and Vana Urosebic
  • 2005 — Antoni Maznevski
  • 2007 — Blagoja Manevski
  • 2009 — Nikola Uzunovski and Goce Nanevski
  • 2011 — Zarko Basevski and ZERO
  • 2013 — Elpida Hadzi-Vasileva

Russia[edit]

Designed by Aleksej V. Scusev, 1914.[16]

List of exhibitors in the Russian Pavilion:

  • 2011 — Andrei Monastyrsky, Elena Elagina, Sabina Hensgen, Igor Makarevich, Nikolai Pantikov, Sergei Romashko (Curator: Boris Groys)
  • 2013 — Vadim Zakharov (Commissioner: Stella Kesaeva; curator: Udo Kittelmann)
  • 2015 — Irina Nakhova (Commissioner: Stella Kesaeva)

The Nordic Countries[edit]

Designed by Sverre Fehn, 1962 (small annex built by Fredrik Fogh, 1987).[16]

The cooperation between Finland, Norway and Sweden in Venice was initiated in 1962 after the completion of the Nordic Pavilion. Until 1984, the representation of each country was organized nationally.[37] From 1986 to 2009 the pavilion was commissioned as a whole, with the curatorial responsibility alternating between the collaborating countries. From 2011 the cooperation has been temporarily discontinued. In a trial period lasting from 2011 until 2015, the pavilion will be used for a national presentation by Sweden in 2011, Finland in 2013 and Norway in 2015.[38]

List of exhibitors in the Nordic Pavilion:[39]

  • 1962 — FINLAND: Ahti Lavonen, Kain Tapper, Esko Tirronen; NORWAY: Rolf Nesch, Knut Rumohr; SWEDEN: Siri Derkert, Per Olof Ulltvedt
  • 1964 — FINLAND: Ina Colliander, Simo Hannula, Pentti Kaskipuro, Laila Pullinen; NORWAY: Hannah Ryggen; SWEDEN: Torsten Andersson, Martin Holmgren, Torsten Renqvist
  • 1966 — FINLAND: Heikki Häiväoja, Harry Kivijärvi, Sam Vanni; NORWAY: Jakob Weidemann; SWEDEN: Öyvind Fahlström
  • 1968 — FINLAND: Mauno Hartman, Kimmo Kaivanto, Ahti Lavonen; NORWAY: Gunnar S. Gundersen; SWEDEN: Sivert Lindblom, Arne Jones
  • 1970 — FINLAND: Juhani Linnovaara; NORWAY: Arnold Haukeland; SWEDEN: Did not participate
  • 1972 — FINLAND: Harry Kivijärvi, Pentti Lumikangas; NORWAY: Arne Ekeland; SWEDEN: Did not participate
  • 1976 — FINLAND: Mikko Jalavisto, Tapio Junno, Kimmo Kaivanto, Ulla Rantanen; NORWAY: Boge Berg, Steinar Christensen/Kristian Kvakland, Arvid Pettersen; SWEDEN: ARARAT (Alternative Research in Architecture, Resources, Art and Technology)
  • 1978 — FINLAND: Olavi Lanu; NORWAY: Frans Widerberg; SWEDEN: Lars Englund
  • 1980 — FINLAND: Matti Kujasalo; NORWAY: Knut Rose; SWEDEN: Ola Billgren, Jan Håfström
  • 1982 — FINLAND: Juhana Blomstedt; NORWAY: Synnøve Anker Aurdal; SWEDEN: Ulrik Samuelson
  • 1984 — FINLAND: Kain Tapper, Carl-Erik Ström; NORWAY: Bendik Riis; SWEDEN: Curt Asker
  • 1986 — "Techne": Bård Breivik (NO), Marianne Heske (NO), Olli Lyytikäinen (FI), Kjell Ohlin (SE), Erik H. Olson (SE), Silja Rantanen (FI), Carl Fredrik Reuterswärd (SE), Osmo Valtonen (FI) (Curator: Mats B.)
  • 1988 — Per Inge Bjørlo (NO), Rolf Hanson (SE), Jukka Mäkelä (FI) (Curator: Maaretta Jaukkuri, FI)
  • 1990 — "Cavén, Barclay, Håfström": Per Barclay (NO), Kari Cavén (FI), Jan Håfström (SE) (Curator: Per Hovdenakk, NO)
  • 1993 — Jussi Niva (FI), Truls Melin (SE), Bente Stokke (NO) (Curator: Lars Nittve, SE)
  • 1995 — Eva Løfdahl (SE), Per Maning (NO), Nina Roos (FI) (Curator: Timo Valjakka, FI)
  • 1997 — "Naturally Artificial": Henrik Håkansson (SE), Mark Dion (US), Marianna Uutininen (FI), Mariko Mori (JP), Sven Påhlsson (NO) (Curator: Jon-Ove Steihaug, NO)
  • 1999 — "End of a Story": Annika von Hausswolff (SE), Knut Åsdam (NO), Eija-Liisa Ahtila (FI). (Curator: John Peter Nilsson, SE)
  • 2001 — "The North is Protected": Leif Elggren (SE), Tommi Grönlund/Petteri Nisunen (FI), Carl Michael von Hausswolff (SE), Anders Tomren (NO) (Curators: Grönlund/Nisunen, FI)
  • 2003 — "Devil-May-Care": Karin Mamma Andersson (SE), Kristina Bræin (NO), Liisa Luonila (FI) (Curators: Anne Karin Jortveit and Andrea Kroksnes, NO)
  • 2005 — "Sharing Space Dividing Time": Miriam Bäckström and Carsten Höller (SE/DE), Matias Faldbakken (NO) (Curator: Åsa Nacking, SE)
  • 2007 — "Welfare — Fare Well": Adel Abidin (IQ/FI), Jacob Dahlgren (SE), Lars Ramberg (NO), Toril Goksøyr & Camilla Martens (NO), Sirous Namazi (SE), Maaria Wirkkala FI (Curator: René Block, DE)
  • 2009 — "The Collectors" (in collaboration with the Danish Pavilion): Elmgreen and Dragset, Klara Lidén (SE), Wolfgang Tillmans (DE) and others. (Curators: Elmgreen & Dragset, DK/NO)
  • 2011 — SWEDEN: Fia Backström, Andreas Eriksson (Curator: Magnus af Petersens)
  • 2013 — FINLAND: Terike Haapoja (Curator: Raija Koli)

Singapore[edit]

List of exhibitors in the Singapore Pavilion:

  • 2015 — Charles Lim (Curator: Shabbir Hussain Mustafa)

South Korea[edit]

Designed by Seok Chul Kim and Franco Mancuso, 1995.[16]

South Korea has participated in the Venice Biennale since 1995. The Korean Pavilion at the Venice Biennale was the second Asian pavilion to be opened after Japan.[40]

List of exhibitors in the South Korean Pavilion:

  • 1995 — Yoon Hyong Keun, Kwak Hoon, Kim In Kyum, Jheon Soocheon (Commissioner: Il Lee)
  • 1997 — Hyungwoo Lee, Ik-joong Kang (Curator: Oh Kwang Soo)
  • 1999 — Lee Bul, Noh Sang-Kyoon (Curator: Misook Song)
  • 2001 — Michael Joo, Do-Ho Suh (Commissioner: Kyung-mee Park)
  • 2003 — Whang In Kie, Bahc Yiso, Chung Seoyoung (Commissioner: Kim Hong-Hee)
  • 2007 — Hyungkoo Lee (Commissioner: Soyeon Ahn)
  • 2009 — Haegue Yang (Commissioner: Eungie Joo)
  • 2011 — Lee Yong-baek (Commissioner: Yun Chea-gab)
  • 2013 — Kimsooja (Curator: Seungduk Kim)

Spain[edit]

Designed by Javier de Luque, 1922 (façade restored by Joaquin Vaquero Palacios, 1952).[16]

List of exhibitors in the Spanish Pavilion:

Switzerland[edit]

Pavillon designed by Bruno Giacometti, 1952.[16] Between 1990 and 2009, Switzerland also used the San Stae church as exhibition venue. From 1932 until 1952 Switzerland had another pavilion, designed by Brenno Del Giudice on the island Sant'Elena.

As of 2012, Pro Helvetia has assumed responsibility for the Swiss contributions to the Venice Biennale.

List of exhibitors in the Swiss Pavilion:

Turkey[edit]

In 2013, Turkey signed a 20-year lease for a national pavilion at the Venice Biennale, securing a venue in the Arsenale until 2034. The state-funded Istanbul Foundation for Culture and Arts is be the co-ordinator of the Turkish pavilion.[41]

List of exhibitors in the Turkish Pavilion:

  • 1990 — Kemal Önsoy, Mithat Şen (Curator: Beral Madra)
  • 1993 — Erdağ Aksel, Serhat Kiraz, Jȧrg Geismar, Adem Yilmaz (Curator: Beral Madra)
  • 2001 — Murat Morova, Butch Morris, Ahmet Öktem, Sermin Sherif, Xurban.net (Güven Icirlioğlu & Hakan Topal) (Curator: Beral Madra)
  • 2003 — Nuri Bilge Ceylan, Ergin Çavuşoğlu, Gül Ilgaz, Neriman Polat, Nazif Topçuoğlu (Curator: Beral Madra)
  • 2005 — Hussein Chalayan (Curator: Beral Madra)
  • 2007 — Hüseyin Alptekin (Curator: Vasif Kortun)
  • 2009 — Banu Cennetoğlu, Ahmet Ögüt (Curator: Basak Senova)
  • 2011 — Ayşe Erkmen (Curator: Fulya Erdemci)
  • 2013 — Ali Kazma (Curator: Emre Baykal)

Tuvalu[edit]

Despite the cost to the third world country, Tuvalu decided to develop its first national pavilion in 2013 to highlight the negative effects of global warming on the nation, which is forecast to be one of the first countries to disappear due to sea level rise caused by climate change.[42] After working closely with Taiwanese eco artist Vincent J.F. Huang at the 2012 UNFCCC COP18 session in Doha, Qatar and collaborating with the artist on several occasions, Tuvalu's government invited Huang to act as the representative artist for the pavilion.[42] All of the artworks at the 2013 Tuvalu Pavilion focused on climate change and included In the Name of Civilization, a giant oil rig turned agent of destruction, and Prisoner's Dilemma, a depiction of the Statue of Liberty kneeling in apology to ghostly portraits of terra-cotta penguins symbolic of ecological sacrifices made to further the development of human civilization.[43]

List of exhibitors for the Tuvalu Pavilion:

  • 2013 — Vincent J.F. Huang (Curators: An-Yi Pan, Li Szuhsien, Shih Shuping)

Ukraine[edit]

List of exhibitors in the Ukrainian Pavilion:

  • 2011 — Oksana Mas «Post-vs-Proto-Renaissance» (Curator: Oleksiy Rogotchenko)
  • 2013 — Ridnyi Mykola, Zinkovskyi Hamlet, Kadyrova Zhanna (Curators: Soloviov Oleksandr, Burlaka Victoria)

United States[edit]

U.S. Pavilion at the Venice Biennale in the 1930s.

The United States Pavilion at the Venice Biennale was constructed in 1930[44] by the Grand Central Art Galleries, a nonprofit artists' cooperative established in 1922 by Walter Leighton Clark together with John Singer Sargent, Edmund Greacen, and others.[45] As stated in the Galleries' 1934 catalog, the organization's goal was to "give a broader field to American art; to exhibit in a larger way to a more numerous audience, not in New York alone but throughout the country, thus displaying to the world the inherent value which our art undoubtedly possesses."[46]

Having worked tirelessly to promote American art at home the 1920s, in 1930 Walter Leighton Clark and the Grand Central Art Galleries spearheaded the creation of the U.S. Pavilion at the Venice Biennale.[47] Up until then there was no place at the Biennale dedicated to American art, and Clark felt that it was crucial to establishing the credentials of the nation's artists abroad.[48] The pavilion's architects were William Adams Delano, who also designed the Grand Central Art Galleries, and Chester Holmes Aldrich. The purchase of the land, design, and construction was paid for by the galleries and personally supervised by Clark. As he wrote in the 1934 catalog:

"Pursuing our purpose of putting American art prominently before the world, the directors a few years ago appropriated the sum of $25,000 for the erection of an exhibition building in Venice on the grounds of the International Biennial. Messrs. Delano and Aldrich generously donated the plans for this building which is constructed of Istrian marble and pink brick and more than holds its own with the twenty-five other buildings in the Park owned by the various European governments."[46]

The pavilion, owned and operated by the galleries, opened on May 4, 1930. Approximately 90 paintings and 12 sculptures were selected by Clark for the opening exhibition. Artists featured included Max Boehm, Hector Caser, Lillian Westcott Hale, Edward Hopper, Abraham Poole, Julius Rolshoven, Joseph Pollet, Eugene Savage, Elmer Shofeld, Ofelia Keelan, and African-American artist Henry Tanner. U.S. Ambassador John W. Garrett opened the show together with the Duke of Bergamo.[44]

The Grand Central Art Galleries operated the U.S. Pavilion until 1954, when it was sold to the Museum of Modern Art (MOMA). Throughout the 1950s and 1960s shows were organized by MOMA, Art Institute of Chicago, and Baltimore Museum of Art. The Modern withdrew from the Biennale in 1964, and the United States Information Agency ran the Pavilion until it was sold to the Guggenheim Foundation courtesy of funds provided by the Peggy Guggenheim Collection.[49]

Since 1986 the Peggy Guggenheim Collection has worked with the United States Information Agency, the US Department of State and the Fund for Artists at International Festivals and Exhibitions in the organization of the visual arts exhibitions at the US Pavilion, while the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation has organized the comparable shows at the Architecture Biennales. Every two years museum curators from across the U.S. detail their visions for the American pavilion in proposals that are reviewed by the NEA Federal Advisory Committee on International Exhibitions (FACIE), a group comprising curators, museum directors and artists who then submit their recommendations to the public-private Fund for United States Artists at International Festivals and Exhibitions.[50] Traditionally the endowment's selection committee has chosen a proposal submitted by a museum or curator, but in 2004 it simply chose an artist who in turn has nominated a curator, later approved by the State Department.[51]

Exhibitors[edit]

Partial list of exhibitors at the United States Pavilion:[52]

Uruguay[edit]

Ex-warehouse of the Biennale, 1958, ceded to the government of Uruguay, 1960.[16]

List of exhibitors in the Uruguayan Pavilion:

  • 1954 — José Cuneo, Severino Pose
  • 1956 — Joaquín Torres García
  • 1960 — Zoma Baitler, Washington Barcala, Norberto Berdia, José Cuneo, José Echave, Adolfo Halty, Augusto Torres, Vicente Martìn, Julio Verdier (Commissioner: Jorge Pàez Vilaró)
  • 1962 — Germán Cabrera, Juan Ventayol
  • 1964 — Jorge Damiani, José Gamarra, Nelson Ramos, Jorge Páez Vilaró
  • 1968 — Antonio Frasconi
  • 1986 — Ernesto Aroztegui, Clever Lara
  • 1988 — Luis Camnitzer
  • 1990 — Gonzalo Fonseca
  • 1993 — Águeda Dicancro
  • 1995 — Ignacio Iturria
  • 1997 — Nelson Ramos
  • 1999 — Ricardo Pascale
  • 2001 — Rimer Cardillo (Commissioner: Cléver Lara)
  • 2003 — Pablo Atchugarry (Curator: Luciano Caramel)
  • 2005 — Lacy Duarte (Commissioners: Alicia Haber, Olga Larnaudie)
  • 2007 — Ernesto Vila (Commissioner: Enrique Aguerre)
  • 2009 — Raquel Bessio, Juan Burgos, Pablo Uribe (Commissioners: Patricia Bentancur, Alfredo Torres)
  • 2011 — Alejandro Cesarco, Magela Ferrero (Curator: Clio Bugel)
  • 2013 — Wifredo Díaz Valdéz (Curators: Carlos Capelán, Verónica Cordeiro)

Venezuela[edit]

Designed by Carlo Scarpa, 1956.[16]

List of exhibitors in the Venezuelan Pavilion:

  • 1964 — Jesús Rafael Soto
  • 1970 — Carlos Cruz-Diez, Jesús Rafael Soto
  • 1978 — Luisa Richter
  • 1980 — Regulo Pérez
  • 1988 — Jacobo Borges
  • 1990 — Julio Pacheco Rivas
  • 1995 — Meyer Vaisman
  • 2005 — Santiago Pol (Commissioner: Vivian Rivas Gingerich)
  • 2007 — Antonio Briceño, Vincent & Feria (Commissioner: Zuleiva Vivas)
  • 2009 — Claudio Perna, Antonieta Sosa, Alejandro Otero
  • 2011 — Francisco Bassim, Clemencia Labin, Yoshi (Curator: Luis Hurtado)
  • 2013 — Colectivo de Artistas Urbanos Venezolanos (Curator: Juan Calzadilla)

Wales[edit]

The Wales pavilion was introduced in 2003.[62][63]

List of exhibitors in the Wales Pavilion:

Other[edit]

  • "Venezia" Group of Pavilions — Brenno Del Giudice (Arti Decorative pavilion 1932); other pavilions (Yugoslavia, Romania, Latin America), 1938.
  • Ticket Office — Carlo Scarpa, 1951.[16]
  • Book Shop — James Stirling, 1991.[16]

Awards[edit]

The Venice Biennale has awarded prizes to the artists participating at the Exhibition since the first edition back in 1895. Grand Prizes were established in 1938 and ran until 1968 when they were abolished due to the protest movement. Prizes were taken up again in 1986. There are five judges on the jury.

1938 to 1968[edit]

Since 1986[edit]

  • 1988 :
    • Leone d'Oro for Lifetime Achievement: Jasper Johns (USA)
    • Leone d'Oro for Best Pavilion: Italy
  • 1995:
    • Leone d'Oro for the Best Artist of the international exhibition: Gary Hill (USA), R. B. Kitaj (USA)
    • Leone d'Oro for Best Pavilion: Akram El Magdoub, Hamdi Attia, Medhat Shafik, Khaled Shokry (Egypt)
  • 2007 :
  • 2009 :
    • Leone d'Oro for Lifetime Achievement: Yoko Ono (Japan), John Baldessari (USA)
    • Leone d'Oro for the Best Artist of the international exhibition: Tobias Rehberger (Germany)
    • Leone d'Oro for the Best Young Artist: Nathalie Djurberg (Sweden)
    • Leone d'Oro for Best Pavilion: Bruce Nauman (USA)
  • 2013 :
    • Leone d'Oro for Lifetime Achievement: Maria Lassnig (Austria), Marisa Merz (Italy)
    • Leone d'Oro for the Best Artist of the international exhibition: Tino Sehgal (United Kingdom/Germany)
    • Leone d'Oro for the Best Young Artist: Camille Henrot (France)
    • Leone d'Oro for Best Pavilion: Edson Chagas (Angola)

The selections are made by the Board of la Biennale di Venezia, following the proposal of the curator of the International Exhibition.

Unofficial Pavilions[edit]

As well as the national pavilions there are countless "unofficial pavilions"[76] that spring up every year. 2009 there were pavilions such as the Gabon Pavilion and a Peckham pavilion. Upcoming artists in new media showed work in an Internet Pavilion in 2011.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Vittorio Sgarbi, Lo Stato dell'Arte, Moncalieri (Torino), Istituto Nazionale di Cultura, 2012
  2. ^ "Dance". La Biennale di Venezia. Retrieved October 22, 2011. 
  3. ^ a b Velthuis, Olav (June 3, 2011). "The Venice Effect". The Art Newspaper. Retrieved October 22, 2011. 
  4. ^ Riding, Alan (June 10, 1995). "Past Upstages Present at Venice Biennale". The New York Times. Retrieved October 22, 2011. 
  5. ^ Massiliano Gioni, Introductory Statement, Il Palazzo Enciclopedico/The Enclyclopedic Palace: Short Guide. Venice: Marsilio, 2013: pp. 18 and 21.
  6. ^ Javier Pes (December 4, 2013), Okwui Enwezor named director of the 2015 Venice Biennale The Art Newspaper.
  7. ^ "The British Council and the Venice Biennale". UK at the Venice Biennale. British Council. 2013. Retrieved October 22, 2011. 
  8. ^ Adam, Georgina (June 6, 2009). "Trading places". Financial Times. Retrieved October 22, 2011. 
  9. ^ Cristina Ruiz (June 13, 2013), Venice makes the art world go round The Art Newspaper.
  10. ^ Carol Vogel (May 23, 2013), New Guide in Venice New York Times.
  11. ^ "54° Edizione della Biennale di Venezia – Sala Nervi di Torino Esposizioni". Beniculturali.it. 2011-12-16. Retrieved 2014-01-22. 
  12. ^ a b c d Gareth Harris (May 15, 2013), Down but not out, European countries invest in Venice Biennale pavilions The Art Newspaper.
  13. ^ Vogel, Carol (June 7, 2009). "A More Serene Biennale". The New York Times. Retrieved October 22, 2011. 
  14. ^ National Pavilions La Biennale di Venezia.
  15. ^ Hirsch, Faye (June 2, 2011). "Adrian Villar Rojas: The Last Sculpture on Earth". Art in America. Retrieved October 22, 2011. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Martino, Enzo Di. The History of the Venice Biennale. Venezia: Papiro Arte, 2007.
  17. ^ The Australian Pavilion Australia Council for the Arts.
  18. ^ Louisa Buck (June 27, 2012), Australia’s new Venice pavilion to be built with private money The Art Newspaper.
  19. ^ "The Austrian Pavilion". la Biennale 2011 Austria, Markus Schinwald, Commissioner Eva Schlegel. Federal Ministry for Education, Arts and Culture. Retrieved October 22, 2011. 
  20. ^ "The pavilion of Azerbaijan — 54th international art exhibition". 1fmediaproject.net. Retrieved 2014-01-22. 
  21. ^ a b c d e "ARTINFO's Comprehensive Guide to the 2011 Venice Biennale National Pavilions". ARTINFO. Louise Blouin Media. May 30, 2011. Retrieved October 22, 2011. 
  22. ^ [1][dead link]
  23. ^ "Croatian Artists at Venice Biennales". Culturenet.hr. Retrieved 9 October 2013. 
  24. ^ "SPEECH MATTERS — The Danish Pavilion at the 54th International Art Exhibition — la Biennale di Venezia" (PDF). Danish Pavilion. May 20, 2011. Retrieved October 22, 2011. 
  25. ^ Andrew Russeth (July 2, 2014), Danh Vo Will Rep Denmark at the Venice Biennale New York Observer.
  26. ^ Venice Biennale 2013 FRAME Foundation, Helsinki.
  27. ^ Victoria Stapley-Brown (May 22, 2014), Céleste Boursier-Mougenot to represent France at Venice Biennale The Art Newspaper.
  28. ^ Kunst-Biennale Venedig: Florian Ebner kuratiert deutschen Pavillon Spiegel Online, March 27, 2014.
  29. ^ Julia Halperin (July 16, 2014), Tsang Kin-wah to represent Hong Kong at next Venice Biennale The Art Newspaper.
  30. ^ Icelandic Art Center
  31. ^ A Brief Look Back: Icelandic Participation at the Venice Biennale, LIST Icelandic Art News, 28 February 2007.
  32. ^ Dana Gilerman (December 13, 2006), The war changed her plans Haaretz.
  33. ^ "National Works - Kuwait in Venice 2013". Nafas Art Magazine. 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2013. 
  34. ^ "Pavilion of Lebanon, Venice Biennale". Pavilion of Lebanon, Venice Biennale. 2007. Retrieved 18 October 2012. 
  35. ^ "Akram Zaatari represents Lebanon at Venice.". Biennial Foundation. 20 October 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2012. 
  36. ^ "Maldives Pavilion, Portable Nation 2013, Venice Biennale". Maldives Pavilion, Venice Biennale. 2013. 
  37. ^ Milnes, Anne, Norsk deltakelse på Venezia-biennalen (Oslo : Universitetet i Oslo, Institutt for arkeologi, kunsthistorie og numismatikk , 1996)
  38. ^ http://www.kunstkritikk.no/nyheter/slutt-for-det-nordiske-samarbeidet-i-venezia/
  39. ^ Anne Karin Jortveit and Andrea Kroksnes (eds.): Devil-may-care : the Nordic pavillion at the 50th Venice Biennial 2003. Oslo: OCA, 2003, p. 180 ff.
  40. ^ Lee Woo-young (August 2013, 2012), Kim selected for Venice Biennale Korea Pavilion The Korea Herald.
  41. ^ Gareth Harris (December 26, 2013), Turkey secures national pavilion at Venice Biennale until 2034 The Art Newspaper.
  42. ^ a b "Tuvalu Takes Climate Threat to Venice Biennale". Australian Broadcasting Company Radio Australia. 
  43. ^ Tuvalu Pavilion, ed., Tuvalu Pavilion: 55th International Art Exhibition-la Biennale di Venezia, Taipei: Xin Chuan Cultural Foundation
  44. ^ a b c "American Art Show Opened at Venice", New York Times, May 5, 1930
  45. ^ "Painters and Sculptors' Gallery Association to Begin Work", New York Times, December 19, 1922
  46. ^ a b http://www.aaa.si.edu/collections/collection/grancent.htm%7C1934 Grand Central Art Galleries catalog
  47. ^ "Venice to Exhibit Art of Americans", The New York Times, March 6, 1932
  48. ^ Vogel, Carol (August 3, 2004). "American Art Is Adrift for Biennale in Venice". The New York Times. Retrieved October 22, 2011. 
  49. ^ "US Pavilion". Peggy Guggenheim Collection. The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation. Retrieved October 22, 2011. 
  50. ^ Vogel, Carol (May 12, 2011). "War Machines (With Gymnasts)". The New York Times. Retrieved October 22, 2011. 
  51. ^ Vogel, Carol (October 29, 2004). "Ruscha to Represent U.S. at the Venice Biennale". The New York Times. Retrieved October 22, 2011. 
  52. ^ "La Biennale di Venezia — Chelsea Art Galleries". Chelseaartgalleries.com. Retrieved 2014-01-22. 
  53. ^ Josine Ianco-Starrels (June 29, 1986), Noguchi Represents U.s. At 42nd Venice Biennale Los Angeles Times.
  54. ^ Edward J. Sozanski (June 23, 1988), [Jasper Johns' Coup In Venice Show Organized By The Art Museum Is The Probable Hit Of The Biennale] The Philadelphia Inquirer.
  55. ^ Carol Vogel (June 12, 1993), The Venice Biennale: An Art Bazaar Abuzz New York Times.
  56. ^ Video Artist Is Chosen For the Venice Biennale New York Times, May 7, 1994.
  57. ^ Carol Vogel (June 17, 1996), A Painter Is Chosen For Biennale New York Times.
  58. ^ [2] "MIT News", June 3, 1998.
  59. ^ [3] "MIT News", October 30, 2002.
  60. ^ Carol Vogel (January 25, 2008), Bruce Nauman Chosen for Venice Biennale New York Times.
  61. ^ Carol Vogel (April 15, 2014), Joan Jonas to Represent United States at 2015 Venice Biennale New York Times.
  62. ^ "Cymru yn Fenis Wales in Venice 2013". Arts Council of Wales. Retrieved 2014-01-22. 
  63. ^ "British Council − British Pavilion in Venice". Venicebiennale.britishcouncil.org. Retrieved 2014-01-22. 
  64. ^ Sherwin, Skye (2 March 2011). "Artist of the week 128: Bethan Huws". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 August 2013. 
  65. ^ "Wales - Arts - Venice Biennale - Wales at the Venice Biennale". BBC. 2010-10-06. Retrieved 2014-01-22. 
  66. ^ "Somewhere Else: Artists from Wales". e-flux. 2005-05-28. Retrieved 2014-01-22. 
  67. ^ "What's on | National Museum Wales". Museumwales.ac.uk. 2012-04-25. Retrieved 2014-01-22. 
  68. ^ "Arts Council of Wales | Paul Granjon". Artswales.org.uk. Retrieved 2014-01-22. 
  69. ^ "Welsh artists at Venice Biennale". BBC News. June 10, 2007. 
  70. ^ "British Council − British Pavilion in Venice". Venicebiennale.britishcouncil.org. Retrieved 2014-01-22. 
  71. ^ "Wales Arts International | Wales at the Venice Biennale of Art". Wai.org.uk. Retrieved 2014-01-22. 
  72. ^ Thomas, Huw (1 June 2013). "Venice Biennale: Bedwyr Williams looks to the stars". BBC News. Retrieved 23 August 2013. 
  73. ^ "Georges Braque 1882–1963". Tate. 
  74. ^ Monod-Fontaine, Isabelle. "Henri Laurens (French, 1885–1954)". Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press / MoMA. 
  75. ^ "Max Ernst 1891–1976". Tate. 
  76. ^ Horan, Tom (June 8, 2009). "Venice Biennale: finding out about the now". The Telegraph (London). Retrieved October 22, 2011. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Sophie Bowness and Clive Phillpot (ed), Britain at the Venice Biennale 1895–1996, The British Council, 1995
  • Martino, Enzo Di. The History of the Venice Biennale, Venezia, Papiro Arte, 2007.
  • Sarah Thornton. Seven Days in the Art World. New York: WW Norton, 2008.
  • Digitalarti Mag (2009). Venice Biennale. pp. 8–12. 
  • 52nd Venice Biennale and Documenta 12 in Kassel vol.20 July 2007 n.paradoxa: international feminist art journal pp. 88–92
  • Vittorio Sgarbi, Lo Stato dell'Arte: 54 Esposizione internazionale d'Arte della Biennale di Venezia. Iniziativa speciale per il 150° Anniversario dell'Unità d'Italia, Moncalieri (Torino), Istituto Nazionale di Cultura, 2012

External links[edit]