Task-negative

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In neuroscience, a Task-negative (TN) mode, also known as the default mode network, is anti-correlated to the Task-positive) mode.[1] Its main function is to reorient attention towards salient stimuli.[citation needed] TN is considered to be involved mostly, if not entirely, in involuntary actions. The neural network is right hemisphere lateralized and includes the right temporal-parietal junction and the right ventral frontal cortex.[2] This system shows activity increases upon detection of salient targets, especially when they appear in unexpected locations.[3][4][5][6][7] Activity increases also are observed in the ventral system after abrupt changes in sensory stimuli,[8] at the onset and offset of task blocks,[9] and at the end of a completed trial.[10]

Role in disease[edit]

Studies have reported a hyper-connectivity of TN brain regions in depression during rest.[11][12]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Spreng, R. Nathan. "The Fallacy of a “Task-Negative” Network". Frontiers in Psychology 3. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00145. 
  2. ^ Fox, M.D., Corbetta, M., Snyder, A.Z., Vincent, J.L., & Raichle, M.E. (2006). Spontaneous neuronal activity distinguishes human dorsal and ventral attention systems. PNAS, 103, 10046-10051.
  3. ^ Posner, M. I. & Petersen, S. E. (1990). Annual Review of Neuroscience, 13, 25–42.
  4. ^ Corbetta, M., Kincade, J. M., Ollinger, J. M., McAvoy, M. P. & Shulman, G. L. (2000). Nature Neuroscience, 3, 292–297.
  5. ^ Astafiev, S. V., Shulman, G. I., Stanley, C. M., Snyder, A. Z., Van Essen, D. C. & Corbetta, M. (2003). Journal of Neuroscience, 23, 4689–4699.
  6. ^ Ast afiev, S. V., St anley, C. M., Shulman, G. L. & Corbetta, M. (2004) Nature Neuroscience, 7, 542–548.
  7. ^ Kincade, J. M., Abrams, R. A., Astafiev, S. V., Shulman, G. I. & Corbetta, M. (2005). Journal of Neuroscience, 25, 4593– 4604.
  8. ^ Downar, J., Crawley, A. P., Mikulis, D. J. & Dav is, K. D. (2000) Nature Neuroscience, 3, 277–283.
  9. ^ Fox, M. D., Snyder, A. Z., Barch, D. M., Gusnard, D. A. & Raichle, M. E. (2005). NeuroImage, 28, 956–966.
  10. ^ Shulman, G. I., Tansy, A. P., Kincade, M., Petersen, S. E., McAvoy, M. P. & Corbetta, M. (2002). Cerebral Cortex, 12, 590–600.
  11. ^ Zhou, Yuan; Yu, Chunshui; Zheng, Hua; Liu, Yong; Song, Ming; Qin, Wen; Li, Kuncheng; Jiang, Tianzi (2010). "Increased neural resources recruitment in the intrinsic organization in major depression". Journal of Affective Disorders 121 (3): 220–230. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2009.05.029. PMID 19541369. 
  12. ^ Berman, M. G.; Peltier, S.; Nee, D. E.; Kross, E.; Deldin, P. J.; Jonides, J. (19 September 2010). "Depression, rumination and the default network". Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 6 (5): 548–555. doi:10.1093/scan/nsq080. PMID 20855296.