Venus of Willendorf
|Created||24,000 B.C.E – 22,000 B.C.E.|
|Discovered||1908 near Willendorf, by Josef Szombathy|
|Present location||Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria|
The Venus of Willendorf, now known in academia as the Woman of Willendorf, is an 11 cm (4.3 in) high statuette of a female figure estimated to have been made between 24,000 and 22,000 BCE. It was found in 1908 by a workman named Johann Veran or Josef Veram during excavations conducted by archaeologists Josef Szombathy, Hugo Obermaier and Josef Bayer at a paleolithic site near Willendorf, a village in Lower Austria near the city of Krems. It is carved from an oolitic limestone that is not local to the area, and tinted with red ochre. The "Venus of Willendorf" is now in the Naturhistorisches Museum in Vienna, Austria.
After a wide variety of proposed dates, following a revised analysis of the stratigraphy of its site in 1990, the figure has been estimated to have been carved 24,000–22,000 BCE. Very little is known about its origin, method of creation, or cultural significance.
The purpose of the carving is the subject of much speculation. It never had feet and does not stand on its own. The apparent large size of the breasts and abdomen, and the detail put into the vulva, have led scholars to interpret the figure as a fertility symbol. The figure has no visible face, her head being covered with circular horizontal bands of what might be rows of plaited hair, or a type of headdress.
The nickname, urging a comparison to the classical image of "Venus," is now controversial. According to Christopher Witcombe, "the ironic identification of these figurines as 'Venus' pleasantly satisfied certain assumptions at the time about the primitive, about women, and about taste." Catherine McCoid and LeRoy McDermott hypothesize that the figurines may have been created as self-portraits.
|Nude Woman (Venus of Willendorf), Smarthistory|
See also 
- Antl-Weiser, Walpurga. "The anthropomorphic figurines from Willendorf". Niederösterreichischen Landesmuseum,. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
- The Testimony of the Spade, Geoffrey Bibby, Alfred A. Knoff, New York, 1956. P.139
- Venus of Willendorf Christopher L. C. E. Witcombe, 2003.
- Witcombe, Christopher. Venus of Willendorf. Retrieved on January 18, 2008.
- "Woman from Willendorf". Her headdress replicates shell formations. Christopher L. C. E. Witcombe. 2003. "The rows are not one continuous spiral but are, in fact, composed in seven concentric horizontal bands that encircle the head and two more horizontal bands underneath the first seven on the back of the head."
- "Name". Christopher L. C. E. Witcombe, 2003.
- McDermott, LeRoy. "Self-Representation in Upper Paleolithic Female Figurines". Current Anthropology, Vol. 37, No. 2, April., 1996. pp. 227-275.
- "Nude Woman (Venus of Willendorf)". Smarthistory at Khan Academy. Retrieved February 11, 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Venus of Willendorf|
- Christopher L. C. E. Witcombe, "Women in Prehistory:Venus of Willendorf".
- Venus figures from the Stone Age - The Venus of Willendorf
- Comparison of Willendorf Venus and Young Amanita/
- The Invisible Sex: Uncovering the True Roles of Women in Prehistory by J.M. Adovasio, Olga Soffer and Jake Page, ISBN 978-0-06-117091-1, gives a new 'view' of headdress as possible model for weaving a basket; Lauran Miller review at Salon.com: 
- An insight into the genesis of the Venus of Willendorf.
- A cartoon examination of the Venus of Willendorf's origins