Verbenaceae

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Verbenaceae
Flowers, fruit and (right) leaves
of a Lantana cultivar
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Verbenaceae
J.St.-Hil.[1]
Genera

About 35 (see text)

Synonyms

Durantaceae J.Agardh
Petreaceae J.Agardh[1]

Verbenaceae /vɜrbˈns/, commonly known as the verbena family or vervain family, is a family of mainly tropical flowering plants. It contains trees, shrubs and herbs notable for heads, spikes, or clusters of small flowers, many of which have an aromatic smell.[2]

Recent phylogenetic studies[3] have shown that numerous genera traditionally classified in Verbenaceae belong instead in Lamiaceae. The new narrowly circumscribed Verbenaceae family includes some 35 genera and 1,200 species.[4][5] The mangrove genus Avicennia, sometimes placed in Verbenaceae[6] or in its own family, Avicenniaceae,[7] has rather confidently been placed in Acanthaceae.[4]

Economically important Verbenaceae include:

Genera[edit]

Golden Dew Drops (Duranta erecta)
Frog fruit (Phyla nodiflora)

The genera in the new narrowly circumscribed family:[8]

Excluded genera[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Family: Verbenaceae J. St.-Hil., nom. cons.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-04-12. Retrieved 2011-10-10. 
  2. ^ Stevens, P. F. (July 12, 2012). "Verbenaceae". Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Retrieved September 24, 2013. 
  3. ^ Cantino, P.D., Harley, R.M. & Wagstaff, S.J. 1992. Genera of Labiatae: status and classification. Pp. 511-522. In Harley, R.M. & Reynolds, T. (eds) Advances in Labiate Science. Richmond, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  4. ^ a b "Angiosperm Phylogeny Website - Lamiales". Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved September 24, 2013. 
  5. ^ Heywood, V.H., Brummitt, R.K., Culham, A. & Seberg, O. 2007: Flowering Plant Families of the World. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  6. ^ Grandtner, Miroslav M. (2005). Elsevier's Dictionary of Trees: With Names in Latin, English, French, Spanish and Other Languages 1. Elsevier. p. 88. ISBN 978-0-444-51784-5. 
  7. ^ Nelson, Gil (1994). The Trees of Florida: a Reference and Field Guide. Pineapple Press Inc. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-56164-055-3. 
  8. ^ "GRIN Genera of Verbenaceae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2011-10-10. 
  9. ^ "GRIN genera sometimes placed in Verbenaceae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2011-10-10. 

External links[edit]