Vergilius of Salzburg
|Vergilius of Salzburg|
Statue of Saint Vergilius at the Salzburg Cathedral
|Died||27 November 784
|Venerated in||Roman Catholic Church|
|Canonized||1233 by Pope Gregory IX|
Vergilius of Salzburg (also Virgilius, Feirgil or Fergal) (born c. 700 in Ireland; died 27 November 784 in Salzburg) was an Irish churchman, an early astronomer, bishop of Ossory and later, bishop of Salzburg. He was called "the geometer".
Around 745 he left Ireland, intending to visit the Holy land, but, like many of his countrymen, who seemed to have adopted this practice as a work of piety, he settled down in France, where he was received with great favour by Pippin the Younger then Mayor of the Palace under Childeric III of Franconia. After spending two years at Cressy, near Compiègne, he went to Bavaria, at the invitation of Duke Odilo, where he founded the monastery of Chiemsee, and within a year or two was made Abbot of St. Peter's at Salzburg. Among his notable accomplishments was the conversion of the Alpine Slavs; he also sent missionaries to Hungary.
It was while Abbot of St. Peter's that he came into collision with Saint Boniface. A priest having, through ignorance, conferred the Sacrament of Baptism using, in place of the correct formula, the words "Baptizo te in nomine patria et filia et spiritu sancta", Vergilius held that the sacrament had been validly conferred, but Boniface complained to Pope Zachary. The latter, however, decided in favour of Vergilius. Later on, Boniface accused Vergilius of spreading discord between himself and Duke Odilo of Bavaria and of teaching a doctrine in regard to the rotundity of the earth, which was "contrary to the Scriptures". Pope Zachary's decision in this case was that "if it shall be clearly established that he professes belief in another world and other people existing beneath the earth, or in [another] sun and moon there, thou art to hold a council, and deprive him of his sacerdotal rank, and expel him from the church." Unfortunately we no longer possess the treatise in which Vergilius expounded his doctrine. Two things, however, are certain: first, that there was involved the problem of original sin and the universality of redemption; secondly, that Vergilius succeeded in freeing himself from the charge of teaching a doctrine contrary to Scripture. It is likely that Boniface, already biased against Vergilius because of the preceding case, misunderstood him, taking it for granted, perhaps, that if there are antipodes, the "other race of men" are not descendants of Adam and were not redeemed by Christ.
After the martyrdom of Boniface, Vergilius was made Bishop of Salzburg in 766 or 767 and laboured successfully for the upbuilding of his diocese as well as for the spread of Christianity in neighbouring heathen countries, especially in Carinthia. He died at Salzburg, 27 November 784.
In 1233 he was canonized by Gregory IX. His doctrine that the earth is a sphere was derived from the teaching of ancient geographers, and his belief in the existence of the antipodes was probably influenced by the accounts which the ancient Irish voyagers gave of their journeys. This, at least, is the opinion of Rettberg (Kirchengesch. Deutschlands, II, 236).
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- Clancy, Thomas Owen and Márkus, Gilbert. Iona: The Earliest Poetry of a Celtic Monastery, p.17, Edinburgh, Edinburgh University, 1995
- Turner, William. "St. Vergilius of Salzburg." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 15. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 19 May 2013
- Stevens, Clifford. The One Year Book of Saints, Our Sunday Visitor Publishing Division, Our Sunday Visitor, Inc., Huntington, Indiana
- MGH, Epistolae Selectae, 1, 80, pp. 178–9 ; translation in M. L. W. Laistner, Thought and Letters in Western Europe, pp. 184–5.; see also Jaffe, Biblioth. rerum germ., III, 191
- Laistner, M.L.W. Thought and Letters in Western Europe: A.D. 500 to 900, 2nd. ed. Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Pr., 1955. ISBN 0-8014-9037-5
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Turner, William (1912). "St. Vergilius of Salzburg". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia 15. Robert Appleton Company.