Verizon Communications (NYSE: VZ), branded as Verizon (pronounced // və-RY-zən), is an American broadband and telecommunications company and a corporate component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average. The company is based in New York City at 1095 Avenue of the Americas.
What eventually became Verizon was founded as Bell Atlantic, which was one of the seven Baby Bells that were formed after AT&T Corporation was forced to relinquish its control of the Bell System by order of the Justice Department of the United States. Bell Atlantic came into existence in 1984 with a footprint from New Jersey to Virginia, with each area having a separate operating company (consisting of New Jersey Bell, Bell of Pennsylvania, Diamond State Telephone, and C&P Telephone).
As part of the rebranding that the Baby Bells took in the mid-1990s, all of the operating companies assumed the Bell Atlantic name. In 1997, Bell Atlantic expanded into New York and the New England states by merging with fellow Baby Bell NYNEX. In addition, Bell Atlantic moved their headquarters from Philadelphia into the old NYNEX headquarters and rebranded the entire company as Bell Atlantic.
In 2000 Bell Atlantic merged with GTE, which operated telecommunications companies across most of the rest of the country that was not already in Bell Atlantic's footprint. The combined company elected to change its name to "Verizon", a portmanteau of veritas (Latin for "truth") and horizon. The company's headquarters, while always having been located in New York City, was originally located at 1095 Avenue of the Americas until the Bell Atlantic-GTE merger, when its headquarters was moved to the Verizon Building at 140 West Street in Lower Manhattan before returning to the 1095 space in 2013.
- 1 History
- 2 Lines of Business
- 3 Sponsorships and naming rights
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Verizon Communications formed in June 2000 when the Federal Communications Commission approved a US$64.7 billion merger of telephone companies Bell Atlantic and GTE, nearly two years after the businesses proposed the deal in July 1998. The approval came with 25 stipulations to preserve competition between local phone carriers, including investing in new markets and broadband technologies. The new venture was headed by co-CEOs Charles Lee, formerly the CEO of GTE, and Bell Atlantic CEO Ivan Seidenberg.
Upon its inception, Verizon became the largest local telephone company in the United States, operating 63 million telephone lines in 40 states. The company also inherited 25 million mobile phone customers. Additionally, Verizon offered Internet services and long-distance calling in New York, before expanding long-distance operations to other states.
The name Verizon derives from the combination of the words veritas, Latin for truth, and horizon. The name was chosen from 8,500 candidates and the company spent $300 million on marketing the new brand.
Two months before the FCC gave final approval on the formation of Verizon Communications, Bell Atlantic formed Verizon Wireless in a joint venture with the British telecommunications company Vodafone in April 2000. The companies established Verizon Wireless as its own business operated by Bell Atlantic, which owned 55% of the venture. Vodafone retained 45% of the company. The deal was valued at approximately $70 billion and created a mobile carrier with 23 million customers. Verizon Wireless merged Bell Atlantic's wireless network, Vodafone's AirTouch and PrimeCo holdings, and the wireless division of GTE. Due to its size, Verizon Wireless was able to offer national coverage at competitive rates, giving it an advantage over regional providers typical of the time.
During its first operational year, Verizon Wireless released Mobile Web, an Internet service that allowed customers to access partner sites such as E*Trade, ABC News, ESPN, Amazon.com, Ticketmaster and MSN, as well as the "New Every Two" program, which gave customers a free phone with every two-year service contract. In another partnership with MSN in 2002, Verizon Wireless launched the mobile content service "VZW with MSN" and a phone that utilized the Microsoft Windows operating system.
In August 2000, approximately 85,000 Verizon workers went on an 18-day labor strike after their union contracts expired. The strike affected quarterly revenues, resulting in Verizon Wireless' postponement of the company's IPO (the IPO was ultimately cancelled in 2003, because the company no longer needed to raise revenue for Verizon Wireless due to increased profits ), and created a backlog of repairs. In August of 2002, Verizon began offering local, long-distance, and mobile calling, as well as Internet service, in a bundle. It was initially only available to customers in New York and Massachusetts.
In June 2003, Verizon Wireless backed an FCC-issued portability requirement that permitted consumers to take their phone numbers with them across carriers. The company gained 1.5 million new subscribers the following quarter, partially due to the rule change. The following year, in April 2004, the Dow Jones Industrial Average added Verizon Communications to its stock market index in April 2004. Verizon replaced telecom competitor AT&T, which had been a part of the index since the Great Depression.
On December 22, 2004, mail servers at Verizon.net were configured not to accept connections from Europe, by default, in an attempt to reduce spam email that was originating from the region. Individual domains would only be unblocked upon request.
Verizon launched its FiOS Internet service, which transmits data over fiber optic cables in Keller, Texas. The company launched FiOS TV in September 2005, also in Keller, Texas. Twenty percent of qualified homes signed up by the end of the year. By January 2006, FiOS offered over 350 channels in eight states, including 20 high-definition television channels as well as video on demand.
Verizon began negotiations to purchase long distance carrier MCI in 2005. MCI accepted the company's initial $6.75 billion offer in February 2005, but then received a higher offer from Qwest Communications. Verizon increased its bid to $7.6 billion (or $23.50 a share), which MCI accepted on March 29, 2005. The acquisition gave the company access to MCI's one million corporate clients and international holdings, expanding Verizon's presence into global markets. As a result, Verizon Business was established as a new division to serve the company's business and government customers. The FCC approved deal on November 5th 2005, valuing it at $8.5 billion. Verizon's 2006 revenues rose by as much as 20% following the purchase.
In May 2006, USA Today reported that Verizon, as well as AT&T and BellSouth, had given the National Security Agency landline phone records following the September 11 attacks. That same month, a $50 billion lawsuit was filed by two lawyers on behalf of all Verizon subscribers for privacy violations and to prevent the company from releasing additional records without consent or warrant. Protesters staged the National Day of Out(R)age due in part to the controversy. Verizon stated in 2007 that the company fulfilled only "lawful demands" for information, though also acknowledged surrendering customer information to government agencies without court orders or warrants 720 times between 2005 and 2007.
Verizon won a lawsuit against Vonage in March 2007 for patent infringement. The three patents named were filed by Verizon in 1997 and relate to the conversion of IP addresses into phone numbers, a key technology of Vonage's business. The company was awarded US$58 million in damages and future royalties. Vonage later lost an appeal and was ordered to pay Verizon $120 million.
Verizon Wireless reversed a controversial decision in September 2007 to deny NARAL Pro-Choice America a short code through which the organization could text consumers who had signed up for messaging from the group. They had initially refused the group access to a code by reserving the right to block "controversial or unsavory" messages.
In November 2007, Verizon opened its networks for the first time to third party apps and devices, a decision that allowed it to participate in the FCC's 2008 700 MHz auction of "open access" spectrum. During that auction, the company bid $9.4 billion and won the bulk of national and local licenses for airwaves reaching approximately 469 million people. Verizon utilized the increased spectrum for its 4G service.
Verizon Wireless purchased wireless carrier Alltell for $28.1 billion in June 2008. The acquisition included 13 million customers, which allowed Verizon Wireless to surpass AT&T in number of customers and reach new markets in rural areas.
In October 2010, Verizon Wireless paid $77.8 million in refunds and FCC penalties for overcharging 15 million customers for data services. The company stated the overcharges were accidental and only amounted to a few dollars per customer.
On February 4, 2010, 4chan started receiving reports from Verizon Wireless customers that they were having difficulties accessing the site's image boards. 4chan administrators found that only traffic on port 80 to the boards.4chan.org domain was affected, leading them to believe that the block was intentional. On February 7, 2010, Verizon Wireless confirmed that 4chan.org was "explicitly blocked" after Verizon's security and external experts detected sweep attacks coming from an IP address associated with the 4chan network. Traffic was restored several days later.
In December 2010 Verizon continued censoring its network by blocking access to some IRC servers related to Wikileaks "Operation Payback".
Verizon introduced its 4G LTE network in 38 markets in December 2010, as well as in airports in seven additional cities. The company planned on a three-year continuous expansion of the 4G service.
Between 2005-2010, Verizon divested wireline operations in several states in order to focus on its wireless, FiOS internet and FiOS TV businesses. It sold 700,000 lines in Hawaii in 2005, and spun off lines in Maine, New Hampshire and Vermont in January 2007 that were then purchased by FairPoint Communications for $2.72 billion. In 2009, the company spun off wirelines in 14 states into a company that then merged with Frontier Communications in a deal valued at $8.6 billion. Verizon also shed its telephone directory business in 2006.
In December 2011, the non-partisan organization Public Campaign criticized Verizon for its tax avoidance procedures after it spent $52.34 million on lobbying while collecting $951 million in tax rebates between 2008 and 2010 and making a profit of $32.5 billion. The same report also criticized Verizon for increasing executive pay by 167% in 2010 for its top five executives while laying off 21,308 workers between 2008 and 2010. However, in its Form 10-K filed with the SEC on February 24, 2012, Verizon reported having paid more than $11.1 billion in taxes (including income, employment and property taxes) from 2009 to 2011. In addition, the company reported in the 10-K that most of the drop in employment since 2008 was due to a voluntary retirement offer.
In June 2012, as part of its strategy to expand into new growth areas in its wireless business, Verizon purchased Hughes Telematics—a company that produces wireless features for automobiles—for $612 million.
Also in June 2012, Verizon's E-911 service failed in the aftermath of the June 2012 derecho storm in several northern Virginia suburbs of Washington, D.C., with some problems lasting several days. The FCC conducted an investigation and in January 2013 released a report detailing the problems that led to the failure. Verizon reported that it had already addressed or was addressing a number of the issues related to the FCC report, including the causes of generator failures, conducting audits of backup systems and making its monitoring systems less centralized, although the FCC indicated that Verizon still needed to make additional improvements.
In August 2012, the Department of Justice approved Verizon's purchase of Advanced Wireless Services (AWS) spectrum from a consortium of cable companies, including Comcast, Time Warner Cable and Bright House Networks, for $3.9 billion. Verizon began expanding its LTE network utilizing these extra airwaves in October 2013.
On June 5, 2013, The Guardian reported it had obtained an order by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and approved by the United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court that required Verizon to provide the NSA with telephone metadata for all calls originating in the U.S. Verizon Wireless was not part of the NSA data collection for wireless accounts due to foreign ownership issues. (see also MAINWAY article)
In September 2013, Verizon purchased the 45% stake in Verizon Wireless owned by Vodafone for $130 billion. The deal closed on February 21, 2014, becoming the third largest corporate deal ever signed, giving Verizon Communications sole ownership of Verizon Wireless.
On January 22, 2014 the Wall Street Journal reported that Verizon Communications Inc. received more than 1,000 requests for information about its subscribers on national security grounds via National Security Letters. In total, Verizon received 321,545 requests from federal, state and local law enforcement for U.S. customer information.
Lines of Business
Verizon Communications' operations are divided into three business units: wireless, residential and small business services, and enterprise services.
Verizon Wireless provides mobile phone, text message, and data services for phones, tablets, and computers, as well as wireless hotspot devices. As of September 2013, Verizon Wireless had 101.2 million wireless connections, and its 4G LTE network covered over 303 million people. In a September 2013 survey conducted by J.D. Power and Associates, Verizon Wireless was rated as having the highest network quality amongst national providers across all six geographic regions of the U.S., marking the first time any provider has come in first in all regions since the study switched to a regional format in 2004.
Also in September 2013, it was announced that Verizon would buy the remaining stake that Vodafone owned in Verizon Wireless, which had been a joint venture between the two companies, for $130 billion. Upon the closing of the deal in the first quarter of 2014, it will be the third largest corporate deal ever signed. Soon after the deal was announced, a shareholder sued Verizon, claiming that they overpaid for Vodafone's share of the venture.
Residential and small business
Verizon's FiOS service, launched in 2005, provides Internet, television, and phone service using fiber optic cable instead of copper wire. FiOS cable passes near 18 million homes, of which 14.6 million are completely ready for service; the other 3.4 million homes would require some additional wiring to support FiOS. As of September 2013, Verizon had a total of 5.9 million FiOS Internet subscribers and 5.2 million FiOS TV customers, with FiOS accounting for 75% of Verizon's revenues from fixed-line consumer retail. In September 2013, Verizon announced that FiOS TV subscribers would be able to watch some television channels live on their mobile devices.
In areas where Verizon has installed FiOS service, the copper wires, which are more expensive to maintain, are removed. This prevents a customer who has switched to FiOS from switching back to services provided by copper wires, such as DSL service.
Verizon operates landline services in 12 states (Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, Florida, Texas, California) and Washington, D.C. through the following operating companies:
- GTE Southwest, Inc. – Operations in Texas inherited from GTE
- Verizon California, Inc. – Operations inherited from GTE
- Verizon Delaware LLC
- Verizon Florida LLC – Operations inherited from GTE
- Verizon Maryland, Inc.
- Verizon New England, Inc. – Operations in Massachusetts and Rhode Island
- Verizon New Jersey, Inc.
- Verizon New York, Inc. – Also serves a portion of southwestern Connecticut
- Verizon North LLC – Operations in Pennsylvania inherited from GTE
- Verizon Pennsylvania LLC
- Verizon South, Inc. – Operations in Virginia inherited from GTE
- Verizon Virginia LLC
- Verizon Washington, D.C., Inc.
Verizon Enterprise Solutions, known as Verizon Business from 2006 to 2011, provides services for wholesale, corporate, and government clients. Enterprise Solutions provides a cloud-based platform to deliver IT, security, mobility, and collaboration solutions to customers. It supports service in 75 countries, and has a global IP network that reaches more than 150 countries, with 99 percent of Fortune 500 companies using Verizon Enterprise Solutions.
In October 2013, Verizon announced Verizon Cloud, a platform as a service offering that allows for the fast deployment of virtual machines for customers, as well as control of the configuration of those virtual machines.
Verizon Partner Program
On February 28, 2013, Verizon launched the Verizon Partner Program (VPP), which offers medium-sized preferred access to its businesses' cloud, mobility, communications, and networking solutions. There are four levels to VPP membership: Platinum, Gold, Silver, and Member. Each offers a different level of benefits and requirements. VPP also offers three business models: Agent, Resale, and Sell With. Each represents a different relationship with Verizon. Some Partner Program companies include General Datatech, SOVA, and OEM Data Delivery.
Sponsorships and naming rights
- Verizon IndyCar Series
- The Verizon Center in Washington, DC
- The Verizon corner at Met Life Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey
- Verizon Championship Racing, a sponsorship partnership with Team Penske in the IRL's IndyCar Series and NASCAR Nationwide Series
- Verizon Heritage (2006–2010) PGA Tour event in Hilton Head Island, South Carolina
- Verizon IMAX 3D theater inside Jordan's Furniture stores in Natick and Reading, Massachusetts (formerly called Motion Odyssey Movie, M.O.M.)
- The Verizon Sports Complex in Lake Placid, New York where the bobsled, luge, and skeleton track is located
- Verizon Wireless Amphitheatre/Verizon Wireless Music Center in various cities across the U.S., including: Atlanta; Irvine, California; Noblesville, Indiana; St. Louis; Charlotte; Pelham, Alabama; and Virginia Beach
- The Verizon Wireless Arena in Manchester, New Hampshire
- The Verizon Arena in North Little Rock, Arkansas
- The Verizon Wireless Center in Mankato, Minnesota
- The Verizon Tower in Prudential Center Newark, NJ
- The Verizon Theater at Grand Prairie Dallas, TX
- The McLaren F1 Team starting at the 2011 Canadian Grand Prix
- The McLaren F1 Team starting at the 2012 United States Grand Prix
- Airfone—Air-ground radiotelephone service offered by Verizon
- MCI Communications
- Verizon SmartPark—Advanced Telecommunications Services
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Verizon.|
- Official website
- Verizon at the Wayback Machine (archived June 20, 2000)