Vermes in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae

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In 1758, in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, the Swedish scientist and taxonomist Carl Linnaeus described the class "Vermes" as:[1]

Animals of slow motion, soft substance, able to increase their bulk and restore parts which have been destroyed, extremely tenatious of life, and the inhabitants of moist places. Many of them are without a distinct head, and most of them without feet. They are principally distinguished by their tentacles (or feelers). By the Ancients they were not improperly called imperfect animals, as being destitute of ears, nose, head, eyes and legs; and are therefore totally distinct from Insects.

Linnaean Characteristics [2]

  • Heart: 1 auricle, 0 ventricles. Cold, pus-like blood.
  • Spiracles: obscure
  • Jaw: various
  • Penis: frequently hermaphrodites
  • Organs of Sense: tentacles (generally), eyes, no brain, no ears, no nostrils
  • Covering: calcareous or none, except spines
  • Supports: no feet, no fins. Crawls in Moise Places & are Mute

The class Vermes, as Linnaeus conceived it, was a rather diverse and mismatched grouping of animals; basically it served as a wastebasket taxon for any invertebrate species that was not an arthropod. With the advent of the scientific understanding of evolution, it became clear that many of the animals in these groups were not in fact closely related, and so the class Vermes was dropped for several (at least 30) phyla.

Intestina[edit]

Gordius (horsehair worms)
The common earthworm was named Lumbricus terrestris in 1758.
Furia
  • Furia infernalis – Despite the many accounts of this purported animal by respected authorities, including Daniel Solander and Linnaeus himself, it is now accepted that no such animal exists.[5]
Lumbricus (earthworms)
Ascaris (giant intestinal roundworms)
Fasciola (liver flukes)
The sheep liver fluke was named Fasciola hepatica in 1758.
Hirudo (leeches)
Myxine (hagfishes)
Teredo (shipworms)

Mollusca[edit]

The black slug was named Limax ater in 1758.
Limax (terrestrial slugs)
Doris (dorid nudibranchs)
Tethys (tethydid sea slugs)
The beadlet anemone was named Priapus equinus in 1758.
Nereis (polychaete worms)
  • Nereis lacustrisStylaria lacustris
  • Nereis caerulea
  • Nereis gigantea
  • Nereis pelagica
  • Nereis noctiluca
Aphrodita (sea mice)
  • Aphrodita squamata
  • Aphrodita aculeata
Lernaea (anchor worms)
Priapus (priapulid worms & anemones)
Scyllaea (scyllaeid sea slugs)
Holothuria (salps & Man o' Wars)
Triton (triton snails)
  • Triton littoreus
The common cuttlefish was named Sepia officinalis in 1758.
Sepia (octopuses, squid, & cuttlefish)
The moon jellyfish was named Medusa aurita in 1758.
Medusa (jellyfish)
The horned sea star was named Asterias nodosa in 1758.
Asterias (starfish[14]
The black sea urchin was named Echinus lixula in 1758.
Echinus (sea urchins & sand dollars)

Testacea[edit]

Chiton (chitons)
Barnea candida was named Pholas candidus in 1758.
  • Chiton hispidus
  • Chiton tuberculatus – West Indian green chiton
  • Chiton aculeatus
  • Chiton punctatus
Lepas (barnacles)
The common softshell was named Myes arenaria in 1758.
Pholas (piddocks & angelwings)
Myes (soft-shell clams)
The pod razor was named Solen siliqua in 1758.
  • Myes vulsella
Solen (razor clams)
  • Solen vagina
  • Solen siliquaPod razor
  • Solen ensis
  • Solen legumen
  • Solen cultellus
  • Solen radiatus
  • Solen strigilatus
  • Solen anatinus
  • Solen bullatus
  • Solen inaequivalvis
The Baltic tellin was named Tellina balthica in 1758.
Tellina (tellins)
  • Tellina gargadia
  • Tellina linguafelis
  • Tellina virgata
  • Tellina gari
  • Tellina fragilisGastrana fragilis
  • Tellina albida
  • Tellina foliacea
  • Tellina planata
  • Tellina laevigatasmooth tellin
  • Tellina radiatasunrise tellin
  • Tellina rostrata
  • Tellina trifasciata
  • Tellina incarnata
  • Tellina donacinaDonax tellin
  • Tellina balaustina
  • Tellina remies
  • Tellina scobinata
  • Tellina lactea
  • Tellina carnaria
  • Tellina bimaculata
  • Tellina balthicaBaltic tellin
  • Tellina pisiformis
  • Tellina divaricata
  • Tellina digitaria
  • Tellina cornea
The common cockle was named Cardium edule in 1758.
Cardium (cockles)
  • Cardium costatum
  • Cardium cardissa
  • Cardium hemicardium
  • Cardium medium
  • Cardium muricatumAcanthocardia aculeata
  • Cardium echinatumAcanthocardia echinata
  • Cardium ciliare
  • Cardium tuberculatumAcanthocardia tuberculata
  • Cardium isocardia
  • Cardium fragum
  • Cardium unedo
  • Cardium muricatum
  • Cardium magnum
  • Cardium flavum
  • Cardium laevigatum
  • Cardium serratum
  • Cardium triste
  • Cardium corallinum
  • Cardium solidum
  • Cardium edulecommon cockle
  • Cardium rusticum
  • Cardium pectinatum
  • Cardium stultorum
  • Cardium virgineum
  • Cardium humanum
Donax (wedge shells)
The hard clam was named Venus mercenaria in 1758.
  • Donax pubescens
  • Donax rugosa
  • Donax trunculus
  • Donax denticulata
  • Donax cuneata
  • Donax scripta
  • Donax muricata
  • Donax irus
The warty venus was named Venus verrucosa in 1758.
Venus (Venus clams)
  • Venus dione
  • Venus marica
  • Venus dysera
  • Venus verrucosawarty venus
  • Venus casina
  • Venus gallinaChamelea gallina
  • Venus petulca
  • Venus erycina
  • Venus mercenariahard clam
  • Venus chione
  • Venus maculata
  • Venus meretrix
  • Venus scortum
  • Venus laeta
  • Venus castrensis
  • Venus phryne
  • Venus meroë
  • Venus deflorata
  • Venus fimbriata
  • Venus reticulata
  • Venus squamosa
  • Venus tigerina
  • Venus prostrata
  • Venus pensylvanica
  • Venus incrustata
  • Venus punctata
  • Venus exoleta
  • Venus orbicularis
  • Venus ziczac
  • Venus pectinata
  • Venus scripta
  • Venus edentula
  • Venus lupinus
  • Venus literata
  • Venus rotundata
  • Venus decussata
Spondylus (thorny oysters)
  • Spondylus gaederopus
  • Spondylus regius
Chama (jewel box shells)
  • Chama lazarus
  • Chama gigas
  • Chama hippopus
  • Chama antiquata
  • Chama semiorbiculata
  • Chama calyculata
  • Chama cordata
  • Chama oblonga
  • Chama gryphoides
  • Chama bicornis
Arca (ark clams)
  • Arca tortuosa
  • Arca noae
  • Arca barbataBarbatia barbata
  • Arca pella
  • Arca lacteaStriarca lactea
  • Arca antiquata
  • Arca senilis
  • Arca granosa
  • Arca decussata
  • Arca pallens
  • Arca undata
  • Arca pectunculus
  • Arca glycymeris
  • Arca nummaria
  • Arca nucleus
The edible oyster was named Ostrea edulis in 1758.
Ostrea (true oysters)
  • Ostrea maxima
  • Ostrea jacobaea
  • Ostrea ziczac
  • Ostrea striatula
  • Ostrea minuta
  • Ostrea pleuronectes
  • Ostrea obliterata
  • Ostrea radula
  • Ostrea plica
  • Ostrea pallium
  • Ostrea nodosa
  • Ostrea pes felis
  • Ostrea pellucens
  • Ostrea sanguinea
  • Ostrea varia
  • Ostrea pusio
  • Ostrea glabra
  • Ostrea opercularis
  • Ostrea gibba
  • Ostrea flavicans
  • Ostrea fasciata
  • Ostrea lima
  • Ostrea isognomum
  • Ostrea malleus
  • Ostrea foliumPycnodonta folium
  • Ostrea orbicularis
  • Ostrea edulisedible oyster
  • Ostrea semiaurita
  • Ostrea ephippium
The blue mussel was named Mytilus edulis in 1758.
Anomia (saddle oysters)
  • Anomia craniolaris
  • Anomia pectinata
  • Anomia ephippium
  • Anomia cepa
  • Anomia electrica
  • Anomia squamulaprickly jingle
  • Anomia scobinata
  • Anomia aurita
  • Anomia retusaTerebratulina retusa
  • Anomia gryphus
  • Anomia pecten
  • Anomia striatula
  • Anomia reticularis
  • Anomia plicatella
  • Anomia crispa
  • Anomia lacunosa
  • Anomia fareta
  • Anomia caput serpentis
  • Anomia terebratula
  • Anomia angulata
  • Anomia hysterita
  • Anomia biloba
  • Anomia placenta
Mytilus – (Mussels including marine and freshwater mussels)
  • Mytilus crista galli
  • Mytilus hyotis
  • Mytilus frons
  • Mytilus margaritiferusfreshwater pearl mussel
  • Mytilus unguis
  • Mytilus lithophagus
  • Mytilus bilocularis
  • Mytilus exustus
  • Mytilus barbatus
  • Mytilus edulisblue mussel
  • Mytilus ungulatus
  • Mytilus modiolus
  • Mytilus cygneusswan mussel (a freshwater mussel)
  • Mytilus anatinusduck mussel (a freshwater mussel)
  • Mytilus viridis
  • Mytilus ruber
  • Mytilus hirundo
The chambered nautilus was named Nautilus pompilius in 1758.
Pinna (pen shells)
  • Pinna rudisrough penshell
  • Pinna nobilis
  • Pinna muricata
  • Pinna rotundata
  • Pinna saccata
  • Pinna digitiformis
  • Pinna lobata
  • Pinna pennacea
Argonauta (paper nautiluses)
The marbled cone was named Conus marmoreus in 1758.
Nautilus (Nautiluses)
  • Nautilus pompiliuschambered nautilus
  • Nautilus crista
  • Nautilus calcar
  • Nautilus crispus
  • Nautilus beccarii
  • Nautilus umbilicatus
  • Nautilus spirulaSpirula spirula
  • Nautilus Semi-Lituus
  • Nautilus obliqvus
  • Nautilus raphanistrum
  • Nautilus raphanus
  • Nautilus granum
  • Nautilus radicula
  • Nautilus fascia
  • Nautilus sipunculus
  • Nautilus legumen
  • Nautilus orthocera
The Glory-of-the-Atlantic cone was named Conus granulatus in 1758.
Conus (Cone Snails)
The Arabian cowry was named Cypraea arabica in 1758.
The gnawed cowry was named Cypraea erosa in 1758.
The tiger cowry was named Cypraea tigris in 1758.
Cypraea (Cowries)
Bulla (bubble shells)
  • Bulla ovum
  • Bulla volva
  • Bulla spelta
  • Bulla verrucosa
  • Bulla gibbosa
  • Bulla naucum
  • Bulla hydatis
  • Bulla ampulla
  • Bulla lignaria
  • Bulla physis
  • Bulla amplustre
  • Bulla pallida
  • Bulla canaliculata
  • Bulla fontinalis
  • Bulla hypnorum
  • Bulla cypraea
  • Bulla tornatilis
  • Bulla achatin
  • Bulla Auris Midae
  • Bulla Auris Judae
  • Bulla solidula
  • Bulla livida
  • Bulla coffea
Mitra paupercula was named Voluta paupercula in 1758.
Voluta (volutes)
  • Voluta porphyria
  • Voluta oliva
  • Voluta ispidula
  • Voluta persicula
  • Voluta monilis
  • Voluta miliaria
  • Voluta faba
  • Voluta glabella
  • Voluta mercatoria
  • Voluta rustica
  • Voluta pauperculaMitra paupercula
  • Voluta mendicaria
  • Voluta tringa
  • Voluta cornicula
  • Voluta caffra
  • Voluta sanguisuga
  • Voluta vulpecula
  • Voluta plicaria
  • Voluta pertusa
  • Voluta mitra episcopalis
  • Voluta mitra papalis
  • Voluta musicamusic volute
  • Voluta vespertilio
  • Voluta ebraeaHebrew volute
  • oluta aethiopicaMelo aethiopica
  • Voluta cymbium
  • Voluta olla
The dog whelk was named Buccinum lapillus in 1758.
The common whelk was named Buccinum undatum in 1758.
Buccinum (true whelks)
  • Buccinum oleariumTonna galea
  • Buccinum galea
  • Buccinum perdix
  • Buccinum pomumMalea pomum
  • Buccinum dolium
  • Buccinum echinophorum
  • Buccinum tuberosum
  • Buccinum plicatum
  • Buccinum cornutum
  • Buccinum rufum
  • Buccinum flammeum
  • Buccinum testiculus
  • Buccinum decussatum
  • Buccinum areola
  • Buccinum erinaceus
  • Buccinum glaucum
  • Buccinum vibex
  • Buccinum papillosum
  • Buccinum glans
  • Buccinum arculariaNassarius arcularia
  • Buccinum pullusNassa pulla
  • Buccinum gibbosulum
  • Buccinum mutabile
  • Buccinum neriteum
  • Buccinum harpaHarpa harpa
  • Buccinum costatumHarpa costata
  • Buccinum persicumPurpura persica
  • Buccinum patulum
  • Buccinum lapillusdog whelk
  • Buccinum smaragdulusLeucozonia smaragdula
  • Buccinum spiratum
  • Buccinum glabratum
  • Buccinum virgineum
  • Buccinum praemorsum
  • Buccinum undosumCantharus undosus
  • Buccinum undatumcommon whelk
  • Buccinum reticulatum
  • Buccinum scabriculum
  • Buccinum nitidulum
  • Buccinum laevigatum
  • Buccinum maculatumOxymeris maculata
  • Buccinum crenulatum
  • Buccinum hecticumImpages hectica
  • Buccinum strigilatumHastula strigilata
  • Buccinum duplicatumDuplicaria duplicata
  • Buccinum dimidiatumAcus dimidiata
  • Buccinum murinum
The pelican's foot was named Strombus pes pelecani in 1758.
Strombus (true conchs)
The banded dye murex was named Murex trunculus in 1758.
Purpura mancinella was named Murex mancinella in 1758.
Murex (Murex Snails)
Trochus (top snails)
The great green turban was named Turbo marmoratus in 1758.
The West Indian top shell was named Turbo pica in 1758.
Turbo (turban snails)
The Roman snail was named Helix pomatia in 1758.
The common purple snail was named Helix janthina in 1758.
The great pond snail was named Helix stagnalis in 1758.
Helix (land snails)
  • Helix scarabaeus
  • Helix lapicida
  • Helix oculus capri
  • Helix albella
  • Helix striatula
  • Helix algiraZonites algirus
  • Helix leucas
  • Helix planorbis
  • Helix complanata
  • Helix ringens
  • Helix carocolla
  • Helix cornu militare
  • Helix vortex
  • Helix scabraLittoraria scabra
  • Helix gothica
  • Helix gualtierana
  • Helix cornea
  • Helix spirorbis
  • Helix contorta
  • Helix cornu arietis
  • Helix hispida
  • Helix ampullacea
  • Helix pomatiaRoman snail
  • Helix glauca
  • Helix citrina
  • Helix arbustorum
  • Helix ungulina
  • Helix itala
  • Helix hispana
  • Helix lutariaHelix lutescens
  • Helix perversa
  • Helix janthinacommon purple snail
  • Helix viviparaViviparus contectus a freshwater snail
  • Helix nemoralisgrove snail
  • Helix lucorum
  • Helix grisea
  • Helix haemastoma
  • Helix decollatadecollate snail
  • Helix pupa
  • Helix barbara
  • Helix amarula
  • Helix stagnalisgreat pond snail
  • Helix fragilis
  • Helix putris
  • Helix limosa
  • Helix tentaculatacommon bithynia
  • Helix auriculariabig-ear radix
  • Helix balthica
  • Helix neritoidea
  • Helix perspicua
  • Helix haliotoidea
  • Helix ambigua
The blotched nerite was named Nerita albicilla in 1758.
Shell & opercule of Nerita pelotonta
Neritha (nerites)
The virgin paua was named Haliotis marmorata in 1758.
Haliotis (abalones)
The brachiopod Lingula anatina was named Patella unguis in 1758.
The blue-rayed limpet was named Patella pellucida in 1758.
Patella (true limpets & brachiopods)
Dentalium (tusk shells)
  • Dentalium elephantinum
  • Dentalium dentalis
  • Dentalium entalisAntalis entalis
  • Dentalium minutum
Serpula (serpulid worms)

Lithophyta[edit]

Tubipora (organ pipe corals)
The organ pipe coral was named Tubipora musica in 1758.
  • Tubipora musicaOrgan pipe coral
  • Tubipora infundibuliformis
  • Tubipora verrucosa
  • Tubipora urceus
  • Tubipora serpens
  • Tubipora repens
  • Tubipora arenosa
Millepora (Fire corals)
  • Millepora cellulosa
  • Millepora lichenoides
  • Millepora damicornis
  • Millepora alcicornis
  • Millepora reticulata
  • Millepora lineata
  • Millepora compressa
  • Millepora muricata
  • Millepora eschara
  • Millepora crustacea
Madrepora (stone corals)
  • Madrepora acetabulumAcetabularia acetabulum
  • Madrepora verrucaria
  • Madrepora turbinata
  • Madrepora fungites
  • Madrepora pileus
  • Madrepora maeandrites
  • Madrepora labyrinthiformis
  • Madrepora areolata
  • Madrepora punctata
  • Madrepora agaricites
  • Madrepora truncata
  • Madrepora stellaris
  • Madrepora polygama
  • Madrepora favosa
  • Madrepora astroites
  • Madrepora organum
  • Madrepora flexuosa
  • Madrepora turbinata
  • Madrepora fascicularis
  • Madrepora ananas
  • Madrepora pertusa
  • Madrepora ramea
  • Madrepora rubra
  • Madrepora oculata
  • Madrepora virginea

Zoophyta[edit]

Isis (soft corals)
  • Isis hippuris
  • Isis dichotoma
  • Isis ocracea
  • Isis anastatica
  • Isis encrinus
Gorgonia (sea fans)
  • Gorgonia spiralis
  • Gorgonia ventalinaCommon Sea Fan
  • Gorgonia flabellumVenus Sea Fan
  • Gorgonia antipathes
  • Gorgonia ceratophyta
  • Gorgonia pinnata
  • Gorgonia aenea
  • Gorgonia placomus
  • Gorgonia abies
Alcyonium (soft corals)
  • Alcyonium arboreu
  • Alcyonium digitatu
  • Alcyonium bursa
Tubularia (Tubularia)
Eschara (Bryozoa)
  • Eschara foliacea
  • Eschara fistulosa
  • Eschara fragilis
  • Eschara divaricata
  • Eschara verticillata
Corallina (coralline algae)
  • Corallina opuntia
  • Corallina officinalis
  • Corallina squamata
  • Corallina corniculata
  • Corallina barbata
  • Corallina fragilissima
  • Corallina rubensJania rubens
  • Corallina cristata
  • Corallina spermophoros
  • Corallina penicillus
Sertularia (Bryozoa)
  • Sertularia rosacea
  • Sertularia pumila
  • Sertularia operculata
  • Sertularia tamarisca
  • Sertularia abietina
  • Sertularia cupressina
  • Sertularia argentea
  • Sertularia avicularia
  • Sertularia rugosa
  • Sertularia halecina
  • Sertularia thuja
  • Sertularia eburneaCrisia eburnea
  • Sertularia cornuta
  • Sertularia myriophyllum
  • Sertularia falcata
  • Sertularia pluma
  • Sertularia antennina
  • Sertularia verticillata
  • Sertularia volubilis
  • Sertularia cuscuta
  • Sertularia uvaWalkeria uva
  • Sertularia lendigera
  • Sertularia geniculata
  • Sertularia dichotoma
  • Sertularia spinosa
  • Sertularia pinnata
  • Sertularia polyzonias
  • Sertularia setacea
  • Sertularia stipulata
  • Sertularia pennaria
  • Sertularia lichenastrum
  • Sertularia cedrina
  • Sertularia purpurea
  • Sertularia flexuosa
  • Sertularia bursaria
  • Sertularia loricata
  • Sertularia fastigiata
  • Sertularia neritinaBugula neritina
  • Sertularia scruposa
  • Sertularia reptans
  • Sertularia ciliata
  • Sertularia chelata
  • Sertularia anguinaAetea anguina
  • Sertularia polypina
Hydra
  • Hydra polypus
  • Hydra campanulata
  • Hydra socialis
  • Hydra stentoria
  • Hydra pyraria
  • Hydra convallaria
  • Hydra crataegaria
  • Hydra opercularia
  • Hydra umbellaria
  • Hydra berberina
  • Hydra digitalis
Pennatula (sea pens)
The chlorophyte Volvox was included among the animals in the 1758 Systema Naturae as two species: Volvox globator & Volvox chaos
  • Pennatula phosphorea
  • Pennatula filosa
  • Pennatula sagitta
  • Pennatula mirabilis
Taenia (tapeworms)
  • Taenia solium – pork tapeworm
  • Taenia vulgaris
  • Taenia lata
  • Taenia canina
Volvox

References[edit]

  1. ^ Carl von Linné, translated by William Turton (1806). Volume 4: Worms. A general system of nature: through the three grand kingdoms of animals, vegetables, and minerals, systematically divided into their several classes, orders, genera, species, and varieties. London: Lackington, Allen, and Co. 
  2. ^ Carl von Linné, translated by William Turton (1806). Volume 1. A general system of nature: through the three grand kingdoms of animals, vegetables, and minerals, systematically divided into their several classes, orders, genera, species, and varieties. London: Lackington, Allen, and Co. 
  3. ^ Gordius aquaticus at the Encyclopedia of Life
  4. ^ F. E. G. Cox (2002). "History of Human Parasitology". Clinical Microbiology Reviews 15 (4): 595–612. doi:10.1128/CMR.15.4.595-612.2002. PMC 126866. PMID 12364371. 
  5. ^ Arthur de Capell Brooke (1827). "On the Furia infernalis". Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal 3: 39–43. 
  6. ^ "Erpobdella octoculata (Linnaeus 1758)". Fauna Europaea. Retrieved January 11, 2011. 
  7. ^ Martin Lindsey Christoffersen (2009). "A catalogue of Helobdella (Annelida, Clitellata, Hirudinea, Glossiphoniidae), with a summary of leech diversity, from South America" (PDF). Neotropical Biology and Conservation 4 (2): 89–98. doi:10.4013/nbc.2009.42.04. 
  8. ^ a b [1]
  9. ^ WoRMS (2010). "Pontobdella muricata (Linnaeus, 1758)". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved January 11, 2011. 
  10. ^ a b c G. Boxshall (2010). "Lernaea Linnaeus, 1758". In T. C. Walter & G. Boxshall. World Copepoda database. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved October 4, 2010. 
  11. ^ P. Bouchet (2010). "Sepia octopodia Linnaeus, 1758". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved January 11, 2011. 
  12. ^ http://biostor.org/reference/2731.text
  13. ^ http://data.gbif.org/species/13870254
  14. ^ C. Mah & H. Hansson (2010). "Asterias Linnaeus, 1758". In C. L. Mah. World Asteroidea database. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved January 11, 2011. 
  15. ^ Carl August Nilsson-Cantell (1978). Cirripedia Thoracica and Acrothoracica. Issue 5 of Marine Invertebrates of Scandinavia. Universitetsforlag. p. 57. ISBN 978-82-00-01670-0. 
  16. ^ Dora P. Henry & Patsy A. McLaughlin (1986). "The Recent species of Megabalanus (Cirripedia: Balanomorpha) with special emphasis on Balanus tintinnabulum (Linnaeus) sensu lato." (PDF). Zoologische Verhandelingen 235: 1–69, figs. 1–14. 
  17. ^ Michael G. Frick & Arnold Ross (2001). "Will the real Chelonibia testudinaria please come forward: an appeal". Marine Turtle Newsletter 94: 16–17. 
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