|This article needs additional citations for verification. (January 2013)|
|Born||Constance Frances Marie Ockelman
November 14, 1922
Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
|Died||July 7, 1973
Burlington, Vermont, U.S.
Cause of death
|Hepatitis and acute renal failure|
|Other names||Constance Keane
|Education||St. Bernard's School
Miami High School
|Years active||1939–1954; 1966; 1970|
|Spouse(s)||Robert Carleton-Munro (m. 1972; div. 1973)|
Veronica Lake (November 14, 1922 – July 7, 1973) was an American film, stage and television actress. Lake won both popular and critical acclaim, most notably for her role in Sullivan's Travels and for her femme fatale roles in film noirs with Alan Ladd, during the 1940s. She was also well known for her peek-a-boo hairstyle. By the late 1940s however, Lake's career had begun to decline in part due to her struggles with mental illness and alcoholism. She made only one film in the 1950s but appeared in several guest-starring roles on television. She returned to the screen in 1966 with a role in the film Footsteps In the Snow, but the role failed to revitalize her career.
Lake released her memoirs, Veronica: The Autobiography of Veronica Lake, in 1970. She used the money she made from the book to finance a low-budget horror film Flesh Feast. It was her final onscreen role. Lake died in July 1973 from hepatitis and acute kidney injury at the age of 50.
Lake was born Constance Frances Marie Ockelman in Brooklyn, New York. Her father, Harry E. Ockelman, was of German-Danish descent, and worked for an oil company aboard a ship. He died in an industrial explosion in Philadelphia in 1932. Lake's mother, Constance Charlotta (née Trimble; 1902–1992), of Irish descent, married Anthony Keane, a newspaper staff artist, also of Irish descent, in 1933, and Lake began using his surname. The Keanes lived in Saranac Lake, New York where Lake went to St. Bernard's School for a time. She was sent to Villa Maria, an all-girls Catholic boarding school in Montreal, Canada, from which she was expelled. The Keane family later moved to Miami, Florida where Lake attended Miami High School, where she was known for her beauty. She had a troubled childhood and was diagnosed as schizophrenic, according to her mother.
In 1938, the Keanes moved to Beverly Hills where Constance Keane enrolled Lake in the Bliss-Hayden School of Acting (now the Beverly Hills Playhouse). She first began working in films as an extra. Her first appearance on screen was for RKO, playing a small role among several coeds in the 1939 film, Sorority House. Similar roles followed, including All Women Have Secrets and Dancing Co-Ed. During the making of Sorority House, director John Farrow first noticed how her hair always covered her right eye, creating an air of mystery about her and enhancing her natural beauty. While still a teenager, Lake was introduced to the Paramount producer Arthur Hornblow, Jr. He changed her name to Veronica Lake because the surname suited her blue eyes.
Lake's breakthrough role was in the 1941 war drama I Wanted Wings. The film was a major hit in which Lake played the second female lead. It was during the filming of I Wanted Wings that Lake developed her signature look. Lake's long blonde hair accidentally fell over her right eye during a take and created a "peek-a-boo" effect. The hairstyle became Lake's trademark and was widely copied by women. She followed up with starring roles in more popular movies, including Sullivan's Travels, This Gun for Hire, I Married a Witch, and So Proudly We Hail!. René Clair, the director of I Married a Witch, said of Lake "She was a very gifted girl, but she didn't believe she was gifted." For a short time during the early 1940s, Lake was considered one of the most reliable box office draws in Hollywood. At the peak of her popularity, she earned $4,500 a week.
She became known for onscreen pairings with actor Alan Ladd which began with the 1942 hit This Gun for Hire. Initially, the couple was teamed together merely out of physical necessity: Ladd was just 5 feet 5 inches (1.65 m) tall and the only actress then on the Paramount lot short enough to pair with him was Lake, who stood just 4 feet 11 1⁄2 inches (1.51 m). They became a popular onscreen duo and would make four more films together including the film noirs The Glass Key (1942), The Blue Dahlia (1946) and Saigon.
During World War II, Lake changed her trademark peek-a-boo hairstyle at the insistence of the government to encourage women working in war industry factories to adopt more practical, safer hairstyles. Although the change helped to decrease accidents involving women getting their hair caught in machinery, doing so may have damaged Lake's career. She also became a popular pin-up girl for soldiers during World War II and traveled throughout the United States to raise money for war bonds.
Although popular with the public, Lake had a complex personality and acquired a reputation for being difficult to work with. Eddie Bracken, her co-star in Star Spangled Rhythm (in which Lake appeared in a musical number) was quoted as saying, "She was known as 'The Bitch' and she deserved the title." Joel McCrea, her co-star in Sullivan's Travels, reportedly turned down the co-starring role in I Married a Witch, saying, "Life's too short for two films with Veronica Lake." During filming of the 1946 film The Blue Dahlia, screenwriter Raymond Chandler referred to her as "Moronica Lake".
Lake's career faltered with her unsympathetic role as Nazi spy Dora Bruckman in 1944's The Hour Before the Dawn. Scathing reviews of The Hour Before the Dawn included criticism of her unconvincing German accent. She had begun drinking more heavily during this period, and a growing number of people refused to work with her. To boost her career, Paramount tried Lake in a series of comedies. Few were successful but she was in the popular thriller The Blue Dahlia (1946), in which she again co-starred with Alan Ladd. Paramount decided not to renew her contract in 1948.
After a single film for 20th Century Fox, Slattery's Hurricane in 1949, her career collapsed. By the end of 1951 she had appeared in one last film Stronghold (which she later described as "a dog"). Lake and her second husband, André de Toth, filed for bankruptcy that same year. The IRS later seized their home for unpaid taxes.
Lake then turned to television and stage work. She performed in summer stock and in stage roles in England. In October 1955 she collapsed in Detroit where she had been appearing on stage in The Little Hut.
After her third divorce, Lake drifted between cheap hotels in New York City, and was arrested several times for public drunkenness and disorderly conduct. In 1962, a New York Post reporter found her working as a barmaid at the all-women's Martha Washington Hotel in Manhattan. The reporter's widely distributed story led to speculation that Lake was destitute. After the story ran, fans of Lake sent her money which she returned out of "a matter of pride". Lake vehemently denied that she was destitute and stated, "It's as though people were making me out to be down-and-out. I wasn't. I was paying $190 a month rent then, and that's a long way from being broke." The story did revive some interest in Lake and led to some television and stage appearances, most notably in the off-Broadway revival of the musical Best Foot Forward.
In 1966, she had a brief stint as a TV hostess in Baltimore, Maryland, along with a largely ignored film role in Footsteps In the Snow. She also continued appearing in stage roles. By the late 1960s, Lake had moved to England. Her memoirs, Veronica: The Autobiography of Veronica Lake, were released in the United Kingdom in 1969, and in the United States the following year. In the book, Lake discusses her career, her failed marriages, her romances with Howard Hughes, Tommy Manville and Aristotle Onassis (whom she claimed proposed to her), her alcoholism, and her guilt over not spending enough time with her children. In the book, Lake stated that her mother pushed her into a career as an actress. Looking back at her career, Lake wrote, "I never did cheesecake like Ann Sheridan or Betty Grable. I just used my hair." She also laughed off the term "sex symbol" and instead referred to herself as a "sex zombie". Also in 1969, Lake portrayed the role as Blanche DuBois in A Streetcar Named Desire on the English stage. She won rave reviews for her performance. With the proceeds from her autobiography, she co-produced and starred in her final film, Flesh Feast (1970), a low-budget horror movie with a Nazi-myth storyline.
Lake then moved to Ipswich, England, where she met and married Royal Navy captain Robert Carleton-Munro, in June 1972. The marriage lasted just one year and Lake returned to the United States in June 1973. She went to the Virgin Islands to await her divorce decree when she fell ill.
Lake earned her pilot's license in 1946 and later flew solo between Los Angeles and New York.
Marriages and children
Lake's first marriage was to art director John S. Detlie, in 1940. They had a daughter, Elaine (born in 1941), and a son Anthony (born July 8, 1943). Anthony was born prematurely a week after Lake tripped and fell over a cable while filming. Anthony died on July 15, 1943. Lake and Detlie separated in August 1943 and divorced in December 1943. In 1944, Lake married film director André de Toth with whom she had a son, Andre Anthony Michael III (known as Michael De Toth), and a daughter, Diana (born October 1948). Days before Diana's birth, Lake's mother sued her for support payments. Lake and De Toth divorced in 1952.
In September 1955, she married songwriter Joseph Allan McCarthy. They were divorced in 1959. Lake's fourth and final marriage was to Royal Navy captain Robert Carleton-Munro in June 1972. They divorced after one year.
In June 1973, traveled back to the United States. On June 26, she checked into the Medical Center of Vermont in Burlington. She died there on July 7, 1973, of acute hepatitis and acute kidney injury. Her son Michael claimed her body. Lake's memorial service was held at the Universal Chapel in New York City on July 11. She was cremated and, according to her wishes, her ashes were scattered off the coast of the Virgin Islands. In 2004, some of Lake's ashes were reportedly found in a New York antique store.
|1939||Sorority House||Coed||Uncredited, alternative title: That Girl from College|
|1939||Wrong Room, TheThe Wrong Room||The Attorney's New Bride||Credited as Connie Keane|
|1939||Dancing Co-Ed||One of Couple on Motorcycle||Uncredited
Alternative title: Every Other Inch a Lady
|1939||All Women Have Secrets||Jane||Credited as Constance Keane|
|1940||Young as You Feel||Bit part||Credited as Constance Keane|
|1940||Forty Little Mothers||Granville girl||Uncredited|
|1941||I Wanted Wings||Sally Vaughn|
|1941||Hold Back the Dawn||Movie Actress||Uncredited|
|1941||Sullivan's Travels||The Girl|
|1942||This Gun for Hire||Ellen Graham|
|1942||Glass Key, TheThe Glass Key||Janet Henry|
|1942||I Married a Witch||Jennifer|
|1942||Star Spangled Rhythm||Herself|
|1943||So Proudly We Hail!||Lt. Olivia D'Arcy|
|1944||Hour Before the Dawn, TheThe Hour Before the Dawn||Dora Bruckmann|
|1945||Bring on the Girls||Teddy Collins|
|1945||Out of This World||Dorothy Dodge|
|1945||Hold That Blonde||Sally Martin|
|1946||Miss Susie Slagle's||Nan Rogers|
|1946||Blue Dahlia, TheThe Blue Dahlia||Joyce Harwood|
|1948||Sainted Sisters, TheThe Sainted Sisters||Letty Stanton|
|1948||Isn't It Romantic?||Candy Cameron|
|1949||Slattery's Hurricane||Dolores Greaves|
|1966||Footsteps In the Snow|
|1970||Flesh Feast||Dr. Elaine Frederick||Alternative title: Time is Terror|
|1950||Your Show of Shows||Herself - Guest Performer||Episode #2.11|
|1950||Lights Out||Mercy Device||Episode: "Beware This Woman"|
|1950–1953||Lux Video Theatre||Various||3 episodes|
|1951||Somerset Maugham TV Theatre||Valerie||Episode: "The Facts of Life"|
|1952||Celanese Theatre||Abby Fane||Episode: "Brief Moment"|
|1952||Tales of Tomorrow||Paula||Episode: "Flight Overdue"|
|1952||Goodyear Television Playhouse||Judy "Leni" Howard||Episode: "Better Than Walking"|
|1953||Danger||Episode: "Inside Straight"|
|1954||Broadway Television Theatre||Nancy Willard||Episode: "The Gramercy Ghost"|
Selected stage credits
- Direct Hit (June 1944)
- The Voice of the Turtle (Atlanta, February 1951)
- The Curtain Rises (Olney Theatre, Washington, 1951)
- Peter Pan (Road tour, 1951)
- Gramercy Hill (1952)
- The Little Hut (Detroit, 1955)
- Best Foot Forward (1963)
- A Streetcar Named Desire (New Theatre, Bromley, Kent, 1969)
In popular culture
In the 1997 film L.A. Confidential (based on James Ellroy's 1990 novel), Kim Basinger won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her portrayal of a prostitute who is a Veronica Lake look-alike, and who is complimented by a police officer who tells her, "You look better than Veronica Lake".
- U.S. Census, April 1, 1930, State of Washington, County of Kings, enumeration district 1657, page 8-B, family 151, Constance Ockelman (sic), age 7 years, born in Seattle. Her father, Harry Ockelman, Jr., is listed as unmarried in the 1920 U.S. Census of Pennsylvania.
- Parrish, Robert James (1972). The Paramount Pretties. Arlington House. p. 410. ISBN 0-025-08170-5.
- Thomas, Calvin Beck (1978). Scream Queens: Heroines of the Horrors. Macmillian. p. 169. ISBN 0-025-08170-5.
- Burroughs Hannsberry, Karen (1998). Femme Noir: Bad Girls of Film. McFarland. p. 300. ISBN 0-786-40429-9.
- "I, Veronica". Life (Time, Inc.) 14 (20): 78. May 17, 1943. ISSN 0024-3019.
- (Chierichetti 2004, p. 70)
- "I, Veronica". Life (Time, Inc.) 14 (20): 77. May 17, 1943. ISSN 0024-3019.
- "'Peek-a-Boo' Star Veronica Lake Hepatitis Victim". The Victoria Advocate. July 8, 1973. p. 6-A. Retrieved April 19, 2014.
- (Terkel 1999, p. 168)
- "Ladd, Lake Together In 'Saigon'". The Deseret News. March 3, 1948. p. 13. Retrieved April 19, 2014.
- "Veronica Lake's remains resurface". usatoday.com. October 12, 2004. Retrieved June 2, 2008.
- (Starr 2003, pp. 128–129)
- Brenner, John Lanouette (August 26, 1967). "Veronica Lake Gives Telegraph Exclusive Personal Interview". The Telegraph. p. 9. Retrieved April 19, 2014.
- (Donnelley 2003, p. 392)
- (Parish & Pitts 2003, p. 480)
- Robert Osborne, Turner Classic Movies, October 6, 2010
- (Hiney 1999, p. 154)
- Schallert, Edwin (July 8, 1945). "Change of Pace in Roles Beckons Veronica Lake: Star to Pause at Career's Crossroads Roles to Shift for Veronica". The Los Angeles Times. p. C1.
- "Veronica Lake Says She's Bankrupt". Daytona Beach Morning Journal. August 17, 1951. p. 1. Retrieved January 10, 2013.
- "Actress Loses Home For Not Paying Tax". Lodi News–Sentinel. April 7, 1951. p. 8. Retrieved January 10, 2013.
- Klemesrud, Judy (March 14, 1971). "What Ever Happened to Veronica Lake?". The Palm Beach Post. p. C6. Retrieved January 11, 2013.
- "Veronica Lake In Hospital". The Age. October 28, 1955. p. 1. Retrieved April 19, 2014.
- "Veronica Lake is a Waitress Now". The Milwaukee Journal. March 22, 1962. p. 11. Retrieved April 19, 2014.
- "Actress Veronica Lake Dies In Vermont Hospital". The Virgin Island Daily News. July 9, 1973. p. 2. Retrieved April 19, 2014.
- "Peek-A-Boo Veronica Lake Dies At 51". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. July 8, 1973. p. 9-A. Retrieved April 19, 2014.
- (Burroughs Hannsberry 2009, p. 307)
- "Turner Classic Movies". Tcmdb.com. Retrieved October 4, 2010.
- "Veronica Lake Wins Divorce". The Miami News. December 2, 1943. p. 1. Retrieved January 10, 2013.
- "Veronica Lake's Baby, Born Prematurely, Dies". Reading Eagle. July 16, 1943. p. 18. Retrieved January 10, 2013.
- "Veronica Lake Sued By Mother". The Tuscaloosa News. October 12, 1948. Retrieved January 10, 2013.
- "Veronica Lake Wins Divorce From Director". Sarasota Herald-Tribune (June 3, 1952). p. 12. Retrieved January 10, 2013.
- "Veronica Lake Weds Ex-County Tunesmith". The Herald. September 4, 1955. p. 2. Retrieved January 11, 2013.
- Vermont Death Records, 1909–2003. Published by Vermont State Archives and Records Administration, Montpelier, Vermont.
- "Veronica Lake To Be Buried In Islands". The Virgin Islands Daily News. July 11, 1973. p. 1. Retrieved January 10, 2013.
- "Rites for Miss Lake Today". The New York Times. July 11, 1973.
- Johnston, Lauren (October 12, 2004). "Veronica Lake's Ashes For Sale?". cbsnews.com. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- "Hollywood Star Walk: Veronica Lake". latimes.com. Retrieved January 11, 2013.
- "Veronica Lake Is Added To War Loan Show Cast: Bay State Quota Other Ovations". The Christian Science Monitor. June 9, 1944. p. 2.
- "Veronica Taking Lead Role". The New York Times. July 20, 1951. p. 13.
- "Veronica Lake Will Hit Strawhat Trail at Olney". The Washington Post. August 26, 1951. p. L-2.
- Calta, Louis (October 25, 1952). "Stage Lead for Veronica Lake: Film Actress May Make Debut on Broadway in 'Masquerade,' Birchard-Stagg Comedy". The New York Times. p. 2.
- Ghisays, Robert (October 25, 1952). "Veronica Lake Opens in London 'Streetcar'". The Los Angeles Times. p. E11.
- Weinraub, Bernard (August 1, 1988). "An Animator Breaks Old Rules and New Ground in 'Roger Rabbit'". nytimes.com.
- (Hischak 2011, p. 214)
- "Video: Period films connected by the past". The Los Angeles Daily News. April 17, 1998. Retrieved July 7, 2012. – via HighBeam (subscription required)
- (Hare 2008, p. 219)
- Bloomfield, Gary L.; Shain, Stacie L.; Davidson, Arlen C. (2004). Duty, Honor, Applause: America's Entertainers in World War II. Globe Pequot. ISBN 1-59228-550-3.
- Burroughs Hannsberry, Karen (2009). Femme Noir: Bad Girls of Film. McFarland. ISBN 0-786-44682-X.
- Chierichetti, David (2004). Edith Head: The Life and Times of Hollywood's Celebrated Costume. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-056740-6.
- Donnelley, Paul (2003). Fade To Black: A Book of Movie Obituaries. Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-7119-9512-5.
- Hare, William (2008). L.A. Noir: Nine Dark Visions of the City of Angels. McFarland & Company. ISBN 978-0786437405.
- Hiney, Tom (1999). Raymond Chandler: A Biography. Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3637-0.
- Hischak, Thomas S. (2011). Disney Voice Actors: A Biographical Dictionary. McFarland & Company. ISBN 978-0786462711.
- Parish, James Robert (2001). The Hollywood Book of Death: The Bizarre, Often Sordid, Passings of More than 125 American Movie and TV Idols. Contemporary Books. ISBN 0-8092-2227-2.
- Parish, James Robert; Pitts, Michael R. (2003). Hollywood Songsters: Singers Who Act and Actors Who Sing: A Biographical Dictionary. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-415-94333-7.
- Starr, Kevin (2003). Embattled Dreams: California in War and Peace, 1940-1950. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-516897-6.
- Terkel, Studs (1999). The Spectator: Talk About Movies and Plays With Those Who Made Them. The New Press. ISBN 1-565-84553-6.
- Lake, Veronica; Bain, Donald (1970). Veronica: The Autobiography of Veronica Lake. Citadel Press. ISBN 0-806-50225-8
- Lenburg, Jeff, Peekaboo: The Story of Veronica Lake. iUniverse, 2001. ISBN 978-0-595-19239-7.
- Oderman, Stuart, Talking to the Piano Player 2. BearManor Media, 2009. ISBN 978-1-59393-320-3.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Veronica Lake.|
- Veronica Lake at the Internet Movie Database
- Veronica Lake at the TCM Movie Database
- Veronica Lake at AllMovie
- Veronica Lake at Find a Grave