Veronicellidae

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Leatherleaf slugs
Veronicella sloanei.jpg
Live individual of Veronicella sloanei
Laevecaulis-2.jpg
Live individual of Laevicaulis alte
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
(unranked): clade Heterobranchia

clade Euthyneura
clade Panpulmonata
clade Eupulmonata
clade Systellommatophora

Superfamily: Veronicelloidea
Family: Veronicellidae
Gray, 1840[1]
Genera

See text

Synonyms

Vaginulidae Martens, 1866
Meisenheimeriinae Hoffmann, 1925
Sarasinulinae Hoffmann, 1925
Semperulinae Hoffmann, 1925
Imeriniinae Hoffmann, 1928
Pseudoverocinellinae Hoffmann, 1928

The Veronicellidae, common name the leatherleaf slugs, are a terrestrial family of pulmonate slugs.

This family has no subfamilies (according to the taxonomy of the Gastropoda by Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005).

The herbivorous molluscs occur mainly in the tropical and subtropical areas of America, Asia and Africa.

They act as intermediate hosts of the rat lung worm Angiostrongylus costaricensis, and act as a vector for other human diseases.[citation needed] They also cause significant damage to crops.[2]

Description[edit]

The dorsal surface of these slugs is entirely covered by the mantle or hyponota. These mollusks have a posterior located anus, eyes on contractile (not retractile) tentacles, and no lung or pulmonary organ. In these aspects they are anatomically distinct from most other types of terrestrial slugs, which typically belong to the order Stylommatophora, and which have a forward located anus, and retractile tentacles.

The closely related members of the family Onchidiidae differ from the Veronicellidae by having a pulmonary sac, or lung.[3][4][5]

Distribution[edit]

Members of the family can be found in the Central African Republic, Kenya, the Cameroon, tropical West Africa Mexico,[6] the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Thailand, southern Asia, southern China, Taiwan, Cuba, the Highland Rainforests of Puerto Rico,[7] Florida, Dominica,[8] Hawaii,[9] the islands of the Indian Ocean, Australia, Samoa and Guyana.[10]

Life cycle[edit]

Some species of veronicellid bear live young.[11]

Genera[edit]

Genera within the family Veronicellidae include:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gray J. E. (1840). Synopsis of the contents of the British Museum, ed. 42, p. 126, p. 149.
  2. ^ Speiser, B (2002). Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), Frick, Switzerland. 
  3. ^ http://www.palaeos.com/Invertebrates/Molluscs/Pulmonata/Systellommatophora.html Systellommatophora at Palaeos
  4. ^ http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=78765 Integrated Taxonomic Information System: Veronicellidae
  5. ^ http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/classification/Veronicellidae.html Univ. Michigan Animal Diversity: Veronicellidae
  6. ^ http://redalyc.uaemex.mx/pdf/425/42578104.pdf
  7. ^ (Spanish) Aguayo C. G. (1965). "Sobre el status de Veronicella portoricensis (Mollusca Pulmonata)". Caribbean Journal of Science 5(1-2): 25-28. PDF.
  8. ^ Robinson D. G., Hovestadt A., Fields A. & Breure A. S. H. (July 2009). "The land Mollusca of Dominica (Lesser Antilles), with notes on some enigmatic or rare species". Zoologische Mededelingen 83 http://www.zoologischemededelingen.nl/83/nr03/a13
  9. ^ [1]
  10. ^ http://www.jstor.org/pss/4063950
  11. ^ Solem A. (1972). "Tekoulina, a new viviparous tornatellinid land snail from Rarotonga, Cook Islands". Journal of Molluscan Studies (Malacological Society of London) 40 (2): 93–114. , abstract.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g "Veronicellidae". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Thomé J. W., dos Santos P. H. & Pedott L. (1997). "Annotated list of Veronicellidae from the collections of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and the National Museum of Natural History". Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 110(4): 520-536.
  14. ^ a b (Spanish) Pérez A. M., Sotelo M., Arana I. & López A. (2008). "Diversidad de moluscos gasterópodos terrestres en la región del Pacífico de Nicaragua y sus preferencias de hábitat". Rev. Biol. Trop. 56(1): 317-332,. PDF
  15. ^ a b c Naranjo-García E., Thomé J. W. & Castillejo J. (2007). "A review of the Veronicellidae from Mexico (Gastropoda: Soleolifera). Revisión de los Veronicellidae de México (Gastropoda: Soleolifera)". Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 78: 41-50."
  16. ^ WoRMS (2010). Simrothula Thomé, 1975. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. (2010) World Marine Mollusca database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=456517 on 2010-03-31
  17. ^ Maceira F., David (2003). "Las especies de la familia Veronicellidae (Mollusca, Soleolifera) en Cuba". Rev. Biol. Trop. 51 (3): 453–461. Retrieved 2 November 2012. 
  18. ^ WoRMS (2009). Vaginula rodericensis Smith, 1876. Accessed through the World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=214679 on 2010-03-31

External links[edit]