Verrazano–Narrows Bridge

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"Verrazano Bridge" redirects here. For other uses, see Verrazano Bridge (Maryland) and Jamestown Verrazzano Bridge.
"Verrazano Narrows" redirects here. It is not to be confused with The Narrows.
Verrazano–Narrows Bridge
USS Leyte Gulf (CG 55) under the Verrazano Narrows Bridge.jpg
Carries 12 lanes (six lanes upper and six lanes lower) of I-278
Crosses The Narrows
Locale New York City (Staten IslandBrooklyn), New York, U.S.
Maintained by MTA Bridges and Tunnels
Total length 13,700 feet (4,176 m)
Longest span 4,260 feet (1,298 m)
Vertical clearance 15 feet (4.57 m) (upper level)
14.4 feet (4.39 m) (lower level)
Clearance below 228 feet (69.5 m) at mean high water[1]
Construction begin August 13, 1959; 55 years ago (1959-08-13)
Opened November 21, 1964; 49 years ago (1964-11-21) (upper level)
June 28, 1969; 45 years ago (1969-06-28) (lower level)
Toll $15.00 (cash); $10.67 (New York State E-ZPass) — westbound only
Daily traffic 189,962 (2008)[2]
Coordinates 40°36′23″N 74°02′44″W / 40.60639°N 74.04556°W / 40.60639; -74.04556 (Verrazano-Narrows_Bridge)Coordinates: 40°36′23″N 74°02′44″W / 40.60639°N 74.04556°W / 40.60639; -74.04556 (Verrazano-Narrows_Bridge)
Verrazano–Narrows Bridge is located in New York City
Verrazano–Narrows Bridge

The Verrazano–Narrows Bridge is a double-decked suspension bridge in the U.S. state of New York that connects the New York City boroughs of Staten Island and Brooklyn. It spans the Narrows, the reach connecting the relatively protected upper bay with the larger lower bay.

The bridge is named for both the Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano who, while in the service of Francis I of France, became in 1524 the first European to enter New York Harbor and the Hudson River, and for the body of water it spans: the Narrows. It has a central span of 4,260 feet (1,298 m) and was the longest suspension bridge in the world at the time of its completion in 1964, surpassing the Golden Gate Bridge by 60 feet, until it was in turn surpassed by 366 feet by the Humber Bridge in the United Kingdom in 1981. Currently, it has the eleventh longest main span in the world, while retaining its place as the longest bridge span in the Americas. Its massive towers can be seen throughout a good part of the New York metropolitan area, including from spots in all five boroughs of New York City and in New Jersey.

The bridge establishes a critical link in the local and regional highway system. It marks the gateway to New York Harbor; all cruise ships and most container ships arriving at the Port of New York and New Jersey must pass underneath the bridge and therefore must be built to accommodate the clearance under the bridge. This is most notable in the case of the ocean liner RMS Queen Mary 2. Since 1976, the bridge has been the starting point of the New York City Marathon.[3]

History[edit]

Verrazano Bridge, as seen from Brooklyn
Verrazano Bridge tower and cables during construction without risers or road bed

The bridge was the last great public works project in New York City overseen by Robert Moses, the New York State Parks Commissioner and head of the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority. He had long desired the span as a means of completing the expressway system he had championed during his tenure. It was also the last project designed by Chief Engineer Othmar Ammann, who had designed most of the other major crossings into and within New York City, including the George Washington Bridge, the Bayonne Bridge, the Bronx Whitestone Bridge, the Triborough Bridge, and the Throgs Neck Bridge. The plans to build the bridge caused considerable controversy in the Brooklyn neighborhood of Bay Ridge, because many families had settled in homes in the area where the bridge now stands and were forced to relocate.

Construction on the bridge began August 13, 1959, and the upper deck was opened on November 21, 1964, at a cost of $320 million.[4][5] Three men died building the bridge, including 58-year old Paul Bassett[6] and 19-year-old Gerard McKee. The latter's death became the subject of a chapter of Gay Talese's book The Bridge.[7][8]

Individuals involved in construction included:

  • Senior partner: Othmar Ammann
  • Chief engineer: Milton Brumer
  • Project engineers: Herb Rothman, Frank L. Stahl
  • Design engineer: Leopold H. Just
  • Engineer of construction: John West Kinney

Fort Lafayette, an island coastal fortification in New York Harbor, built next to Fort Hamilton at the southern tip of what is now Bay Ridge, was destroyed as part of the bridge's construction in 1960; the Brooklyn-side bridge pillars now occupy the fort's former foundation.

New York City Mayor Robert F. Wagner cut the ribbon at the opening ceremony, which was attended by over 5,000 people. He was the first person to be driven over the bridge.[9] The lower deck opened on June 28, 1969.[10] The bridge was the longest suspension bridge in the world (previously held by the Golden Gate Bridge) from 1964 until 1981, when it was surpassed by the Humber Bridge in England.

In 2009 all 262 of the mercury vapor fixtures in the bridge's necklace lighting were replaced with energy efficient light-emitting diodes.[11]

Description[edit]

The bridge is owned by the City of New York and operated by MTA Bridges and Tunnels, an affiliate agency of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Interstate 278 passes over the bridge, connecting the Staten Island Expressway with the Gowanus Expressway and the Belt Parkway. The Verrazano, along with the other three major Staten Island bridges, created a new way for commuters and travelers to reach Brooklyn, Long Island, and Manhattan by car from New Jersey. The bridge has fostered more traffic than the Outerbridge Crossing and the Goethals Bridge, both of which connect Staten Island with New Jersey.

According to the U.S. Department of Transportation:

  • Each of the two towers contains 1 million bolts and 3 million rivets.
  • The diameter of each of the four suspension cables is 36 inches (914 mm). Each cable is composed of 26,108 wires amounting to a total of 143,000 miles (230,136 km) in length
  • Because of the height of the towers (693 ft or 211 m) and their distance apart (4,260 ft or 1,298 m), the curvature of the Earth's surface had to be taken into account when designing the bridge—the towers are 1 58 inches (41.275 mm) farther apart at their tops than at their bases.[12]
  • Because of thermal expansion of the steel cables, the bridge roadway is 12 feet (3.66 m) lower in summer than in winter.[13]
Queen Mary 2 radar mast clearance

The bridge is affected by weather more than any other bridge in the city because of its size and isolated location close to the open ocean. It is occasionally closed (either partially or entirely) during strong wind and snow storms.

The RMS Queen Mary 2 was designed with a flatter funnel to pass under the bridge, and has 13 feet (3.96 m) of clearance under the bridge during high tide.[14]

Naming[edit]

Entry monument, with unhyphenated name

The naming of the bridge for Verrazzano was controversial. It was first proposed in 1951 by the Italian Historical Society of America, when the bridge was in the planning stage. After Robert Moses turned down the initial proposal, the society undertook a public relations campaign to re-establish the reputation of the largely forgotten Verrazzano and to promote the idea of naming the bridge for him. The campaign was largely the effort of Society director John N. LaCorte, who in 1954 successfully lobbied New York Governor W. Averell Harriman to proclaim April 17 (the anniversary of Verrazzano's arrival in the harbor) as Verrazzano Day. Subsequent efforts by LaCorte resulted in similar proclamations by governors of states along the East Coast. After these successes, LaCorte reapproached the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority, but was turned down a second time. The manager of the authority, backed by Moses, said the name was too long and that he had never heard of Verrazzano.[15]

The society later succeeded in lobbying to get a bill introduced in the New York State Assembly that would name the bridge for the explorer. After the introduction of the bill, the Staten Island Chamber of Commerce joined the society in promoting the name. The bill was signed into law in 1960 by Governor Nelson Rockefeller.[16] Although the controversy seemed settled, the naming issue rose again in the last year of construction after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. A petition to name the bridge for Kennedy received thousands of signatures. In response, LaCorte contacted United States Attorney General Robert Kennedy, the president's brother, who told LaCorte that he would make sure the bridge would not be named for his brother. (Idlewild Airport, New York's major international airport, was renamed after Kennedy instead.)[15]

Even so, the official name was widely ignored by local news outlets at the time of the dedication. Some radio announcers and newspapers omitted any reference to Verrazzano, referring to the bridge as the Narrows Bridge, or the Brooklyn-Staten Island Bridge. The society continued its lobbying efforts to promote the name in the following years until the name became firmly established.

Tolls[edit]

Verrazano–Narrows Bridge at night from Brooklyn

As of March 3, 2013, the one-way toll (paid westbound into Staten Island only) in cash is $15.00 per car or $7.50 per motorcycle. E‑ZPass users with transponders issued by the New York E‑ZPass Customer Service Center pay $10.66 per car or $4.64 per motorcycle; a five-axle truck pays $80, or $52.52 with NY E-ZPass. Holders of transponders issued elsewhere get no discount.[17]

From 1964 to 1986, the toll was collected in both directions, until Staten Island residents concerned about pollution from idling vehicles called for one way tolls.[18] Accordingly, in 2010 eight of the unused Brooklyn-bound toll booths were removed in the first phase of a project to improve traffic flow at the toll plaza; the remaining three Brooklyn-bound toll booths were to be subsequently removed during the second phase of the construction project.[19] On February 2, 2012, the last of those eastbound tollbooths was removed.[20][21]

Bridge usage[edit]

Coast Guard on patrol in Upper New York Bay, Verrazano–Narrows Bridge spanning The Narrows between Brooklyn (left) and Staten Island (right) in background

In 2008, about 190,000 vehicles used the bridge per day on average.[2] In 2011, Transportation for America rated the bridge as New York's most dangerous, because of the combination of deterioration and the 170,000 people who cross it per day.[22] The MTA responded that the bridge, which was the state's newest and longest, was structurally sound, and that the bridge had passed its most recent inspection. The MTA attributed Transportation for America's results as a "misinterpretation of inspection records".[23]

As the bridge was not built with a pedestrian walkway, non-motorized transportation is limited to using the bridge during special events such as the New York City Marathon and Five Boro Bike Tour.[24] In 1993 the New York City Department of City Planning called for a footpath across the bridge as part of their "Greenway Plan for New York City."[25] In 1997 the DCP released a feasibility study stating that two footpaths running between the suspender ropes along the upper level, separated for pedestrian and cyclist use, would cost a minimum of $26.5 million. The MTA at the time expressed concern about the “safety and liability inherent in any strategy that introduces pedestrian and bicycle access” to the bridge.[26] Recently, residents living on both ends of the bridge have lobbied for pedestrian access. In October 2003, Mayor Michael Bloomberg promised to look into establishing the long-awaited pedestrian and bicycle access.[27] The Harbor Ring Committee was formed in 2011 to advocate for the completion of the Harbor Ring route - a 50 mile path around New York Harbor, including a footpath across the Verrazano. In spring 2013 they began an on-line petition that generated more than 2,500 signatures, as well as an organizational sign-on letter with the support of 16 regional and local advocacy and planning organizations. On Oct. 2, 2013 the MTA announced as part of its 2015-2034 Capital Needs Assessment that it would include a feasibility study for installing a pathway on the Verrazano.[28]

Signs at both ends of the bridge forbid photography and video taping; however, it is not certain if the signs are intended to stop people from stopping on the bridge or ban photography and videography even from moving cars. Due to numerous suicide attempts, a sign that says "Life Is Worth Living" along with a suicide hotline has been installed on the Staten Island approach.

The bridge carries two local bus routes[note 1] and one Select Bus Service operated by New York City Bus, the S53, S79 SBS, and S93, which connect Staten Island with Brooklyn. The bridge also carries 17 express bus routes that connect Staten Island with Manhattan and are also operated by New York City Transit. They are the X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X7, X8, X9, X10, X11, X12, X14, X15, X17, X19, X31, and X42.

Fort Wadsworth
Panorama of the bay with Fort Wadsworth (foreground) on the Narrows, under the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge

In popular culture[edit]

Verrazano–Narrows Bridge at night from Brooklyn

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ This counts limited-stop service as "local".

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Verrazano–Narrows Bridge (I-278)". Retrieved 2007-05-28. 
  2. ^ a b "Appendix C ­ AADT Values for Select Toll Facilities", 2008 Traffic Data Report for New York State, New York State Department of Transportation, retrieved 2009-12-30 
  3. ^ "After 10 NYC Marathons, Bridge Boss is Running Home". ESPN.com. Associated Press. November 3, 2006. Retrieved 2010-02-27. 
  4. ^ Ingraham, Joseph C. (August 14, 1959). "Bridge Is Started Across Narrows". New York Times. Retrieved 2010-02-21. 
  5. ^ Talese, Gay (November 22, 1964). "Verrazano Bridge Opened to Traffic". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-02-21. 
  6. ^ Man Killed At Narrows Span. August 25, 1962. New York Times. 9.
  7. ^ Talese, Gay (1964). The Bridge. New York: Harper & Row. pp. 77–92. LCCN 64-7832. 
  8. ^ Rasenberger, Jim (2004). High Steel: the Daring Men Who Built the World's Greatest Skyline. New York, NY: HarperCollins. p. 270. ISBN 0-06-000434-7. 
  9. ^ a b Fertig, Beth (November 21, 2004). "Verrazano Bridge Turns 40". WNYC. Retrieved 2011-07-02. 
  10. ^ Schumach, Murray (June 29, 1969). "2d Level of Verrazano Bridge Opens 11 Years Ahead of Plan". New York Times. Retrieved 2010-02-21. 
  11. ^ "Verrazano–Narrows Bridge LED Necklace Lights Add "Green" Sparkle to New York Harbor Entrance" (Press release). MTA Bridges & Tunnels. October 29, 2009. Retrieved 2010-02-21. 
  12. ^ "Verrazano-Narrows Bridge". MTA Bridges & Tunnels. Retrieved 2010-02-21. 
  13. ^ Guide to Civil Engineering Projects In and Around New York City (2nd ed.). Metropolitan Section, American Society of Civil Engineers. 2009. pp. 36–37. 
  14. ^ Barron, James (April 18, 2004). "This Ship Is So Big, The Verrazano Cringes". New York Times. Retrieved 2010-02-21. 
  15. ^ a b "Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge". Italian Historical Society of America. Retrieved 2011-07-02. 
  16. ^ "Verrazano It Is, in Bridge's Name; Governor Signs Disputed Designation Into Law". The New York Times. March 10, 1960. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  17. ^ "Toll Information". MTA Bridges & Tunnels. Retrieved 2013-02-20. 
  18. ^ "Verrazano–Narrows Toll Plaza Improvement" (Press release). MTA Bridges & Tunnels. January 26, 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-21. 
  19. ^ "New Traffic Pattern at Brooklyn-bound Verrazano Toll Plaza Begins Wed., June 2nd – Removal of Last Two Unused Toll Booths Will Complete This Phase of Construction Work" (Press release). MTA Bridges & Tunnels. May 28, 2010. Retrieved 2011-08-25. 
  20. ^ Michael Sedon/Staten Island Advance. "Booths unused since 1986 finally removed from Staten Island's Verrazano Bridge toll plaza". SILive.com. Retrieved 2014-05-25. 
  21. ^ "MTA | Press Release | Bridges & Tunnels | Verrazano-Narrows Toll Plaza Improvement Project Moves To Next Stage Along Narrows Road South". Mta.info. 2012-02-17. Retrieved 2014-05-25. 
  22. ^ "Verrazano called NY's most dangerous bridge". Crain's New York Business. March 30, 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-20. 
  23. ^ Cole, Marine (March 31, 2011). "MTA refutes claim on Verrazano Bridge". Crain's New York Business (Crain Communications Inc.). Retrieved September 14, 2014. 
  24. ^ "Verrazano Bridge". Transportation Alternatives. Retrieved 2011-07-02. 
  25. ^ "A Greenway Plan for New York City". New York City Department of City Planning. Retrieved 2013-11-27. 
  26. ^ "Verrazano - Pedestrian/Bicycle Access: Planning Design Feasibility". New York City Department of City Planning. Retrieved 2013-11-27. 
  27. ^ Tobol, Sarah (June 29, 2007). "Long-Denied Verrazano Bridge Walkway Plan Picks Up Steam". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Retrieved 2010-02-21. 
  28. ^ "The Harbor Ring Committee". The Harbor Ring Committee. Retrieved 2013-11-27. 

External links[edit]