The term vertical resistance was first used by J.E. Vanderplank to describe single-gene resistance. This contrasted the term horizontal resistance which was used to describe many-gene resistance. Raoul A. Robinson  further refined the definition of vertical resistance, emphasizing that in vertical resistance there are single genes for resistance in the host plant, and there are also single genes for parasitic ability in the parasite. This is a very important phenomenon known as the gene-for-gene relationship, and it is the definitive character of vertical resistance.
- Vanderplank, J.E. (1963) Plant Diseases: Epidemics and Control. Academic Press, New York and London, 349pp.
- Robinson, Raoul A. (1976) Plant Pathosystems. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 184pp.
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