Vertical transmission; in humans also known as mother-to-child transmission, is the transmission of an infection or other disease from the parental generation of the species to the offspring.
Vertical transmission tends to evolve benign symbiosis. It is therefore a critical concept for evolutionary medicine.
Because a pathogen's ability to pass from parent to child depends significantly on the hosts' ability to reproduce, pathogens' transmissibility tends to be inversely related with their virulence. In other words, as pathogens become more harmful to and thus decrease the reproduction rate of their host organism, they are less likely to be passed on to the hosts' offspring, since there will be fewer offspring.
Although AIDS is sometimes transmitted through perinatal transmission, its virulence can be accounted for by the fact that its primary mode of transmission is not vertical. Moreover, medicine has further decreased the frequency of vertical transmission of AIDS. The incidence of perinatal AIDS cases in the United States has declined as a result of the implementation of recommendations on HIV counselling and voluntary testing practices and the use of zido\aidinc therapy by providers to reduce perinatal HIV transmission.
The price paid in the evolution of symbiosis is, however, great: for many generations, almost all cases of vertical transmission will continue to be pathological—in particular if there are any other routes of transmission. It takes many generations of random mutation and selection to evolve symbiosis. During this time, the vast majority of vertical transmission cases will exhibit the initial virulence.
In Dual Inheritance Theory, vertical transmission refers to the passing of cultural traits from parents to children.
List of vertically transmitted pathogens and parasites 
See also 
- ^ Stewart, AD; Logsdon, JM; Kelley, SE (April 2005). "An empirical study of the evolution of virulence under both horizontal and vertical transmission". Evolution 59 (4): 730–739. doi:10.1554/03-330. PMID 15926685.
- ^ Joo E, Carmack A, Garcia-Buñuel E, Kelly CJ (February 2000). "Implementation of guidelines for HIV counselling and voluntary HIV testing of pregnant women". Am J Public Health 90 (2): 273–6. PMC 1446152. PMID 10667191.
- ^ Cavalli-Sforza, L. Luigi Luca; Feldman, Marcus W. (1981). Cultural Transmission and Evolution: A Quantitative Approach. (Mpb-16). Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-08283-7.
- ^ Yu J, Wu S, Li F, Hu L (January 2009). "Vertical transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis in Chongqing China.". Curr Microbiol. 58 (4): 315–320.
- ^ K E Ugen, J J Goedert, J Boyer, Y Refaeli, I Frank, W V Williams, A Willoughby, S Landesman, H Mendez, A Rubinstein (June 1992). "Vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Reactivity of maternal sera with glycoprotein 120 and 41 peptides from HIV type 1". J Clin Invest 89 (6): 1923–1930.
- ^ Fawzi WW, Msamanga G, Hunter D, Urassa E, Renjifo B, Mwakagile D, Hertzmark E, Coley J, Garland M, Kapiga S, Antelman G, Essex M, Spiegelman D (1999). "Randomized trial of vitamin supplements in relation to vertical transmission of HIV-1 in Tanzania.". Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 23 (3): 246–254.
- ^ Hisada M, Maloney EM, Sawada T, Miley WJ, Palmer P, Hanchard B, Goedert JJ, Manns A. (2002). "Virus markers associated with vertical transmission of human T lymphotropic virus type 1 in Jamaica.". Clin Infect Dis. 34 (12): 1551–1557.
- ^ Lee MJ, Hallmark RJ, Frenkel LM, Del Priore G (1998). "Maternal syphilis and vertical perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection.". International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics: the Official Organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 63 (3): 246–254.