|Studio album by Björk|
|Released||27 August 2001|
|Recorded||2000 in Spain, Iceland and New York City, NY, United States|
|Genre||Electronica, experimental, glitch-pop, psychedelic, rock|
|Label||One Little Indian|
|Producer||Björk, Thomas Knak, Martin Gretschmann, Marius de Vries|
|Singles from Vespertine|
Vespertine is the fifth studio album by the Icelandic recording artist Björk, released on 27 August 2001. The album featured chamber orchestras, choirs, hushed vocals, microbeats made from household sounds, and personal, vulnerable themes. She collaborated with experimental sound manipulators Matmos, Denmark-based DJ Thomas Knak, and the experimental harpist Zeena Parkins for the album. Lyrical sources included the works of American poet E. E. Cummings, the American independent filmmaker Harmony Korine, and English playwright Sarah Kane's penultimate play, Crave.
To coincide with the album's release, Björk released a coffee table book of loose prose and photographs titled Björk. Björk embarked on a tour of theatres and opera houses in Europe and North America in support of the album, accompanied by the musicians Matmos and Zeena Parkins and an Inuit choir, whom she had held auditions for on a trip to Greenland prior to the tour.
The album yielded the singles "Hidden Place", "Pagan Poetry" and "Cocoon". The album's lead single, "Hidden Place", is the only single from the album to have charted in the United States. At the time, Vespertine was Björk's quickest selling album ever, having sold two million copies by the end of 2001 and went gold in France and Canada and silver in the UK.
Vespertine was widely acclaimed by music critics. Both Keith Phipps of The A.V. Club and David Fricke of Rolling Stone magazine named Vespertine Björk's best album to date. A more lukewarm review came from Pitchfork Media who thought that "While undeniably beautiful, Vespertine fails to give electronic music the forward push it received on Björk's preceding albums" and that the album "is riddled with sameness."
At Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100, Vespertine currently holds a rating of 88/100, indicating universal acclaim. The album is also ranked No.55 on Metacritic's 200 best-reviewed albums. It was also nominated for Best Alternative Album at the 2002 Grammy Awards.
Background and development
Björk had released her previous studio album, Homogenic, in 1997. The album was highly acclaimed on its initial release and stylistically differed from her previous two releases, described by her as "very emotionally confrontational and [...] very dramatic", and "everything on 11... a lot of steroids in the air." In 2000, she acted in Lars von Trier's Dancer in the Dark, and composed its soundtrack, Selmasongs. The filming process was conflictive; Von Trier believes the problem was they both were used to being the "dictator" over their products and Björk's inability to separate herself from her character. Björk wrote "he has to destroy [his female leads] during the filming" and declared that she would never make another movie. However, the film was awarded the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival, and she received the Best Actress award. On March 25, 2001, Björk attended the 73rd Academy Awards —as she was nominated for Best Original Song— wearing a swan dress designed by Marjan Pejoski that caused media frenzy and was widely criticized.
While she worked on the film, she also began producing her next album, writing new music and teaming with new collaborators; she has said "Selmasongs was the day job and Vespertine was the hobby" Her new relationship with artist Matthew Barney and the tension while filming Dancer in the Dark have been referred to as the two major forces that shaped what would become Vespertine. As the process of filming demanded her to be extroverted, the new music she was creating became hushed and tranquil as a way to escape. Björk commissioned Valgeir Sigurðsson to relocate some of his studio equipment from Iceland to Denmark, where Dancer in the Dark was being filmed. While living in Copenhagen she also contacted the electronic musician Thomas Knak (aka Opiate), after having enjoyed his 1999 album Objects for an Ideal Home. Björk's musical taste shifted from the "clang and clatter" and "thumping techno that characterized Homogenic, as she "was bored with big beats".
Björk then set to make a record with a domestic mood featuring "everyday moods and everyday noises translating into melodies and beats," hence its working title Domestika. As she wanted to write her own songs in music boxes, Björk contacted a music box company, requesting see-through acrylic glass boxes because she wanted it to sound "as hard as possible, like it was frozen." She also began to use her laptop to write music, and decided to use instruments whose sound wouldn't be compromised when downloaded from sites such as Napster. She explained:
"I use micro-beats, a lot of whispery vocals, which I think sound amazing when they're downloaded because of the secrecy of the medium. The only acoustic instruments I would use would be those that sound good after they've been downloaded, so the harp, the music box, celeste and clavichord. They're plucky sounds. [...] And the strings [...] ended up being more panoramic textures in the background. It’s all about being in a little house, on your own. [...] The strings would be like white mountains outside."
Her relationship with Barney influenced her lyrics, which now were more intimate, detailed and revealing as opposed to her past works. A particular example is the heart of the album, "Cocoon", which is sexually explicit. The eventual title change of the record reveals its changing nature: writer and critic Mark Pytlik writes "where [Domestika] signified a focus of extracting magic from the platitudes of everyday life, [Vespertine] [...] suggested a creation of magic through much more powerful forces. In fine style, Björk had set out to write an album about making sandwiches.[nb 1] She'd ended up with an album about making love."
"Heirloom" was an existing instrumental track titled "Crabcraft" by electronic musician Console, off his 1998 album Rocket in the Pocket. Björk contacted Console in early 2000 and they met in London, she then added her vocals on top. "Undo" was written in a two-week session with Knak that January in Reykjavik, Björk recorded her vocals on top of Knak's minimalist rhythmic backbone and months later she had added a full choir and string section. "Cocoon", also produced by Knak, was one of the last songs to be written for the album; its melody came to Björk in a sudden rush and she contacted him. Knak took it as a chance to make a more minimal track, similar to his own releases. His original treatment of "Cocoon", made with an Ensoniq ASR-10, appeared relatively intact in the final version. Björk also worked with Bogdan Raczynski on the song "Who Is It", but the track did not follow the direction of the record and was subsequently included in the album Medúlla.
In Homogenic Björk usually used one loud beat, but in Vespertine she wanted to make a "microcosmos of thirty or forty beats interacting." She then started to record noises around her house to make beats out of them. Once the songs were almost finished, Björk contacted the duo Matmos, who she considered "virtuosos" in the field, and sent them various songs to work with. They added beats made from the noise of crushing ice and shuffling cards, among others. In her documentary Minuscule, Björk explained that "the key to what we were looking for was taking something very very very very tiny and magnifying it up to big. And it sorta gave you a sensation that you've been told a secret, the same way as if you see a picture of a cell in the body magnified very big, you get this feeling that you are being trusted for some insight information. And I guess this whole album is very much like this."
Björk has stated she wanted the album to sound like "modern chamber music." She also considers Vespertine to be the opposite of her previous studio album Homogenic, the former being an introvert, quiet, winter record; and the latter a loud, dramatic, summer record. Writer and critic Mark Pytlik writes: "Her appetite for thumping techno had been, temporarily at least, subsumed by a desire for stark melodies and minimalist production." According to David Fricke of Rolling Stone, "Vespertine is the closest any pop-vocal album has come to the luxuriant Zen of the new minimalist techno." Björk has also described the album as "more electronic folk music," and a NME review for the single "Hidden Place", released before the album, indeed described her new sound as progressive folk.
Björk uses an array of sampled objects to create beats and soundscapes in a number of songs on Vespertine, including shuffling cards on "Cocoon" and "Hidden Place"; snow being walked upon on "Aurora", and ice being cracked and smashed on "Frosti". Vespertine is Björk's longest album, at 55:33. The instrumentals in "Heirloom" is a song by Console entitled "Crabcraft". Several CD track naming programs, such as Gracenote, label the song "Heirloom" as "Crabcraft" when the album is placed inside a computer.
The general lyrical themes of the album are sex and love. Björk explores sex very openly and thoroughly on Vespertine, abstaining largely from the metaphors often employed by popular music. She makes use of the quiet and close sound of the album to convey the idea of intimacy, and lyrically explores the emotional and cerebral sides of sex rather than simply the sensation.
The lyrics to "An Echo, a Stain" are based on Sarah Kane's play Crave. Björk adapted the lyrics of "Sun in My Mouth" from the poem "I Will Wade Out" by E. E. Cummings. The word "sea-girls" is changed to "seagulls", and the last few lines of the poem are omitted. The lyrics of "Harm of Will" were written by Harmony Korine and are allegedly about Will Oldham.
The initial title for the album was Domestika. A song titled "Domestica" (originally titled "Lost Keys") was included as a B-side on the "Pagan Poetry" single. Björk has stated several reasons why the album was called "Vespertine" instead of "Domestika". She felt that calling the album "Domestika" would have been "too much", because the songs on the album were already "domestic" enough, so she turned to other aspects of the album in order to name it. One of these is the prayer aspect of the album: "vespers" are evening prayers. The other reason is that the word "vespertine" relates to night time, for example things that come out at night. Björk felt that this theme was also present on the album. In the song "It's Not Up To You", she sings "The evening I've always longed for, it could still happen". Björk said in an interview with NME that "It sounds like a winter record," and that "If you wake up in the middle of the night and you go in the garden, everything's going on out there that you wouldn't know about. That's the mood I'm trying to get. Snow owls represent that pretty well."
On 22 August 2008, Björk wrote an open letter on her official website correcting a long-standing mistake—that Valgeir Sigurðsson has over the years been credited with writing the instrumentals for the album. She explained that, in fact, he had been only an engineer and programmer on some of the tracks on the album and speculated that the reason for the mistake was either due to sexism in the music industry, ignorance between the roles of engineers and programmers, or because neither she nor Sigurðsson had ever bothered to correct it.
Once the album was finished, Björk wrote a manifesto describing a very introvert fictional character, "the character who did Vespertine," and sent it to M/M Paris, Nick Knight and Eiko Ishioka, who directed the music video for "Hidden Place", "Pagan Poetry" and "Cocoon" respectively. It was the directorial debut of the three of them. She said:
"Vespertine is an album made by a character who's very introvert. And it's about the universe inside every person. This time around, I wanted to make sure that the scenery of the songs is not like a mountain or a city or outside, it's inside, so it's very internal. So I guess all three videos are very internal. [...] Sort of how you communicate with the world in a very intimate, personal way."
The music video for Hidden Place was directed by art directors/graphic designers M/M Paris as well as photographers Inez van Lamsweerde and Vinoodh Matadin. It featured various fluids flowing in and out of Björk's facial orifices, such as her eyes, nose, and mouth. The idea was first thought for the "I've Seen It All" music video, but was later cancelled. A video was shot for "Pagan Poetry", directed by Nick Knight, which as stated on its making of page "is about a woman preparing herself for marriage and for her lover". It was also one of Björk's most controversial because of the highly blurry and stylized images of explicit sex it contains, including fellatio and ejaculation, and also images of big needles sewing pearls to the skin. The second half of the video features Björk in a dress designed by Alexander McQueen, which covers only the lower portion of her body. The upper portion of the dress consists of pearls piercing her skin, which is shown throughout the first half. At the end of the video, there is a shot of her back with several rings sewn onto it. The video was banned by MTV in the United States, but was eventually shown in unedited form on MTV2 in a presentation of the "20 Most Controversial Music Videos".
About the video, Nick Knight explained "I wanted to strip her down. She's actually quite raw, womanly and sexy. There's a different side to her that doesn't come across normally in her videos. That's what I asked her to do and that's what she did." When asked if Björk was the one who plays the sexual acts as well, he explained "I gave her [Björk] a Sony Mini DV camera and asked her to shoot her own private scenes [...] She asked me to make a film about her love life, so I merely gave it back to her and said 'Film your love life'."
The final music video, "Cocoon", was released from Vespertine in 2002. The music video was nearly as controversial as the previous one for "Pagan Poetry". The "Cocoon" video was directed by Eiko Ishioka. It shows Björk, apparently naked (though actually wearing a very close fitting 'nude' body suit), with her hair styled to resemble a geisha. She is on her own under a simple spotlight, before red threads start emerging from out of her nipples. Throughout the video, she is found playing with the threads before they eventually develop a cocoon around her, until she is completely cocooned. Like the video for "Pagan Poetry", it was banned from prime-time MTV.
The cover art, shot by Inez van Lamsweerde and Vinoodh Matadin in Los Angeles, California, is a black and white photograph of Björk lying down on the patterned ground next to a swimming pool, covering her eyes from the sun and wearing her Marjan Pejoski swan dress that caused a stir at the 73rd Academy Awards. The duo M/M (Paris), known for applying and integrating their work on photographs (so called dessin dans l’image, or "drawings in the picture"), illustrated the cover, featuring a swan and the album's title with feathers. Björk thought swans embodied Vespertine's music, describing them as "a white, sort of winter bird" and "very romantic." Vespertine came with a booklet of M/M (Paris) artwork. Michael Hubbard of musicOMH commented positively on it, writing "the spine of the CD is entirely white, while the rest of the sleeve features innovative photography and artwork, preparing the listener before they even hear the album for something very special."
Early versions of the album were leaked onto the internet with some differences to the final release. Tracks were in a different order, the song "It's in Our Hands" was originally included (replaced by the instrumental "Frosti" on the final version), the song "It's Not Up to You" was not included, and some tracks appeared under different titles, including "Pagan Poetry" ("Blueprint"), "Cocoon" ("Mouth") and "Heirloom" ("Crabcraft" or "New"). Also, a remix of "An Echo, a Stain" was included.: Vespertine was released in August, 2001 on double LP record, CD and Cassette. The album went at number 1 in the US Billboard Top Electronic Albums, as well as going at number 19 in the Billboard 200 and number 8 in the UK Albums Chart. At the time, Vespertine was Björk's quickest selling album ever, having sold two million copies by the end of 2001 and it went silver in the UK and gold in France and Canada.
Björk embarked on a tour of theatres and opera houses in Europe and North America in support of the album, accompanied by the musicians Matmos and Zeena Parkins and an Inuit choir, whom she had held auditions for on a trip to Greenland prior to the tour. At the time, Vespertine was Björk's quickest selling album ever, having sold two million copies by the end of 2001.
Vespertine spawned three singles: "Hidden Place," "Pagan Poetry," and "Cocoon." MTV2 played the album's first video, "Hidden Place," which was subsequently released as a DVD single. However, the next video, for "Pagan Poetry," brought Björk to an even higher level of controversy with the channel. As a result, the clip was initially rarely shown by MTV, and certain parts (for example, Björk's breasts) were censored during the rare occasions when it was played. In 2002, the clip finally enjoyed unedited American airing as part of a late night special on MTV2 titled, "Most Controversial Music Videos." "It's Not Up to You" may have been meant to be the fourth single—a sticker on the CD case proclaims "features ‹Hidden Place› and ‹It's Not Up to You›"—but never made it to release, presumably because of the birth of Björk's daughter Isadora.
2002 saw the appearance of the CD box set Family Tree containing a retrospective of Björk's career, comprising many previously unreleased versions of her compositions, including her work with the Brodsky Quartet. Also released alongside Family Tree was the album Greatest Hits, a retrospective of the previous 10 years of her solo career as deemed by the public. The songs on the album were chosen by Björk's fans through a poll on her website. A DVD edition of the CD was also released. It contained all of Björk's solo music videos up to that point. The new single from the set, "It's In Our Hands," charted in the UK at number 37. The video, directed by Spike Jonze, features a heavily pregnant Björk.
|Alternative Press||8/10 |
|The A.V. Club||favourable|
|Entertainment Weekly||B+ |
|Robert Christgau||A− |
|Tiny Mix Tapes|||
Vespertine was greeted with widespread critical acclaim. At Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, the album received an average score of 88, based on 28 reviews. Heather Phares from AllMusic called it "an album singing the praises of peace and quiet", praising it for proving that "intimacy can be just as compelling as louder emotions." The album was given four and half out of five stars in The New Rolling Stone Album Guide, where it is called "a banquet in the hall of Björk's personal erotics," and it is stated that "it's not the stuff of radio hits, but the music is spectacular." Anthony Carew from About.com gave the album the highest rating and said it was "quite possibly the best album of the '00s." American music journalist Robert Christgau enjoyed the album's central theme of sex and wrote "when she gets all soprano on your ass you could accuse her of spirituality." The A.V. Club's Keith Phipps found it to be "an album both timeless and of the moment, an avant-garde electronic-pop exploration of classic themes." David Fricke of Rolling Stone felt that Vespertine was "the sound and sentiment of a woman exulting in the power and possibility of her gift, one who has finally figured out how to grow up without growing old."
A more lukewarm review came from Pitchfork Media's Ryan Schreiber, who felt that "while undeniably beautiful, Vespertine fails to give electronic music the forward push it received on Björk's preceding albums." David Browne of Entertainment Weekly said "her lyrics occasionally dive into the deep end" and "her voice is at times stiff", although he also wrote "when it all comes together, [...] Björk and her electronica collaborators create moving interplanetary chorals." Almost Cool wrote "if there's one question to be raised with the album, it's that it's all simply so lush and nice that on some levels it fails to excite."
Various reviews named Vespertine Björk's best album to date, including The A.V. Club, Rolling Stone, About.com and PopMatters. By the end of 2000 the album was appearing frequently in critics' top ten lists. In 2002, Vespertine received a Grammy Award nomination for Best Alternative Album and a Shortlist Music Prize nomination. In addition, the album was nominated for Album of the Year at the Icelandic Music Awards. In 2013, the album was ranked number 403 on NME's list of the 500 greatest albums of all time. It is also considered one of the greatest albums of all time by Paul Morley in his book Words and Music: A History of Pop in the Shape of a City, and by Fnac and Blow Up. Whatsmore, Vespertine was included in the book 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die and is considered one of the best albums of the decade by many publications.
|2.||"Cocoon"||Björk, Thomas Knak||4:28|
|3.||"It's Not Up to You"||Björk||5:08|
|8.||"An Echo, a Stain"||Björk, Guy Sigsworth||4:04|
|9.||"Sun in My Mouth"||Björk, E.E. Cummings, Sigsworth||2:40|
|11.||"Harm of Will"||Björk, Sigsworth, Harmony Korine||4:36|
|Japanese bonus track|
|13.||"Generous Palmstroke" (also available on the Family Tree box set)||Björk, Zeena Parkins||4:24|
- Sample credits
- "Hidden Place" samples "Transfigured Night, Op.4" by Arnold Schoenberg.
- "Unison" samples "Aero Deck" by Oval.
- "Undo" samples "1% In 2/3 Speed", in "While You Were Sleeping" by Opiate (Thomas Knak)
- Björk – arranger, producer, programming, beat programming, basslines, strings arrangements, choir arrangements, harp arrangements, music box arrangements, vocal editing, sounds recording, field recording
- Valgeir Sigurðsson – programming, beat programming, Pro Tools, engineer
- Martin Gretschmann aka Console – producer, programming
- Jake Davies – programming, Pro Tools, engineer
- Matthew Herbert – programming
- Leigh Jamieson – Pro Tools
- Thomas Knak – production, programming
- Jan "Stan" Kybert – Pro Tools
- Matmos – programming, beat programming
- Vince Mendoza – string arrangements, choir arrangements, orchestration
- Zeena Parkins – harp, harp arrangements
- Jack Perron – adaptation to music box
- Guy Sigsworth – programming, beat programming, celeste, celeste arrangements, clavichord, clavichord arrangements, choir arrangements
- Mark "Spike" Stent – mixing
- Damian Taylor – programming, beat programming, Pro Tools
- Caryl Thomas – harp
- Marius de Vries – producer, programming, beat programming
- Additional musicians
- Patrick Gowers – Composer of Vocal and Organ Arrangements on Unison
- St. Paul's Cathedral Choir, conducted by John Scott – Choir on Unison
- M/M Paris – art direction, design and drawing
- Inez van Lamsweerde & Vinoodh Matadin – photography
Charts and certifications
- In a 2001 interview with NME, Björk stated "This is [...] music for the home. It’s corny to make a soundtrack for making a sandwich, but I quite like it.
- Pytlik, 2003. p.160
- Gittins, Ian. "Vespertine: Music". Amazon.com. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
- "100 Best Albums of the 2000s: Bjork, 'Vespertine'". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
- Plagenhoef, Scott (9 June 2004). "Björk: Debut Live / Post Live / Homogenic Live / Vespertine Live". Pitchfork Media. Retrieved 9 July 2014. "Live, Vespertine's glitch-pop nuances are magnified, the choir is less cloying, and the music box melodies are more embraceable."
- "Björk - "Vespertine" (Elektra)". The Dallas Morning News (Dallas, Texas). 30 June 2001. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
- Widder, Katy (28 August 2001). "Björk: Vespertine". PopMatters. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
- Björk : book, A project by Björk Official Bjork website. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
- "Bjork Gets Orchestric: Bjork". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 28 February 2011. Retrieved 6 August 2001.
- Top Music Charts - Hot 100 - Billboard 200 - Music Genre Sales[dead link]
- Q Magazine, February 2002, Q Concert Review, "Björk – Haskolaboi, Reykjavik", by Nick Duerden.
- Vespertine at Metacritic Retrieved 2011-10-07.
- "Highest and Lowest Scoring Music and Albums at Metacritic". Metacritic.com. Retrieved 7 July 2011.
- "björk: in focus". MTV.com. March 2001. Retrieved July 31, 2014.
- Heath, Chris (17 October 2011). "Lars and His Real Girls". GQ. Condé Nast. Retrieved 7 July 2011.
- Levy, Emanuel (14 January 2003). All about Oscar: the history and politics of the Academy Awards. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-8264-1452-6. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- "The Twilight World of Björk". NME (IPC Media). 11 August 2001. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
- Pytlik, 2003. p.155
- Pytlik, 2003. p.156
- Pytlik, 2003. p.159
- "GH&FT special : Pagan Poetry". bjork.com. Archived from the original on February 27, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2014.
- Toop, David (September 2001). "The Twilight World of Björk". The Wire (The Wire Magazine Ltd.). Retrieved 2 August 2014.
- Pytlik, 2003. p.161
- Pytlik, 2003. p.162
- Gestsdóttir, R. (Director). (2003). Minuscule [Documentary]. One Little Indian
- "Icon: Björk". Wondering Sound. eMusic.com. September 9, 2010. Retrieved June 22, 2014.
- Harris, John (August 2001). "I don’t like rock". Q (Bauer Media Group). ISBN 978-0417080840. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
- Fricke, David (2001-08-20). "Vespertine". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2012-04-28.
- Dalton, Stephen (July 25, 2001). "Bjork : Hidden Place". NME. IPC Media. Retrieved July 31, 2014.
- "bjork.com / news". Pinnacle.bjork.com. 2008-08-22. Retrieved 2011-09-29.
- "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hd_PpH4WKmM". YouTube. 28 November 2001. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
- Alien Rock. "The Light of Love: The Making of the Pagan Poetry Video". Bjork.com. 2002.
- "björk:albums:VESPERTINE". bjork.com. Archived from the original on June 5, 2005. Retrieved August 3, 2014.
- "Franska revolutionen är en ren formsak". Mmparis.com. Retrieved 2013-08-12.
- Pytlik, 2003. p.153
- Hubbard, Michael. "Björk - Vespertine". musicOMH. Retrieved August 3, 2014.
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- Vespertine at AllMusic
- "Bjork Vespertine - Review of Bjork's Definitive Alternative Album Vespertine". Altmusic.about.com. 2001-08-27. Retrieved 2012-08-22.
- Oct 2001, p.77
- Phipps, Keith (19 April 2002). "Björk: Vespertine | Music | Music Review". The A.V. Club. Retrieved 7 July 2011.
- "Music Review: Vespertine, by Björk". Entertainment Weekly. 20 August 2001.
- "NME Album Reviews - Bjork: Vespertine". Nme.Com. 2005-09-12. Retrieved 2011-09-29.
- "CG: Björk". Robert Christgau. Retrieved 7 July 2011.
- Writer, Guest. "Björk - Vespertine | Music Review". Tiny Mix Tapes. Retrieved 2012-08-22.
- Sep 2001, p.104
- Brackett, Hoard, 2004. p.73
- Brackett, Hoard, 2004. p.74
- Schreiber, Ryan (31 August 2001). "Björk: Vespertine". Pitchfork Media. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
- "Björk - Vespertine". Almost Cool. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
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- "Fyrri verðlaunahafar". Íslensku Tónlistarverðlaunin (in Icelandic). Retrieved 17 July 2014.
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- Pytlik, Mark (2003). Björk: Wow and Flutter. ECW Press. ISBN 1-55022-556-1.
- Brackett, Nathan; Hoard, Christian David (2004). The New Rolling Stone Album Guide. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0743201698.
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