Newer research based on four nuclear genes (elongation factor-1α F2 copy, long-wavelength rhodopsin, wingless and the D2–D3 regions of 28S ribosomal RNA—2700 bp in total) suggests the higher-level relationships need to be changed, with Rhopalosomatidae as a sister group of the Vespidae and the clade Rhopalosomatidae + Vespidae as sister to all other vespoids and apoids. Additionally, superfamily Apoidea is found to be within the Vespoidea, suggesting the dismantling of Vespoidea (sensu lato) into many smaller superfamilies; Formicoidea, Scolioidea, Tiphioidea, Thynnoidea, and Pompiloidea in addition to a much more narrowly-defined Vespoidea. Finally, families Mutillidae, Tiphiidae, and Bradynobaenidae were found to be paraphyletic. Another recent study confirms the need for revision of high-level relationships, although the pattern of sister-group relationships within the putative Vespoidea matches the same basic pattern as the 2008 study, including a paraphyletic Bradynobaenidae and Tiphiidae.
^Pilgrim, E.; von Dohlen, C.; Pitts, J. (2008). "Molecular phylogenetics of Vespoidea indicate paraphyly of the superfamily and novel relationships of its component families and subfamilies". Zoologica Scripta37 (5): 539–560. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2008.00340.x.
^Johnson, B.R.; et al. (2013). "Phylogenomics Resolves Evolutionary Relationships among Ants, Bees, and Wasps". Current Biology23 (20): 2058–2062. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2013.08.050.