Vestiarium Scoticum

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The Vestiarium Scoticum (full title, Vestiarium Scoticum: from the Manuscript formerly in the Library of the Scots College at Douay. With an Introduction and Notes, by John Sobieski Stuart) was first published by William Tait of Edinburgh in a limited edition in 1842. John Telfer Dunbar, in his seminal work History of Highland Dress referred to it as "probably the most controversial costume book ever written."

The book itself purported to be a reproduction, with colour illustrations, of an ancient manuscript on the clan tartans of Scottish families. Shortly after its publication, it was denounced as a forgery and the "Stuart" brothers who brought it forth, and who claimed to be the grandsons of Bonnie Prince Charlie himself, were likewise denounced as imposters. It is indeed generally accepted today that neither the brothers themselves nor the Vestiarium are what they were purported to be.

Nevertheless, the role of the book in the history of Scottish tartans is immense, with many of the designs and patterns contained therein passing into the realm of "official" clan tartans.

Background[edit]

The 1842 edition of the Vestiarium had its beginnings in the late 1820s when the Sobieski Stuart brothers, then resident in Moray, Scotland, produced a copy of a document containing tartan patterns and showed it to their host, Sir Thomas Dick Lauder, Bt. This manuscript, however, was not the one which the brothers claimed to be the basis for the later publication of the Vestiarium.

As explained in the Preface to the 1842 edition (which is extensively excerpted in Dunbar's History of Highland Dress) the copy which Sir Thomas saw (now known as the Cromarty MS), which bore the date 1721 on the first page and with the title Liber Vestiarium Scotia, was said by its possessors to have been obtained from a certain John Ross of Cromarty, and was said also by them to be an inferior copy of an earlier manuscript.

In this same Preface, it is claimed that the 1842 edition is based on an original manuscript (now known as the Douay MS) whose date was claimed to be 1571 (or earlier) which was at that time in the possession of John Lesley, Bishop of Ross. This Douay MS is said by the author of the Preface to be the "oldest and most perfect" copy of the Vestiarium. Having once been in the possession of Bishop Ross, subsequently it had found its way into the library of the Scots College at Douay. From there, it was supposed to have come into the possession of Bonnie Prince Charlie himself who took over the MS when on a visit to the Scots College in the early 1750s.

The Lauder - Scott Correspondence[edit]

Soon after Sir Thomas saw the book, he wrote of it to Sir Walter Scott (in a letter dated June 1, 1829). In this letter, Lauder highly commended the book, stating that several clan chiefs, such as Cluny MacPherson and McLeod, had derived their "true and authentic" tartans therefrom. Lauder described the manuscript in detail, stating that he had obtained drawings, in colour, of all the tartans contained therein (about 66 in number) and sent some of these to Sir Walter Scott himself. In addition to material on tartans, the book also contained Appendices on women's plaids (arisaids) and on hose and trews. In the end, Lauder urged the brothers to have the book published and made inquiries concerning costs and procedures to that end. A plan was adopted to publish it, illustrated by swatches of silk in the tartan colours and patterns.

In his reply of June 5, 1829, Scott expressed skepticism over the claims of both the brothers Sobieski and the manuscript itself, at the same time requesting that a copy of the MS be sent for investigation by competent authorities in antiquities. Among other things, he disputed the assertion that Lowlanders had ever worn tartans or plaids; questioned the lack of any corroborating evidence, including any in Bishop Lesley's writings even though Lesley was said to have been in possession at one time of the original upon which the present MS was based; and called into question the authenticity of the brothers. He also noted that the title - Vestiarium Scoticum - was, in his words, "false Latin".

On July 20, 1829, Sir Thomas replied to Sir Walter. In this letter, he describes the (alleged) 1571 original from which the 1721 copy which he saw is said to be derived and which was in the possession of the brothers' father in London. Sir Thomas then goes on to discuss the brothers' character, credibility, and society's opinion of them, admitting that the "Quixotism of the two brothers must render these very unfortunate individuals for the introduction of a piece of antiquarian matter to the world. . .". He nevertheless reasserts his belief in the authenticity of the MS and goes on to discuss the "false Latin" and the presumed use of tartans in the Lowlands.

In a final letter in this exchange from Scott to Lauder, dated 19 November 1829, Scott rejected again the authenticity of the Vestiarium Scoticum and further rejected the notion that Lowlanders ever wore clan tartans. He went further and rejected the entire notion of clan tartans, stating that the "idea of distinguishing the clans by their tartans is but a fashion of modern date . . .".

Publication of the Vestiarium Scoticum[edit]

The Vestiarium was finally published in 1842. A summary of its contents follows.

  • Preface, in which is described the origin of the manuscripts, together with observations on the supposed author and date
  • Rolls of the Clans
  • Introduction
  • Text of the Vestiarium
  • The setts, stripes, and colours of the tartans, together with a listing of clans and families whose tartans are described
  • Colour plates - seventy five plates (in colour) illustrating the tartans of the clans and families mentioned in the previous section

The Tartans[edit]

The tartans presented in the Vestiarium were divided into two sections. First came the "Highland clans" and this was followed by "Lowland Houses and Border Clans". In the listing below, the clan name (with original spelling as it appeared in the VS, is followed by the Scottish Tartans Society number (TS#) and the (modern) thread count. Please note that these may not be the official clan tartans. For example, the tartan shown for Clan Campbell, known as "Campbell of Argyll", was only worn by the Sixth Duke of Argyll. The standard Campbell tartan is the Black Watch tartan.[1]

Hieland clannes (Highland Clans)[edit]

Plate # Clan/Tartan Name Plate Modern thread count derived from plate Tartan derived from text Modern thread count derived from text Scottish Tartans Society #
1 The Clan Stewart[2] Clan Stewart tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png G4 R60 B8 R8 Bk12 Y2 Bk2 W2 Bk2 G20 R8 Bk2 R2 W2[2] same as plate
2 Prince of Rothsay[3] Prince of Rothesay tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png W4 R64 G4 R6 G4 R8 G32 R8 G32 R8 G4 R6 G4 R64 W2 R2 W4[3] N/A N/A (impossible to accurately derive thread count from text)[3] TS1533
3 ye principal clovris of ye clanne Stewart[4] Ye principal clovris of ye clanne Stewart tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png R6 W56 Bk6 W6 Bk6 W6 g26 R16 Bk2 R2 W2[4] same as plate
4 MakDonnald of ye Ylis[5] MacDonald of the Isles tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png R6 B20 Bk24 G6 Bk2 G2 Bk2 G60 W8[5] N/A N/A (fine black lines could be in the blue portion, they are in the green portion in the text)[5] TS1366
5 clan Raynald[6] Clanranald tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png B10 R4 B30 R4 Bk16 G52 R6 G2 R4 G6 W6[6] same as plate
6 Clann Gregour[7] MacGregor tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png R128 G36 R10 G16 W4[7] same as plate TS866
8 Clan Makduffe[8] MacDuff tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png R6 G32 B12 Bk12 R48 Bk4 R8[8] same as plate TS1453
9 Makanphersonis[9] MacPherson tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png W6 R2 W60 Bk30 W6 Bk18 Y2[9] same as plate
10 Clann Grant, or clann Grauntacke[10] Grant tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png R8 B4 R4 b4 R112 B32 R8 G2 R8 G72 R6 G2 R8[10] same as plate
11 Monrois[11] Munro tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png Bk36 R8 Bk36 R64 W6[11] same as plate
12 Clann-Lewid[12] MacLeod tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png Bk16 Y2 Bk16 Y24 R2[12] same as plate TS1272
13 Clan Campbell[13] Campbell tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum) (Stewart - 'The Setts').png B132 Bk2 B2 Bk2 B6 Bk24 G52 W/Y6 G52 Bk24 B42 Bk2 B8[13] same as plate
14 Svtherlande[14] Sutherland tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png G12 W4 G48 Bk24 B6 Bk4 B4 Bk4 B24 R2 B2R6[14] same as plate
15 Clanchamron[15] Cameron tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png R8 G24 R8 G24 R64 Y4[15] same as plate
16 Clanneil[16] MacNeil tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png B12 R2 B40 G12 B12 G48 Bk2 G4 W8[16] same as plate
17 Mackfarlan[17] MacFarlane tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png Bk54 W48 Bk8W48[17] same as plate
18 Clanlavchlan[18] MacLachlan tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png Bk12 Y4 Bk42 Y4 Bk12 Y48 Bk4 Y12[18] same as plate
19 Clan-gillean[19] MacLean tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png G12 Bk20 W4 Bk20 G6 Bk8 G60 Bk4[19] same as plate
20 Clankenjie[20] MacKenzie tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png B56 Bk6 B6 Bk6 B6 Bk20 G54 W/R6 G54 Bk20 B56 Bk2 B12[20] same as plate
21 Fryjjelis in ye Ayrd[21] Fraser tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png R4 B12 R4 G12 R24 W4[21] same as plate
22 Menghes[22] Menzies tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png W4 R40 Cr2 R2 Cr2 R6 Cr10 W48 R6 W4 R2 W8[22] same as plate
23 Chyssal[23] Chisholm tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png R2 G28 Bk2 G4 Bk2 G4 B14 R56 W2 R12[23] same as plate
24 Buchananis[24] Buchanan tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png Bk2 W18 Cr8 W4 Cr8 W4[24] same as plate
25 Clan Lawmond[25] Lamont tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png B50 Bk2 B2 Bk2 B4 Bk28 G60 W8 G60 Bk28 B32 Bk2 B6[25] same as plate
26 Clann Dowgall of Lorne[26] MacDougall tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png R8 G18 Bk12 Cr16 R10 G4 R4 G4 R52 G2 R6[26] MacDougall tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum - text).png P8 G16 B12 P16 R12 G4 R4 G4 R48 G2 R6[27] (plate colour differs from that listed in text)[26]
27 Makyntryris[28] MacIntyre tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png G10 B26 R6 B26 G64 W10[28] same as plate
28 Clandonoquhay[29] Robertson tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png G2 R68 B16 R4 G40 R4[29] same as plate TS889
29 Maknabbis[30] MacNab tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png G14 R4 Cr4 G8 Cr4 R24 Bk2[30] same as plate
30 Clannkynnon[31] MacKinnon tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png Bk2 R36 G24 R4 G24 R36 W2[31] same as plate
31 Makyntosche[32] MacKintosh tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png R6 G32 Bk24 R56 W4 R10[32] same as plate
32 Clanhiunla, or Farquharsonnes[33] Farquharson tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum) (Stewart - 'The Setts').png B56 Bk6 b6 Bk6 B6 G54 R/Y6 G54 Bk20 B56 Bk2 B12[33] same as plate
33 Clanngvn[34] Gunn tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png G4 Bk32 G4 Bk32 G60 R4[34] same as plate
34 Clan-mak-Arthovr[34] MacArthur tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png Bk64 G12 Bk24 G60 Y6[34] same as plate
35 Clanmorgan[35] MacKay tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png B8 Bk24 B8 Bk24 B64 R4[35] same as plate
36 Makqwhenis[35] MacQueen tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png Bk4 R14 Bk4 R14 Bk28 Y2[35] same as plate TS1209

Low country pairtes (Lowland Clans)[edit]

Plate # Clan/Tartan Name Plate Modern thread count derived from plate Tartan derived from text Modern thread count derived from text Scottish Tartans Society #
37 Bruiss[36] Bruce tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png W8 R56 G14 R12 G38 R10 G38 R12 G14 R56 Y8[36] same as plate TS1848
38 Dowglass[37] Douglas tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png Bk30 Gy2 Bk2 Gy2 Bk14 Gy28 Bk2 Gy4[37] same as plate TS1127
39 Crawfovrd[38] Crawford tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum - plate).png R6 g24 R6 G24 R60 W4[38] Crawford tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum - text).png Cr12 W4 Cr60 G24 Cr6 G24 Cr6[39] (plate shows scarlet, where text shows crimson)[38] TS1515
40 Ruthwen[38] Ruthven tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png R4 G2 R58 B36 G30 W6[38] N/A N/A (missing a white line noted in the plate)[38] TS705
41 Montegomerye[40] Montgomery tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png B18 G6 B18 G68[40] same as plate
42 Hamyltowne[40] Hamilton tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png B10 R2 B10 R16 W2[40] N/A N/A (text calls for more than one white line)[40] TS270
43 Wymmis[41] Wemyss tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png R8 Bk24 W2 Bk24 R8 Bk8 R52 G2 R10[41] same as plate TS1512
44 Cymyne[41] Comyn tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png Bk4 R54 G8 R4 G8 R8 G18 W2 G18 R8[41] same as plate TS1158
45 Seyntcler[42] Sinclair tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png G4 R2 G60 Bk32 W2 B32 R4[42] same as plate
46 Dvnbarr[43] Dunbar tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png R8 Bk2 R56 Bk16 G44 R12[43] same as plate
47 Leslye[43] Leslie tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png Bk2 R64 B32 R8 Bk12 Y2 Bk12 R8[43] same as plate
48 Lavdere[44] Lauder tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png G6 B16 G6 Bk8 G30 R4[44] same as plate
49 Connyngham[44] Cunningham tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png Bk8 R2 Bk60 R56 B2 R2 W8[44] same as plate
50 Lyndeseye[45] Lindsay tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum - plate).png G50 B4 G4 B4 G4 b20 R60 B4 R6[45] Lindsay tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum - text).png Cr6 B4 Cr48 B16 G4 B4 G4 B4 G40[46] (text calls for crimson, as to scarlet in plate)[45]
51 Haye[45] Hay tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png R12 G8 Y4 G72 R4 G4 R4 G24 R96 G8 R4 G2 R4 W2[45] same as plate
52 Dundass[47] Dundas tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png Bk4 G4 R2 G48 Bk24 B32 Bk8[47] same as plate
53 Ogyluye[48] Ogilvie tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png B58 Y2 B4 Bk32 G52 Bk2 G4 R6[48] N/A N/A (yellow stripe would be attached to black)[48]
54 Olyfavnt[48] Oliphant tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png B8 Bk8 B48 G64 W2 G4[48] same as plate
55 Setown[49] Seton tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png G10 W2 G24 R10 B8 R4 Bk8 R64 G2 R4[49] same as plate
56 Ramsey[49] Ramsay tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum - plate).png Bk8 W4 Bk56 R60 Bk2 R6[49] Ramsay tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum - text).png R6 Cr2 R60 Bk56 W4 Bk8[50] (the two crimson lines in text are rendered black in the plate)[49]
57 Areskyn[51] Erskine tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png G14 R2 G52 R60 G2 R10[51] same as plate
58 Wallas[51] Wallace tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png Bk4 R64 Bk60 Y8[51] same as plate
59 Brodye[52] Brodie tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png Bk10 R60 Bk28 Y2 Bk28 R10[52] same as plate
60 Barclay[52] Barclay tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png G4 B64 G64 R4[52] same as plate
61 Murrawe[53] Murray tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png B56 Bk6 B6 Bk6 B6 Bk20 G54 R6 g54 Bk20 B56 Bk2 B12[53] same as plate
62 Urqwhart[53] Urquhart tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png B4 W2 B24 Bk4 B4 Bk4 B8 Bk24 G52 Bk4 G4 R2[53] same as plate
63 Rose[54] Rose tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum - plate).png G4 R48 B10 R8 B2 R4 B2 R24 W4[54] Rose tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum - text).png G8 R64 P18 Cr12 P4 Cr6 P4 Cr24 W6[55] (the plate gives a poor representation of the reds & purple)[54]
64 Colqwohovne[54] Colquhoun tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png B8 Bk4 B40 W2 Bk18 G58 R8[54] same as plate
65 Drymmond[56] Drummond tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png G4 R2 g2 R56 G16 Bk2 G2 Bk2 G36 R2 G2 R8[56] same as plate
66 Forbas[57] Forbes tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png R4 G64 Bk36 G10 Bk16 Y4[57] same as plate

Bordovr clannes (Border Clans)[edit]

Plate # Clan/Tartan Name Plate Modern thread count derived from plate Tartan derived from text Modern thread count derived from text Scottish Tartans Society #
67 Scott[58] Scott tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png G8 R6 Bk2 R56 G28 R8 G8 W6 G8 R8[58] same as plate TS793
68 Armstrang[59] Armstrong tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png G4 Bk2 G58 Bk24 B4 Bk2 B2 Bk2 B26 R6[59] same as plate TS793
69 Gordovn[59] Gordon tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png B60 Bk2 B2 Bk2 B8 Bk28 G52 Y2 G2 Y4 G2 Y2 G52 Bk28 B40 Bk2 B8[59] same as plate TS215
70 Cranstoun[60] Cranstoun tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png Dg28 B2 Dg2 B2 Dg6 B12 Lg24 R4[60] same as plate TS706
71 Graeme[61] Graham tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png G24 Bk8 G2 Bk8[61] same as plate TS786
72 Maxswel[62] Maxwell tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png R6 G2 R56 Bk12 R8 G32 R6[62] same as plate TS1500
73 Home[63] Home tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png B6 G4 B60 Bk20 R2 Bk4 R2 Bk70[63] same as plate TS127
74 Johnstoun[64] Johnston(e) tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png Bk4 B4 Bk4 B48 G60 Bk2 G4 Y6[64] same as plate TS1063
75 Kerr[65] Kerr tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png G40 Bk2 G4 Bk2 G6 Bk28 R56 K2 R4 K8[65] same as plate TS791

The Quarterly Review[edit]

In June 1847, a highly critical review of the Vestiarium Scoticum was published in the Quarterly Review. Originally published anonymously, the authors are now known to have been Professor George Skene of Glasgow University and the Rev. Dr. Mackay, the editor of the Highland Society's Gaelic Dictionary.

The Quarterly Review article was occasioned by the appearance of a book by John Sobieski and Charles Edward Stuart entitled The Tales of the Century. These stories, although presented in fictional terms, lay out the authors' claims to be direct descendants of Prince Charles Edward, the Young Pretender. The Quarterly Review article, while nominally a response to these claims, in fact mainly consisted of an examination of the authenticity of the Vestiarium Scoticum.

In 1848, John Sobieski Stuart replied to the Quarterly Review article with a treatise of his own entitled The Genuineness of the Vestiarium Scoticum. In this reply, Stuart offered the 1721 edition for inspection. For his part, Skene expressed a desire that the original manuscript, that said to have once belonged to Bishop Ross, be exhibited. In the end, no record of anyone examining the 1721 copy at that time exists and no one other than the Sobieski Stuart brothers ever saw the Ross copy.

In 1895, the Glasow Herald published a series of articles entitled "The Vestiarium Scoticum, is it a forgery?" authored by Andrew Ross. Ross was able to locate the 1721 copy, but not any earlier manuscripts. He gave a detailed description of the 1721 copy, and had it subjected to chemical testing by Stevenson Macadam, a chemist. Macadam reported that the "document [bore] evidence of having been treated with chemical agents in order to give the writing a more aged appearance than it is entitled to". He concluded that "the manuscript cannot be depended upon as an ancient document".

This 1721 copy was also presented for examination to a Mr. Robert Irvine, the director of a chemical firm who reported that it was "impossible to arrive at any accurate conclusion pointing to the age of the writing".

In earlier years, there was some discussion of publishing a second edition of the Vestiarium Scoticum (the first edition had a press run of only several dozen copies), but nothing came of these discussions.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.ccsna.org/jsep50a.htm
  2. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.21-22
  3. ^ a b c Forged Tartans, p.22-23
  4. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.26-27
  5. ^ a b c Forged Tartans, p.28
  6. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.29
  7. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.30
  8. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.31
  9. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.32
  10. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.32-33
  11. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.33
  12. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.33-34
  13. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.34-35
  14. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.35-36
  15. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.36
  16. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.36-37
  17. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.37
  18. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.37-38
  19. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.38
  20. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.40
  21. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.41
  22. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.41-42
  23. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.42
  24. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.4243
  25. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.43
  26. ^ a b c Forged Tartans, p.43-44
  27. ^ The Setts, p.73
  28. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.44
  29. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.45
  30. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.45-46
  31. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.46
  32. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.46-47
  33. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.47
  34. ^ a b c d Forged Tartans, p.48
  35. ^ a b c d Forged Tartans, p.49
  36. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.50
  37. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.51
  38. ^ a b c d e f Forged Tartans, p.52
  39. ^ The Setts, p.48
  40. ^ a b c d e Forged Tartans, p.53
  41. ^ a b c d Forged Tartans, p.54
  42. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.55
  43. ^ a b c d Forged Tartans, p.56
  44. ^ a b c d Forged Tartans, p.57
  45. ^ a b c d e Forged Tartans, p.58
  46. ^ The Setts, p.64
  47. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.59
  48. ^ a b c d e Forged Tartans, p.60
  49. ^ a b c d e Forged Tartans, p.61
  50. ^ The Setts, p.96
  51. ^ a b c d Forged Tartans, p.62
  52. ^ a b c d Forged Tartans, p.63
  53. ^ a b c d Forged Tartans, p.64
  54. ^ a b c d e Forged Tartans, p.65
  55. ^ The Setts, p.98
  56. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.66
  57. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.66-67
  58. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.67
  59. ^ a b c d Forged Tartans, p.68
  60. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.69
  61. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.69-70
  62. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.70
  63. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.70-71
  64. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.71
  65. ^ a b Forged Tartans, p.71-72

References[edit]

  • John Telfer Dunbar, History of highland dress: A definitive study of the history of Scottish costume and tartan, both civil and military, including weapons, ISBN 0-7134-1894-X
  • Hugh Trevor-Roper, The Invention of Tradition: The Highland Tradition of Scotland, in The Invention of Tradition editors: Eric Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger. Cambridge University Press, 1983, ISBN 0-521-24645-8
Works cited
  • Stewart, Donald C. & Thompson, J Charles. & Scarlett James (editor). Scotland's Forged Tartans, An analytical study of the Vestiarium Scoticum. Edinburgh: Paul Harris Publishing, 1980. ISBN 0-904505-67-7
  • Stewart, Donald C. The Setts of the Scottish Tartans, with descriptive and historical notes. London: Shepheard-Walwyn, 1974. ISBN 0-85683-011-9

External links[edit]