Throughout history war veterans have received compensation. Roman soldiers were given rewards at the end of their service including cash or land (praemia). Augustus fixed the amount in AD 5 at 3000 denarii and by the time of Caracalla it had risen to 5000 denarii. 
US Military personnel receive death benefits after retirement from active military duty , retirement compensation, educational reimbursement, and access to insurance otherwise unavailable to civilians.
The US Department of Veterans Affairs provides a wide variety of benefits, e.g., educational assistance (GI Bill), health care, home loans, insurance, and burial and memorial services, for retired or separated United States armed forces personnel, their dependents, and survivors. The VA provides compensation to disabled veterans who suffer from a medical disorder or injury that was incurred in, or aggravated by, their military service, and which causes social and occupational impairment. Many U.S. states also offer disability benefits for veterans.
Archival record of the benefits awarded to injured soldiers and veterans of the American Civil War began after 1865. Union soldiers received a more committed pension archival effort on the part of the Federal government, thanks to superior databases in the North and a more stable bureaucratic oversight. Turmoil during Reconstruction in the war-weary South made any effort at maintaining pension records difficult if not impossible. Later university-led research projects would give insight into the history of pension provisions by the Federal government leading up to the Civil War. These analysis shed light on the ever-changing role of compensation in American society and delved into the idea that American Revolutionary War soldiers received superior care after war than later Civil War veterans.
- "Benefit Summary Materials". Veterans Benefits Administration. Department of Veterans Affairs. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- "Federal Benefits for Veterans, Dependents and Survivors". Office of Public and Intergovernmental Affairs. Department of Veterans Affairs. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- "Service-connected Disabilities". Veterans Benefits Administration. Department of Veterans Affairs. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- "Compensation". Veterans Benefits Administration. Department of Veterans Affairs. Retrieved 27 December 2013.