Vetterli rifle

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Repetiergewehr Vetterli, Modell 1869/71
Repetiergewehr Vetterli 1868-69.jpg
Swiss Vetterli Model 1868
Type Service rifle
Place of origin   Switzerland
Service history
In service 1869 – c. 1890
Used by Swiss Army, Italian Army, Russian Army (captured from shipment to Finland)
Wars World War I (Russian captured)
Production history
Designer Johann-Friedrich Vetterli
Manufacturer SIG and Waffenfabrik Bern
Number built 36,700
Specifications
Weight 4600 g (10.14 lb)
Length 1300mm (51.18 in)
Barrel length 842mm (33.15 in)

Cartridge 10.4×38Rmm
Black-powder Rimfire
rimmed metallic cartridge
Caliber 10mm
Action Bolt-action
Rate of fire 21 rounds per minute
Muzzle velocity 1425 ft/s
Feed system 11-round tubular magazine
Sights Iron sights (Quadrantenvisier)

The Vetterli rifles were a series of Swiss army service rifles in use from 1869 to circa 1890, when they were replaced with Schmidt-Rubin rifles. Modified Vetterli rifles were also used by the Italian Army.

The Swiss Vetterli rifles combined the American Winchester Model 1866's tubular magazine with a regular bolt featuring for the first time two opposed rear locking lugs . This novel type of bolt was a major improvement over the simpler Dreyse and Chassepot bolt actions. The Vetterli was also the first repeating bolt action rifle to feature a self-cocking action and a small caliber bore. Due to the Swiss Federal Council's early 1866 decision to equip the army with a breechloading repeating rifle, the Vetterli rifles were, at the time of their introduction, the most advanced military rifles in Europe . The Vetterli was the replacement for Amsler-Milbank rifles, which were a metallic cartridge conversion from previous Swiss muzzle loading rifles.

Repetiergewehr Vetterli, Modell 1867[edit]

The model 1867 was the first iteration of Vetterli rifles. It was accepted into service in February 1868. The model 1867, like its successors, featured a 12 round under barrel tubular magazine and bolt action feed system. The primary distinguishing feature of the Model 1867 was the external hammer.

Repetiergewehr Vetterli, Modell 1868[edit]

Before the Model 1867 was put into full production, the rifle designer, Friedrich Vetterli, updated the rifle by replacing the external hammer with an internal cocking bolt spring, rounded front barrel band and placing the cleaning rod on the left side of the rifle. It was discovered soon after that the cleaning rod in its current placement was easily damaged and was subsequently moved to the under-barrel position. The model was designated the Model 1869.

Repetiergewehr Vetterli, Modell 1869, 69/71[edit]

Cutaway diagram of the Vetterli rifle's action.

The 1869 Repetiergewehr Vetterli (English: repeating rifle, Vetterli) was the first iteration of Vetterli rifles to go into full mass production. It was designed by Johann-Friedrich Vetterli (1822–1882), a Swiss riflemaker, who worked in France and England before becoming director of the Schweizerische Industrie Gesellschaft's armament factory in Neuhausen Switzerland. He also adapted his rifle into a single-shot centerfire variant procured by the Italian Army. In 1871 the Model 1869 was updated by removing the loading gate and magazine cutoff switch. This change was designated the Model 1869/71

Repetiergewehr Vetterli, Modell 1871[edit]

Repetiergewehr Vetterli, Modell 1871
Production history
Number built 77,300
Specifications
Weight c. 4750 g

Even while manufacture of the M1869/71 was underway, a new 1871 model was put into production. It omitted some redundant parts and featured a modified sight as well as a stronger barrel and stronger iron hoops.

Repetierstutzer Vetterli, Modell 1871[edit]

Repetierstutzer Vetterli, Modell 1871
Repetierstutzer Vetterli 1871.jpg
Production history
Number built 10,000
Specifications
Weight 4600 g
Length 1260 mm
Barrel length 783 mm

The Stutzer (carbine) variant of the 1871 rifle was used to equip the Scharfschützen (sniper) companies of the army. The Stutzer were equipped with a sensitive Stecher (double set trigger) action and featured a shorter barrel.

Kavallerie-Repetierkarabiner Vetterli, Modell 1871[edit]

Kavallerie-Repetierkarabiner Vetterli, Modell 1871
Vetterli-Carbine
Production history
Manufacturer W+F Bern, SIG
Number built c. 4,300
Specifications
Weight 3300 g
Length 930 mm
Barrel length 470 mm

Feed system 6-round tubular magazine

The Kavallerie-Repetierkarabiner (English: cavalry repeating carbine) was another shortened variant of the 1871 rifle for use by the cavalry, which at that time was still armed with percussion pistols.

Repetiergewehr and -stutzer Vetterli, Modell 1878 and 1881[edit]

Repetiergewehr and -stutzer Vetterli, Modell 1878 and 1881
Production history
Manufacturer W+F Bern
Number built 114,000 (rifle),
c. 11,000 (stutzer)
Specifications
Weight c. 4700 g
Length 1325 mm
Barrel length 843 mm

Feed system 12-round tubular magazine

To accelerate the sluggish production of the Vetterli rifles, the federal authorities built a new arms factory in Berne, the Eidgenössische Waffenfabrik (W+F), in 1875. That factory produced the 1878 variant of the Vetterli rifle. Its some 25 improvements included a new bayonet and lug, improved sights and a finger hook on the trigger cover. An Stutzer variant with a Stecher action, but otherwise identical to the rifle, was also produced.

M1870 Italian Vetterli[edit]

The Italian Army adopted a modified Vetterli design, however as a single-shot, in 1870. Unlike the Swiss model, it was chambered for a centrefire cartridge, the 10.35×47mmR.

M1870/87 Italian Vetterli-Vitali[edit]

In 1887, the Italian military updated its single-shot Model 1870 Vetterli rifles with a four-round Vitali box magazine.

M1870/87/15 Italian Vetterli[edit]

During World War I, like many nations Italy faced a shortage of modern infantry rifles. As an stop-gap measure, hundreds of thousands of Vetterli-Vitali rifles and a few carbines and musquetoons were converted in Rome and Gardone to fire the 6.5x52mm Carcano round, by adding a 6.5mm barrel liner and a Carcano-style magazine. These conversions were never meant for extended firing with standard 6.5x52mm loads, as the smokeless powder 6.5×52mm cartridge generates higher pressure than the black powder 10.35×47mmR, but have withstood modern CIP proofshooting without difficulty.

References[edit]

  • Ernst Hostettler (1987). Hand- und Faustfeuerwaffen der Schweizer Armee von 1842 bis heute (3rd ed. ed.). Buch-Vertriebs GmbH Zürich. pp. 25 et seq. ISBN 3-905216-03-5. 
  • Swiss Vetterli rifles on militaryrifles.com

External links[edit]

Media related to Vetterli rifle at Wikimedia Commons