Vetulonia, formerly called Vetulonium (Etruscan Vatluna), was an ancient town of Etruria, Italy, the site of which is probably occupied by the modern village of Vetulonia, which up to 1887 bore the name of Colonnata and Colonna di Buriano: the site is currently a frazione of the comune of Castiglione della Pescaia, with some 400 inhabitants.
History and main sights 
Vetulonia has Etruscan origins. Dionysius of Halicarnassus places the city within the Latin alliance against Rome in the seventh century BC. According to Silius Italicus (Punica VIII.485ff), the Romans adopted their magisterial insignia, the Lictors' rods and fasces and the curule seat, from Vetulonia; in 1898, a tomb in the necropolis was discovered with a bundle of iron rods with a double-headed axe in the centre, and soon afterwards, a grave stela inscribed for Avele Feluske was discovered, on which the fasces were pictured. Pliny the Elder and Ptolemy also cite the town. The rich votive furnishing from the two extensive necropoleis attest to the importance of Vetulonia's elite.
The so-called Mura dell'Arce (cyclopean walls) date probably from the 6th-5th century BC, and aerial photography has revealed further stretches, which show the political and commercial importance of Vetulonia, which was famous for its goldsmiths. Under the Roman Empire, however, it shrank to a secondary center, with the northward spread of malaria. Little is known also about medieval Vetulonia: first contended between the abbots of San Bartolomeo di Sestinga and the Lambardi family of Buriano, it was acquired by the commune of Massa Marittima in 1323. Nine years later it was handed over to Siena.
The site of the ancient city was not identified before 1881. The Etruscan city situated on the hill of Colonna di Buriano, where there are remains of city walls of massive limestone, in almost horizontal courses, was accompanied by two necropoleis partly excavated by Isidoro Falchi in 1885-86; the town was renamed Vetulonia by royal decree in 1887.
The objects discovered in its extensive seventh-century necropolis, where over 1,000 tombs have been excavated, are now in the museums of Grosseto and Florence. The most important tombs, in this "richest and most interesting tomb group of northern Etruria", were covered by tumuli, which still form a prominent feature in the landscape.
- Dionysius, iii.52.
- Falchi, in Notizie degli scavi December 1887.
- Larissa Bonfante Warren, reviewing Giovannangelo Camporeale, La Tomba del Duce, Vetulonia vol. I (Istituto di studi etruschi ed italici) Florence: Olschki) 1967, in American Journal of Archaeology 73.4 October 1969:484.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Vetulonium.|
- MysteriousEtruscans.com: Vetluna (Roman Vetulonia)
- LacusCurtius website: Vetulonia
- (Assiciazione pro Loc di Vetulonia)Vetulonia on-line
- Dr. Maria Grazia Celuzza, "Vetulonia" (Italian)
- Harris, W., R. Talbert, T. Elliott, S. Gillies. "Places: 403291 (Vatl/Vetulonia)". Pleiades. Retrieved March 7, 2012.