Vibrio harveyi

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Vibrio harveyi
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Gammaproteobacteria
Order: Vibrionales
Family: Vibrionaceae
Genus: Vibrio
Species: V. harveyi
Binomial name
Vibrio harveyi
(Johnson[disambiguation needed] and Shunk 1936)
Baumann et al. 1981
Synonyms

Beneckea harveyi (Johnson and Shunk 1936) Reichelt and Baumann 1973
Achromobacter harveyi Johnson and Shunk 1936
Pseudomonas harveyi (Johnson and Shunk 1936) Breed 1948
Photobacterium harveyi (Johnson and Shunk 1936) Breed and Lessel 1954
Lucibacterium harveyi (Johnson and Shunk 1936) Hendrie et al. 1970
Vibrio carchariae Grimes et al. 1985
Vibrio trachuri Iwamoto et al. 1996

Vibrio harveyi is a species of Gram-negative, bioluminescent, marine bacteria in the genus Vibrio. V. harveyi are rod-shaped, motile (via polar flagella), facultatively anaerobic, halophilic, and competent for both fermentative and respiratory metabolism. They do not grow below 4°C or above 35°C. V. harveyi can be found free-swimming in tropical marine waters, commensally in the gut microflora of marine animals, and as both a primary and opportunistic pathogen of marine animals, including Gorgonian corals, oysters, prawns, lobsters, the common snook, barramundi, turbot, milkfish, and seahorses.[1] V. harveyi is responsible for luminous vibriosis, a disease that affects commercially farmed penaeid prawns.[2] Additionally, based on samples taken by ocean-going ships, V. harveyi is thought to be the cause of the milky seas effect, in which, during the night, a uniform blue glow is emitted from the seawater. Some glows can cover nearly 6,000 square miles (16,000 km2).

Quorum sensing[edit]

Groups of V. harveyi bacteria communicate via quorum sensing to coordinate the production of bioluminescence and virulence factors. Quorum sensing was first studied in Vibrio fischeri, a marine bacterium that uses a synthase (LuxI) to produce a species-specific autoinducer (AI) that binds a cognate receptor (LuxR) that regulates changes in expression. Coined "LuxI/R" quorum sensing, these systems have been identified in many other species of Gram-negative bacteria.[3] Despite its relatedness to V. fischeri, V. harveyi lacks a LuxI/R quorum sensing system, and instead employs a hybrid quorum-sensing circuit, detecting its AI via a membrane-bound histidine kinase and using a phosphorelay to convert information about the population size to changes in gene expression.[4] Since their identification in V. harveyi, such hybrid systems have been identified in many other bacterial species. It was also discovered that V. harveyi uses a second AI, termed autoinducer-2 or AI-2, which is unusual because it is made and detected by a variety of different bacteria, both Gram-negative and Gram-positive.[5][6][7] Thus, V. harveyi has been instrumental to our understanding and appreciation of interspecies bacterial communication.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Owens, Leigh; Busico-Salcedo, Nancy (2006). "Vibrio harveyi: Pretty Problems in Paradise (Chapter 19)". In Thompson, Fabiano; Austin, Brian; Swings, Jean. The Biology of Vibrios. ASM Press. 
  2. ^ Austin B & Zhang X-H (2006). "Vibrio harveyi: a significant pathogen of marine vertebrates and invertebrates". Letters in Applied Microbiology 43 (2): 119–214. doi:10.1111/j.1472-765X.2006.01989.x. PMID 16869892. 
  3. ^ Waters CM, Bassler BL (2005). "Quorum Sensing: Cell-to-Cell Communication in Bacteria". Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology 21: 319–346. doi:10.1146/annurev.cellbio.21.012704.131001. PMID 16212498. 
  4. ^ Bassler BL, Wright M, Showalter RE, Silverman MR (1993). "Intercellular signalling in Vibrio harveyi: sequence and function of genes regulating expression of luminescence". Molecular Microbiology 9 (4): 773–786. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2958.1993.tb01737.x. PMID 8231809. 
  5. ^ Surette MG, Miller MB, Bassler BL (1999). "Quorum sensing in Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Vibrio harveyi: a new family of genes responsible for autoinducer production". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 96 (4): 1639–44. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.4.1639. PMC 15544. PMID 9990077. 
  6. ^ Schauder S, Shokat K, Surette MG, Bassler BL (2001). "The LuxS family of bacterial autoinducers: biosynthesis of a novel quorum-sensing signal molecule". Molecular Microbiology 41 (2): 463–476. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2958.2001.02532.x. PMID 11489131. 
  7. ^ Chen X, Schauder S, Potier N, Van Dorsselaer A, Pelczer I, Bassler BL, Hughson FM (2002). "Structural identification of a bacterial quorum-sensing signal containing boron". Nature 415 (6871): 545–549. doi:10.1038/415545a. PMID 11823863. 

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