Vicente Aranda in 2010
|Born||Vicente Aranda Ezquerra
9 November 1926
|Occupation||Film director, screenwriter|
Due to his refined and personal style, he is one of the most renowned Spanish filmmakers. He started as a founded member of the Barcelona School of Film and became known for bringing contemporary Spanish novels to life on the big screen. Aranda is famous for exploring difficult social issues and variations on the theme of desire that employs the codes of melodrama.
Love as uncontrollable passion, eroticism and cruelty are constant themes in his filmography. The frank examination of sexuality is one of the trademarks of his work as can be seen in his most internationally successful film: Amantes (1990) (Lovers).
- 1 Early life
- 2 Film career and later life
- 2.1 Early films (1964-1974)
- 2.2 Cambio de Sexo (1976)
- 2.3 La Muchacha de las Bragas de Oro (1980)
- 2.4 Asesinato en el Comité Central (1982)
- 2.5 Fanny Pelopaja (1984)
- 2.6 El Crimen del Capitán Sánchez (1984)
- 2.7 Tiempo de Silencio (1986)
- 2.8 El Lute (1987)
- 2.9 El Lute II, mañana seré libre (1988)
- 2.10 Si te dicen que caí (1989)
- 2.11 Los Jinetes del Alba (1990)
- 2.12 Amantes (1991)
- 2.13 El Amante Bilingüe (1993)
- 2.14 Intruso (1993)
- 2.15 La Pasión Turca (1994)
- 2.16 Libertarias (1996)
- 2.17 La Mirada del Otro (1998)
- 2.18 Celos (1999)
- 2.19 Juana la Loca (2001)
- 2.20 Carmen (2003)
- 2.21 Tirant lo Blanc (2006)
- 2.22 Canciones de Amor en Lolita's club (2007)
- 2.23 Luna Caliente (2009)
- 3 Filmography
- 4 Notes
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Vicente Aranda Ezquerra was born in Barcelona on 9 November 1926. He was the youngest son in a large and impoverished family who had emigrated from Aragón to Barcelona twenty years before he was born. He barely knew his father, an itinerant photographer, who died when the child was only seven years old. The Spanish Civil War, in which his family took the side of the losing Republicans, marked his childhood. Thinking that the war was going to be more bearable in a small town than in Barcelona, the family moved early in the war to Peñalba, his mother's native village. The dire situation there, close to the Aragon's front, forced them to come back to Barcelona in 1938.
After the war ended, Aranda spent a lot of time in the local movie theatre, much against the wishes of his mother, who took to smelling him on his return for traces of the disinfectant that was sprayed in cinemas of the time. He never finished his studies. At age thirteen, he had to begin to work in order to help his family. He had a number of different jobs in his home town, trying a multitude of trades before following his brother Palmiro to Venezuela in 1952. He emigrated for economical and political reasons. In Venezuela, Aranda worked as a cargo technician for an American shipping business and later became responsible for programs at NCR. After seven years, he came back to Spain in 1959.
Wealthy and married upon his return, he had the initial desire to become a novelist, but found that he lacked enough talent as a writer. He fell in with the cultural elite of Catalonia and was encouraged to try his hand at filmmaking, even after being denied access to the School of Cinema in Madrid because he never graduated from high school. In Barcelona and completely self-taught, Aranda found the way to direct his first feature film.
Aranda started directing films late in life, at almost forty and did not reach international success until his 60s, nevertheless, he has had a long and prolific career making twenty-seven films in more than forty years as director. Vicente Aranda is married to Teresa Font, his second wife who is thirty years his junior. She has been editor of his movies since the mid-1980s; they have two daughters.
Film career and later life
Early films (1964-1974)
Aranda made his directorial debut with the low-budget Brillante Porvenir (1964) (Promising Future), co directing with screenwriter Román Gubern to avoid problems with the director guild of Spain. Loosely inspired by the Great Gatsby, the film employed the aesthetic of the neorealism in a story of a young man from the provinces who tries to make it into the Catalan middle class. Brillante Porvenir, cut by censors, was received coldly by public and critics, but made Aranda interested towards the more fantastic ambit of film making.
His second film, Fata Morgana (1965), an unusual work in Spanish Cinema, is an experimental film, based on a script written with Gonzalo Suárez. The film took inspiration for its visual style from television commercials and comic strips. Ignored upon release, Fata Morgana would eventually be recognized for inspiring the particular kitsch aesthetic of La Escuela de Barcelona (the Barcelona School of Film), an avant garde movement which sought creative renovation of Spanish films.
In the following years Aranda’s work oscillated between certain artistic pretensions and a virtual style drawn from mass media. In these films, Aranda tackled established film genres with and eye on revising and modernizing them.
Since his first features were not widely seen, Aranda followed up with a commercial film with fantastic and erotic overtones: Las Crueles (1969) (The Exquisite Cadaver). In it, a mysterious woman elaborates a scheme to avenge the death of her girlfriend from a callous publisher. This filmed was plagued with a series of problems: it was long in the making; Aranda suffered an accident during the shooting, which forced him to work from a stretcher and finally he had a legal battle with the producers. It would take Aranda many years to recover ownership of this film. The experience made him found his own production company: Morgana film, which would produce his next six features.
In La Novia Ensangrentada (1972) (The Blood Spattered Bride), a female vampire seeks revenge against all men. A genre film for the cultural elite, that got around the censors by virtue of its incomprehensibility. By Aranda own admission he sacrificed conventional coherence for the cinematographic and phenomenological possibilities of each action. The film was distributed internationally in the United States, France and Italy.
Aranda started to employ the codes of melodrama with: Clara es el Precio (1974) (Clara is the Price), an offbeat mix of melodrama, parody and surreal comedy. He cast Amparo Muñoz, Spain’s future Miss Universe, as a naive housewife adrift in a world without taboo who pursues a career as a pornographic film actress in order to fund a business project for her impotent husband. Made during El Destape, a period in Spanish Cinema, that experienced a proliferation of nudity in film taking advantage of the new liberties obtained during the political period that follow the fall of Franco's regime. The film’s imprudence was also its purpose.”  Like the Surrealist, Aranda’s ability to shock was itself a political statement. “ We had lived in a state of consensus and this is fatal for cinema”, he complained, “ We have become our own censors and all we want to do is forget, be silent, not speak"
Cambio de Sexo (1976)
The fall of Francisco Franco’s regime, brought a new permissiveness and the Catalan director was finally able to shoot more daring films like: Cambio de Sexo (1976) (Sex Change), skillfully tackling the subject of transexuality, using it as an embodiment of the political transition lived at the time in Spain. This film marks a switch in Aranda's filmography. He began to use a more realistic style rather than the stylish aesthetics prominent in his early films. Cambio de Sexo marks the beginning of a long collaboration with Victoria Abril, who became his favorite actress. Over the next three decades director and star would be paired in a dozen films that would include major artistic triumphs for both. Made in the period called the transition, Cambio de Sexo is a salient example of the use of transsexualism to reflect social change. The film dramatizes the development of the destape – the period in the late 1970s and early 1980s Spain characterized by a much more open portrayal of sex in the press, literature and film.
Cambio de Sexo recounts the story of a young effeminate boy, played by Victoria Abril, who lives in the outskirts of Barcelona and escapes to the city to explore his desire to become a woman. The character of the young man with a sex identity problem is an embodiment of the changes confronted by the two sides of Spain with their opposites extremes of uncompromising orthodoxy and unrestrained anarchy. Cambio de Sexo allured audiences with its controversial theme, a real novelty, and was released to critical acclaim.
La Muchacha de las Bragas de Oro (1980)
Sexuality and the past, key themes in Aranda's work, are at the center of La Muchacha de las Bragas de Oro (1980) (Girl with the Golden Panties), a film adaptation of a popular novel by his fellow Catalan Juan Marsé, in which Aranda displayed a more mature style.
In La Muchacha de las Bragas de Oro, a Falangist character, writing his memoirs accommodates his past to the new democratic realities, but his world of lies falls apart when he is confronted by his carefree niece, who playfully stars a game of seduction.
Very interested in literature, over the next fifteen years Aranda established himself, as Spain’s foremost adapter of popular contemporary novels into film. A great number of his movies are based on literary works from short narratives to novels, including even biographies. Unlike the more traditional adaptation that stressed their classical literary origins, his choices usually were guided by the centrality of an erotically defined female character, and a contemporary story emphasizing the force of the milieu on the shaping of actions.
For Aranda, adapting a literary work does not involve complications of faithfulness, or lack of the same, to the original text. For him the novel is a raw material with which to create new forms: “ As for adaptations, I feel very comfortable doing them. I don’t have problem with authorship. I don’t think I am more of an author if I write a screenplay of something I’ve read on the news papers or seen on the street that if I take a novel and make a movie based on its contents”.
Asesinato en el Comité Central (1982)
After democracy was installed in Spain, Aranda made a film politically charged with the aftereffects of Franco's regime: Asesinato en el Comité Central (1982) (Murder in the Central Committee). In this thriller, a power cut interrupts the proceedings of the Communist Congress and, when the lights come back on, the leader is found death, murdered. The film was based on one of a series of novels by Manuel Vázquez Montalbán that featured a hard-boiled detective called Pepe Carvalho. The intrigue runs a poor second to Aranda’s commentary on the Spanish transition to democracy. “ The truth is that I cannot think of another film that deals with this fascinating period’, he stated, there is a kind of collective amnesia about the time”.
Much of the film’s action is filtered through headlines and television reports in imitation of the way in which the Spanish public lived the transition. The televised funeral of the Communist leader is a sly montage of mourners at the funeral of Franco, while La Pasionaria (the legendary Spanish Communist leader who passed dictatorship in exile in the Soviet Union) appears as a senile old dear who sits next to the victim but does not even realize he is dead. Like La Muchacha de las Bragas de Oro, this was a film about extremist coming together in a democracy, in this case in order to solve a crime. Whodunnit ? it does not matter. As the interior minister exclaims: In the same way that we’ve had to forget everything, you should to the same” 
Fanny Pelopaja (1984)
Aranda then adapted another popular Catalan author making a daring rewrite of Andreu Martín noir detective novel, Prótesis, in which he transformed the male protagonist into a female retitling the work Fanny Pelopaja (1984). The film depicts a violent love hate relationship between a delinquent woman and the corrupt police officer she wants to get even with.
Co financed by French producers, the film was made in Barcelona with Spanish supporting cast and crew, but with two French actors in the lead. Dissatisfied with the French dubbing of the film, done without his oversight, Aranda tried to stop the premiere of the film in France, were it was released with the title Á coups de crosse. As a result of this dispute Aranda sold its shares in Morgana films, the production company he had created. Fanny Pelopaja failed to find an audience when first released, but now has become one of Aranda best regarded works.
El Crimen del Capitán Sánchez (1984)
After his two previous films were received coldly by audiences, Aranda accepted to take part in La Huella del Crimen (The Trace of the Crime), a television series consisting of six episodes depicting infamous crimes happened in Spain. Renown Spanish film directors: Pedro Olea, Angelino Fons, Ricardo Franco, Juan Antonio Bardem, Pedro Costa and Vicente Aranda were invited to direct, each one of them, a different episode.
Aranda’s chapter El Crimen del Capitán Sánchez (1984) (Captain Sánchez's Crime), was considered the best episode of the series. Made in 16 mm and with a very low budget, the one-hour film tells a story in which incest, jealousy and death mix in Spain at the beginning of the 20th century. The title character is a military officer, who supports his poor family and pays his gambling debts by plotting an elaborate trap to swindle money from those who fall for the charms of his pretty eldest daughter.
Tiempo de Silencio (1986)
Aranda's career began to soar when he made a film adaptation of the famed Luis Martín Santos novel, Tiempo de Silencio (1986) (Time of Silence). The film had a major cast headed by Imanol Arias, Victoria Abril and Francisco Rabal. Set in the 1940s, in the early days of the Franco’s regime, the plot follows the story of an ambitious doctor who is accused of killing a woman while he tried to save her life after a botched abortion. The story moves from the sordid life of shanty dwellings to the hypocrisy of the middle classes in a critic of Franco’s regime. Aranda’s themes of sexuality are used as a register to which political and historical issues can be expressed. Though it was criticized by some for his realistic approach to the narrational complexity of the Martín Santos novel, Time of Silence was generally well received by audiences.
El Lute (1987)
Aranda took a deconstructive approach to the manipulation of popular myth in his two-part biopic: El Lute: camina o revienta (1987) (El Lute, Run for Your Life), and El Lute II, mañana seré libre (1988) (El Lute Tomorrow I’ll be Free). El Lute: camina o revienta (1987) (El Lute, Run for Your Life) concerns the legendary delinquent Eleuterio Sánchez, known as El Lute, a poor man forced by social deprivation into delinquency in the 1960s. After an early nomadic period of his life, El Lute moves to Madrid's slums outskirts, becomes involved in a burglary and murder, is tortured and condemn to life in prison. His spectacular escapes from jail turn him into a popular folk hero and public enemy number one for the Franco police.
Aranda’s hybrid combination of period drama, thriller and social realism reveals how the criminal career and media profile of this petty thief were manipulated and exploited by the authorities as a diversionary tactic at a time of political unrest. El Lute: camina o revienta (1987) (El Lute, Run for Your Life) was one of Aranda’s most successful adaptation and became the highest grossing Spanish film in 1987.
El Lute II, mañana seré libre (1988)
In the second part:El Lute II, mañana seré libre (1988) (El Lute Tomorrow I’ll be Free), El Lute, now a fugitive, is reunited with his siblings. He tries to start a new life, but fails to fit in as a normal member of society. After a spectacular escape from prison, El Lute becomes the focus of an obsessive pursuit by the Francoist authorities and the object of massive popular interest by the press and public in the late 1960s and early 1970s.
Compared to the strongly realistic and political tone of the first installment, El Lute II, mañana seré libre took a more fictionalized, folkloric approach, adopting a more pronounced thriller profile. Although the film includes numerous concessions to violence and eroticism, it delivered a resounding critique of the Franco regime and its brutal treatment of the Spanish gypsy population.
Si te dicen que caí (1989)
The frank examination of sexuality is one of the trademarks of Aranda’s work and he made his most sexually explicit film with Si te dicen que caí (1989) (If They Tell You I Fell), an adaptation of a novel of the same name by Juan Marsé. With a labyrinthine structure in which imaginary facts and real events are blended in a crosswords style, the main part of the story is set in the old quarter of 1940’s Barcelona during the early years of Francoist repression. The plot centers on a young man who, trying to survive in the aftermath of the Spanish Civil War, is hired to perform sexual acts with a prostitute for the voyeuristic pleasure of a rich falangist rendered crippled during the war. With a large cast, including Victoria Abril playing three different characters, the film was daring an ambitious in its scope.
Los Jinetes del Alba (1990)
At the request of Pilar Miró, then director of TVE, Aranda took on Los Jinetes del Alba (1990) (Riders of the Dawn) an adaptation of the novel by Jesús Fernández Santos about the Spanish Civil War and the anarchist movement.
Made as a five parts TV miniseries, it centers on a young woman driven by the ambition to own the resort where she works in a small town in Asturias. When she finally achieves her goal, there is little to rejoice about. Aranda's favorite topics: cruelty, violence and sex pervade a story framed by the tumultuous life of Spain in the 1930s, the uprising in Asturias in 1934 and the Spanish Civil War. This is one Aranda’s most paradigmatic works.
In the 1990s, Vicente Aranda continued to make films that were commercial hits at home and were shown at film festivals worldwide. With Amantes (1991) (Lovers), the director finally achieved wide international exposure and critical acclaim. This tragic story of forbidden passions and betrayed innocence is a film noir, inspired by real events. In the repressive Spain during the early 1950s, a young man just out of military service is torn between his attraction for the two opposite women who love him: his girlfriend, a naïve maid and, his landlady, an attractive, scheming widow.
Originally conceived as a TV project, Amantes, was made with few actors, a small crew and with few exteriors. Nevertheless, it is widely considered as the director's most accomplished work, becoming a classic of Spanish Cinema  It marked the beginning of Aranda most prolific period.
El Amante Bilingüe (1993)
Still investigating into the passion of love, Aranda directed El Amante Bilingüe (1993) (The Bilingual Lover), also an adaptation of a story by Juan Marsé. Set in Barcelona, this is an ironic film that mixes Catalan linguistic policies, nationalism and eroticism with a pattern of double identity. The central character is a humble man who falls in love with a beautiful rich woman, they marry but his unfaithful wife abandons him later. He is horribly disfigured in an explosion and gradually adopts a new identity in an effort to lure back his spoil ex-wife.
Some of Vicente Aranda films present real events, things that happen on the street but that have had the appearance of the exceptional occurrences, where passion, toughness, and violence manage to acquire a tone of unreality that is almost literary. In Intruso (1993) (Intruder), Aranda takes the theme of the relationship between love and death through a passionate love to its ultimate conclusion. This film is a psychological thriller with much of the visual atmosphere and exacerbated passions of Amantes. A middle class woman is torn between her love for her spouse and her ill ex-husband, both of which were her childhood friends. After ten years of separation, they are entangled in a tragic story.
La Pasión Turca (1994)
In almost all of Aranda’s films, a woman is the protagonist and the center around which the story turns. La Pasión Turca (1994) (Turkish Passion) an adaptation of a novel by Antonio Gala, is an exploration of female sexual desire. Here a bored housewife from a well to do family, decides to risk everything by leaving her husband to return to her lover whom she met while on holiday in Turkey. Her pursuit of sexual pleasure leads her to an obsessive dependence, degradation and total collapse of her selfesteem. La Pasión Turca became one of Spain's highest grossing films of the 1990s.
Aranda’s interest in the Spanish Civil War finally found an outlet in: Libertarias (1996) (Libertarians) an epic drama with an ensemble cast that reconstructs the role played by anarchist women during the Spanish Civil War. Set in Barcelona at the start of the war, a young naive nun has to flee her convent and seeks refuge in a brothel, where she is recruited to the anarchist cause, along with the prostitutes. Together, a group of six women (Mujeres Libres or Free Women) face the perils of war until their idealistic dreams of utopia are brutally crushed.
La Mirada del Otro (1998)
La Mirada del Otro (1998) (The Naked Eye), with a script based on a novel by Fernando G Delgado, is an erotic psychodrama; a woman in her 30s embarks on a quest for sexual pleasure which only brings her loneliness. The sordidness of the plot overpowered the credibility of the characters and the film was spurned by public and critics.
A veteran explorer of life at emotional extremes, writer-director Vicente Aranda was back in familiar territory with Celos (1999) (Jealousy), his third entrance in the love triangle trilogy formed with Amantes and Intruso. Once again the director constructed a story around destructive passions that lead to tragedy. A truck driver is tormented by jealousy about the man who was the former boyfriend of the beautiful woman he is about to marry, launching a detective labor to find him and know the truth that he feels his fiance is hiding from him.
"Jealousy is at the center of stories of passion", Aranda explained. "To suffer with relish, there is nothing better than uncertainty. A good story demands that audiences share the same doubts than the main characters in the story: whether there is or is not a betrayal. There is always some else lurking and we also know that crime is among us even if exist albeit only at the bottom of our hearts".
Juana la Loca (2001)
Vicente Aranda, switched to period pieces, initiating a trilogy of historic costume dramas with Juana La Loca (2001) (Mad Love), a reinterpretation of the tragic fate of the 15th-century Spanish queen, Joanna of Castile, who fell madly in love with her unfaithful husband. The film, a commercial and critical hit, was Spain's entry at the 2001 Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film and it became Aranda’s biggest box-office movie.
Desire and betrayal, themes that have been recurrent in Aranda's career, are center to the plot of Carmen (2003), a film based on Prosper Merimée’s 1845 novella about jealousy and passion that inspired the famous Opera of the same name by George Bizet. Set in Andalusia in 1830, a military officer is seduced by a striking gypsy girl who works in a cigarette factory. His love for her only brings his downfall. Carmen is a story of desire, betrayal and death as the filmography of Vicente Aranda. The film was made with high production values and was another success with audiences for the veteran director.
Tirant lo Blanc (2006)
Aranda completed his costume drama trilogy with Tirant lo Blanc (2006) (The Maidens' Conspiracy), an adaptation of the seminal Catalan chivalry novel written in 15th century by Joanot Martorell. The plot follows the adventures of Tirante, a knight from humble origins in the Byzantine Empire who gains the favor of the ailing Emperor fighting the incursion into Constantinople by the Turks, but later seduces the royal family's only surviving child, a young, fanciful, and impressionable princess.
Made with a large budget (This is Aranda's most expensive work) the film, filled with both humor and drama, is lavish, risqué, and skillfully composed, but superficial and unsatisfying. Tirant lo Blanc did not enjoy the success of the director's two previous films.
Canciones de Amor en Lolita's club (2007)
Aranda has developed a specialism in making screen version of novels by Juan Marsé. With La Muchacha de las Bragas de Oro (1980); Si te dicen que caí (1989), El Amante Bilingüe (1993) and Canciones de Amor en Lolita's club (2007) (Lolita’s Club), the director has a track record of four adaptations from Marsé’s contemporary novels.
Canciones de amor en Lolita’s Club (2007) is an erotic thriller, in which sex and brutality are mixed in a story of very different twin brothers, one is a coldhearted violent police officer the other is a helpless romantic suffering from a mental handicap. The two brothers are tragically involved with a prostitute who works in the bordello that gives the film its title. Released in November 2007, the film was widely considered a disappointment and quickly disappeared from the Spanish screens.
Luna Caliente (2009)
Aranda most recent film, Luna Caliente (2009) (Hot Moon), tells the story of a poet, who briefly returning to his home town, gets entangled in a web of sex and violence with the young daughter of his host after he rapes her. The script is based on a novel by Argentine Mempo Giardinelli, which places the action in the last military coup in Argentina. Aranda set the story in Spain of the 1970s during the process of Burgos, which caused some of the last death sentences in Spain during Franco's regime. Luna Caliente premiered in October 2009 at the Valladolid International Film Festival, but like his two previous films was ill promoted and failed to find an audience.
|Year||English title||Original title||Notes||Audience|
|1964||Promising Future||Brillante Porvenir||Co-director with critic and historian Román Gubern||130,012|
|1965||Fata Morgana||Fata Morgana||Original script written with Gonzalo Suárez||40,053|
|1969||The Exquisite Cadaver||Las Crueles||Based on a short story written by Gonzalo Suárez||338,695|
|1972||The Blood Spattered Bride||La Novia Ensangrentada||531,108|
|1974||Clara is the Price||Clara es el precio||Original script written with Jesús Ferrero||1,013,439|
|1976||Sex Change||Cambio de Sexo||840,261|
|1980||The Girl with the Golden Panties||La Muchacha de las Bragas de Oro||An adaptation of the novel by Juan Marsé||795,848|
|1982||Murder in the Central Committee||Asesinato en el Comité Central||Based on the novel by Manuel Vázquez Montalbán||170,618|
|1984||Fanny Pelopaja||Fanny Pelopaja / Á coups de crosse (France)||Based on the novel Protesis by Andreu Martín||182,664|
|1984||Captain Sánchez's Crime||El Crimen del Capitán Sánchez||Made for TV in 16 mm|
|1986||Time of Silence||Tiempo de Silencio||Based on the novel by Luis Martín Santos||433,149|
|1987||El Lute: Run for Your Life||El Lute: camina o revienta||Based on the biography of Eleuterio Sánchez||1,422,188|
|1988||El Lute: Tomorrow I’ll be Free||El Lute II: mañana seré libre||Based on the biography of Eleuterio Sanchez||382,764|
|1989||If They Tell You I Fell||Si te Dicen que Caí||An adaptation of a novel by Juan Marsé||338,369|
|1990||Riders of the Dawn||Los Jinetes del alba||Based on the novel by Jesús Fernández Santos. Made as a five-episode television miniseries, it premiered at the 1990 Cannes Film Festival as a two-part feature film.|
|1991||Lovers||Amantes||Winner of two Goya Awards: Best Picture and Best Director
Screened at the 41st Berlin International Film Festival
|1993||The Bilingual Lover||El Amante Bilingüe||Based on a novel by Juan Marsé||273,218|
|1994||The Turkish Passion||La Pasión Turca||Based on a novel by Antonio Gala
Entered into the 19th Moscow International Film Festival.
|1998||The Naked Eye||La Mirada del Otro||An adaptation of the novel by Fernando G. Delgado
Screened at the 48th Berlin International Film Festival
|2001||Mad Love||Juana la Loca||Based on a play||2,067,004|
|2003||Carmen||Carmen||Based on Prosper Merimée's famous novella||1,362,874|
|2006||The Maidens' Conspiracy||Tirante el Blanco||Based on the novel by Joanot Martorell||296,585|
|2007||Lolita’s Club||Canciones de amor en Lolita’s Club||Based on a novel by Juan Marsé||59,308|
|2009||Hot Moon||Luna Caliente||Based on a novel by Mempo Giardinelli||59,388|
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- Torres, Diccionario del cine Español, p. 80
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- Stone, Spanish Cinema, p. 119
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- Morgan, Contemporary Spanish Cinema, p. 26
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- Torres, Diccionario del cine Español, p. 81
- Perriam, Stars and Masculanities, p. 31
- Cánovas, Miradas sobre el cine de Vicente Aranda, p. 30
- Jordan & Morgan, Contemporary Spanish Cinema, p. 170
- Mira, Historical Dictionary of Spanish Cinema, p. 22
- Cánovas, Miradas sobre el cine de Vicente Aranda, p. 74
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