List of governors of Portuguese India

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The government of Portuguese India started in 1505, six years after the discovery of the sea route to India by Vasco da Gama, with the nomination of the first Viceroy Francisco de Almeida, then settled at Kochi. Until 1752, the name "India" included all Portuguese possessions in the Indian Ocean, from southern Africa to Southeast Asia, governed - either by a Viceroy or Governor - from its headquarters, established in Goa since 1510. In 1752 Portuguese Mozambique got its own government and in 1844 the Portuguese Government of India stopped administering the territory of Portuguese Macau, Solor and Portuguese Timor, being then confined to Malabar.

The following is a list of rulers during the history of Portuguese India as a viceroyalty or governorship.[1]

Official Title Office-Holder Mandate Begin Mandate End Notes
Viceroy
(nom.)
D. Tristão da Cunha 1504 1505 First to be nominated viceroy,
never assumed office
Viceroy D. Francisco de Almeida 12 September 1505 November 1509 First governor and first viceroy of Portuguese India,
appointed by King Manuel I of Portugal (r.1495-1521),
conquered Kilwa,
erected forts in Anjediva, Cochin, Cannanore,
refused to cede office until after Battle of Diu,
died at Table Bay, on return voyage, March 1510
Governor and
Captain-General(*)
Afonso de Albuquerque 4 November 1509 September 1515 Appointment disputed and delayed by predecessor,
conquered Goa, Malacca, Muscat and Hormuz,
died off Goa, December 1515
Governor Lopo Soares de Albergaria 8 September 1515 September 1518 erected forts in Colombo (Ceylon) and Kollam
returned to Portugal
Governor Diogo Lopes de Sequeira 8 September 1518 January 1522 old explorer and former designated captain of Malacca (1509, aborted),
erected forts in Chaul, Maldives and Pacem,
sent embassies to Ethiopia, Pegu and China,
returned to Portugal
Governor D. Duarte de Menezes 22 January 1522 September 1524 former captain of Tangier,
grandson (via Tarouca line) of the famous Duarte de Menezes (Count of Viana),
dismissed and returned to Portugal
Viceroy D. Vasco da Gama 5 September 1524 December 1524 old discoverer of Indies route, now Count of Vidigueira,
second Viceroy,
first appointee of new King John III of Portugal (r.1521-1557),
died at Cochin, December 1524
Governor D. Henrique de Menezes (o Roxo) 17 January 1525 February 1526 succeeded in India by death of predecessor,
died at Cannanore, February 1526
Governor Lopo Vaz de Sampaio February 1526 November 1529 succeeded in India by death of predecessor (third in line),
refused to yield government to designated successor Pedro Mascarenhas, captain of Malacca),
arrested, returned to Portugal as prisoner
Governor Nuno da Cunha 18 November 1529 September 1538 son of Tristão da Cunha,
arrival delayed by shipwreck in Madagascar,
conquered northern province (Bassein, Bombay, Diu, Daman)
died at sea on return to Portugal, March 1539
Viceroy D. Garcia de Noronha 14 September 1538 April 1540 Third Viceroy, nephew of Afonso de Albuquerque,
died in Cochin, April 1540
Governor D. Estêvão da Gama 3 April 1540 May 1542 son of Vasco da Gama,
captain of Portuguese Malacca (f.1538),
succeeded in India by death of predecessor,
returned to Portugal
Governor Martim Afonso de Sousa 8 May 1542 1545 donatary-captain of São Vicente (Brazil, f. 1534),
returned to Portugal
Governor D. João de Castro 10 September 1545 1548 Nephew of D. Garcia de Noronha,
promoted to Viceroy in early 1548
Viceroy D. João de Castro 1548 June 1548 Fourth viceroy.
Died at Goa, June 1548
Governor Garcia de Sá 6 June 1548 June 1549 succeeded in India by death of predecessor,
first governor married in India,
acquired Bardez and Salcette,
died at Goa, June 1549
Governor Jorge Cabral 13 June 1549 November 1550 succeeded in India by death of predecessor,
returned to Portugal
Viceroy D. Afonso de Noronha November 1550 September 1554 Fifth Viceroy (henceforth all Governors appointed in Lisbon will have rank of 'Viceroy'),
former governor of Ceuta, 1540–49,
son of Fernando de Menezes (Marquis of Vila Real),
returned to Portugal
Viceroy D. Pedro Mascarenhas 23 September 1554 June 1555 old discoverer of Indian Ocean islands,
former captain of Malacca (1525–26),
died at Goa, June 1555
Governor Francisco Barreto 16 June 1555 September 1558 succeeded in India by death of predecessor,
returned to Portugal.
Later (1570) returned as governor of East Africa(**),
led expedition to Monomatapa and died in Tete.
Viceroy D. Constantino de Braganza 8 September 1558 September 1561 Son of James (Duke of Braganza),
first appointee of Catherine of Austria, (regent of new King Sebastian of Portugal),
returned to Portugal
Viceroy D. Francisco Coutinho (Count of Redondo) 7 September 1561 19 February 1564 Died at Goa, February 1564
Governor João de Mendonça 19 February 1564 September 1564 former captain of Malacca,
succeeded in India by death of predecessor,
returned to Portugal
Viceroy D. António de Noronha (Antão) 3 September 1564 September 1568 former captain of Ceuta (1549), and Hormuz (c.1560)
nephew of earlier India governor D. Afonso de Noronha,
died at sea on return to Portugal
Viceroy D. Luís de Ataíde 10 September 1568 September 1571 future Count of Atouguia (f.1577),
first appointee of King Sebastian of Portugal in his own right
returned to Portugal
Viceroy(**) D. António de Noronha (o Catarraz) 6 September 1571 December 1573 Not to be confused with earlier namesake,
governor in Goa of a reduced India (**),
co-equal with António Moniz Barreto (in Malacca) and Francisco Barreto (in Sofala),
dismissed and returned to Portugal
Governor António Moniz Barreto 9 December 1573 September 1576 Governor of Malacca, succeeded in India after dismissal of predecessor,
returned to Portugal
Governor D. Diogo de Menezes September 1576 August 1578 Son of Tangier captain João de Menezes ("o Craveiro")
Succeeded in India after appointed viceroy, Rui Lourenço de Távora, died en route (off Mozambique),
returned to Portugal.
Viceroy D. Luís de Ataíde (second time) 31 August 1578 March 1581 Second appointment, now Count of Atouguia,
already in India when news of the king's death at Alcazarquivir arrived,
managed India through the early stages of 1580 succession crisis,
died in Goa, March 1581
Governor Fernão Teles de Menezes March 1581 September 1581 Succeeded in India by death of predecessor (as per prior instructions of the late Cardinal-King Henry),
considered the last governor of the House of Avis,
received news of ascension of Habsburg king Philip II of Spain (now I of Portugal),
administered oaths of loyalty of Portuguese India colonies to new monarchy,
returned to Portugal.
Viceroy Francisco de Mascarenhas 1581 1584 Donatary-captain in the Azores
First appointee of Phlip II of Spain/I of Portugal (r.1581-1598),
returned to Portugal.
Viceroy D. Duarte de Menezes 1584 4 May 1588 Former governor of Tangier (1474–78), Algarve (1580),
grandson of earlier India governor Duarte de Menezes,
Died in Goa, May 1588.
Governor D. Manuel de Sousa Coutinho May 1588 1591 Former governor of Ceylon, current governor of Malacca
Succeeded in India by death of predecessor,
Died in shipwreck while returning to Portugal.
Viceroy Matias de Albuquerque 1591 1597
Viceroy D. Francisco da Gama,
conde da Vidigueira
1597 1600
Viceroy Aires de Saldanha 1600 1605
Viceroy Martim Afonso de Castro 1605 June 1607 [died at Malacca, June 1607]
Governor Fr. Aleixo de Meneses,
Archbp of Goa
June 1607 1609
Governor André Furtado de Mendonça 1609
Viceroy Rui Lourenço de Távora 1609 1612
Viceroy D. Jerónimo de Azevedo 1612 1617
Viceroy D. João Coutinho 1617 1619
Governor Fernão de Albuquerque 1619 1622
Viceroy D. Francisco da Gama (second time) 1622 1628
Viceroy Fr. Luís de Brito e Meneses,
Bishop of Meliapore
1628 July 1629 [died at Cochim, July 1629]
Governing Council 1. Nuno Álvares Botelho
2. D. Lourenço da Cunha
3. Gonçalo Pinto da Fonseca
1629
Viceroy Miguel de Noronha, conde de Linhares 1629 1635
Viceroy Pero da Silva 1635 June 1639 [died at Goa, June 1639]
Governor António Teles de Meneses 1639 1640
Viceroy João da Silva Telo e Meneses, conde de Aveiras 1640 1644 [returned to Portugal]
Viceroy Filipe de Mascarenhas 1644 1651
Viceroy João da Silva Telo e Meneses, conde de Aveiras
(second time)
1651 [died at Mozambique, en route to India]
Governing Council 1. Fr. Francisco dos Mártires (Archbp of Goa)
2. Francisco de Melo e Castro
3. António de Sousa Coutinho
1651 1652
Viceroy Vasco de Mascarenhas, Conde de Óbidos 1652 1655 [expelled in internal coup]
Usurper Brás de Castro (usurper) 1655 [arrested by successor]
Governor Rodrigo Lobo da Silveira, conde de Sarzedas 1655 January 1656 [died at Goa, January 1656]
Governing Council 1. Manuel Mascarenhas Homem
2. Francisco de Melo e Castro
3. António de Sousa Coutinho
January 1656 1661
Governing Council 1. Luís de Mendonça Furtado e Albuquerque
2. Manuel Mascarenhas Homem
3. D. Pedro de Lencastre
1661
Governing Council 1. Luís de Mendonça Furtado e Albuquerque,
2. António de Melo e Castro
3. D. Pedro de Lencastre
1661 1662
Viceroy António de Melo e Castro 16 December 1662 1666
Viceroy João Nunes da Cunha, Conde de São Vicente 1666 November 1668 [died at Goa, November 1668]
Governing Council 1. António de Melo e Castro,
2. Manuel Corte-Real de Sampaio
3. Luís de Miranda Henriques
November 1668 1671
Viceroy Luís de Mendonça Furtado e Albuquerque 1671 1676 [died off Lisbon on return voyage]
Viceroy D. Pedro de Almeida, Conde de Assumar 1676 1678 [died at Goa, 1678]
Interim Governor António Brandão, Archbishop of Goa
(sometime with António Pais de Sande)
1678 1681
Viceroy Francisco de Távora, conde de Alvor 1681 1686
Governor D. Rodrigo da Costa 1686 1690
Governor D. Miguel de Almeida 1690 January 1691 [died at Goa, January 1691]
Governing Council 1. Fernando Martins Mascarenhas Lencastre
2. Fr. Agostinho da Anunciação (Archbp of Goa)
January 1691 1692
Viceroy Pedro António de Meneses Noronha de Albuquerque 1692 1697 [returned to Portugal]
Viceroy António Luís Gonçalves da Câmara Coutinho 1697 1701
Governing Council 1. Fr. Agostinho da Anunciação (Archp of Goa)
2. D. Vasco Lima Coutinho
1701 1702
Viceroy Caetano de Melo e Castro 1702 1707
Viceroy D. Rodrigo da Costa
(second time, as Viceroy now)
1707 1712
Viceroy Vasco Fernandes César de Meneses, Conde de Sabugosa 1712 1717 [returned to Portugal]
Governor Fr. Sebastião de Andrade Pessanha, Archbishop of Goa January 1717 October 1717
Viceroy Luís Carlos Inácio Xavier de Meneses, conde de Ericeira October 1717 1720
Viceroy Francisco José de Sampaio e Castro 1720 July 1723 [died at Goa, July 1723]
Interim Governor Cristóvão de Melo July 1723
Governing Council 1. Cristóvão de Melo
2. Fr. Inácio de Santa Teresa (Archbp of Goa)
3. Cristóvão Luís de Andrade
1723 1725
Viceroy João de Saldanha da Gama 1725 1732 [returned to Portugal]
Governing Council 1. Cristóvão de Melo
2. Fr. Inácio de Santa Teresa (Archbp of Goa)
3. Tomé Gomes Moreira
1732
Viceroy Pedro de Mascarenhas, conde de Sandomil 1732 1740 [returned to Portugal]
Viceroy Luís Carlos Inácio Xavier de Meneses, conde de Ericeira
(second time)
1740 1742 [Died at Goa, 1742]
Governing Council 1. Francisco de Vasconcelos
2. Lourenço de Noronha
3. Luís Caetano de Almeida
1742 1744
Viceroy Pedro Miguel de Almeida Portugal e Vasconcelos,
conde de Assumar, marquis de Alorna
1744 1750
Viceroy Francisco de Assis de Távora,
marquis of Tavora
September 1750 1754 [returned to Portugal,
executed in 1759]
Viceroy Luís Mascarenhas, conde de Alva 1754 June 1756 [Died at Goa, June 1756]
Governing Council 1. António Taveira da Neiva Brum da Silveira
(Archbp of Goa)
2. João de Mesquista Matos Teixeira
3. Filipe de Valadares
1756 1757
Viceroy Manuel de Saldanha e Albuquerque, conde da Ega 1758 1765 [returned to Portugal]
Council 1. António Taveira da Neiva Brum da Silveira
(Archbp of Goa)
2. João Baptista Vaz Pereira
3. D. João José de Melo
1765 1768
Governor João José de Melo 1768 1771 [Promoted to Captain-General, 1771 (***)]
Governor and
Captain-General
João José de Melo 1771 January 1774 [died at Goa, January 1774]
Interim Governor Filipe de Valadares Sotomaior 1774
Governor and Captain-General of India D. José Pedro da Câmara 1774 1779
Governor and Captain-General of India D. Frederico Guilherme de Sousa Holstein 1779 1786
Governor and Captain-General of India Francisco da Cunha e Meneses 1786 1794
Governor and Captain-General of India Francisco António da Veiga Cabral da Câmara,
Viscount Mirandela
1794 1806
Viceroy and Captain-General of India D. Bernardo José Maria da Silveira e Lorena,
Count of Sarzedas
1806 1816
Viceroy and Captain-General of India D. Diogo de Sousa,
Count of Rio Pardo
1816 1821
Provisional Junta of Government of the State of India Manuel José Gomes Loureiro,
Manuel Godinho Mira,
Joaquim Manuel Correia da Silva e Gama,
Gonçalo de Magalhães Teixeira Pinto
Manuel Duarte Leitão
1821
Provisional Junta of Government of the State of India D. Manuel da Câmara,
D. Frei de São Tomás de Aquino,
António José de Melo Sotomaior Teles,
João Carlos Leal
António José de Lima Leitão
1821 1822
Provisional Junta of Government of the State of India D. Manuel da Câmara,
D. Frei de São Tomás de Aquino,
António José de Melo Sotomaior Teles,
João Carlos Leal
Joaquim Mourão Garcez Palha
1822 1823
Viceroy and Captain-General of India D. Manuel da Câmara 1823 1825 (Dissolved Junta and assumed de facto title of Governor of Portuguese India)
Government Council of the State of India D. Frei Manuel de São Galdino,
Cândido José Mourão Garcez Palha e
António Ribeiro de Carvalho
1825 1826
Governor and Captain-General of India D. Manuel Francisco Zacarias de Portugal e Castro 1826 1830
Viceroy and Captain-General of India D. Manuel Francisco Zacarias de Portugal e Castro 1826 1835
Governor Bernardo Peres da Silva 1835
Governor D. Manuel Francisco Zacarias de Portugal e Castro 1835
Governor Joaquim Manuel Correia da Silva e Gama 1835
Government Council of the State of India João Casimiro Pereira da Rocha de Vasconcelos,
Manuel José Ribeiro,
Frei Constantino de Santa Rita,
João Cabral de Estefique,
António Maria de Melo,
Joaquim António de Morais Carneiro,
António Mariano de Azevedo
José António de Lemos
1835 1837 (after 1836 confined to Goa)
Governor Bernardo Peres da Silva 1836 1837 (Governor of Daman and Diu, provisional governor of Goa)
Governor Simão Infante de Lacerda de Sousa Tavares,
barão de Sabroso
1837 1839 (restored unity to Portuguese India)
Governor José António Vieira da Fonseca 1839
Governor Manuel José Mendes,
Baron of Candal
1839 1840
Government Council of the State of India José António Vieira da Fonseca,
José Câncio Freire de Lima,
António João de Ataíde,
Domingos José Mariano Luís,
José da Costa Campos
Caetano de Sousa e Vasconcelos
1840
Interim Governor José Joaquim Lopes Lima 1840 1842
Government Council of the State of India António Ramalho de Sá,
António José de Melo Sotomaior Teles,
António João de Ataíde,
José da Costa Campos
Caetano de Sousa e Vasconcelos
1842
Governor Francisco Xavier da Silva Pereira,
Count of the Antas
1842 1843
Governor Joaquim Mourão Garcez Palha 1843 1844
Governor José Ferreira Pestana 1844 1851
Governor José Joaquim Januário Lapa,
Viscount of Vila Nova de Ourém
1851 1855
Government Council of the State of India D. Frei Joaquim de Santa Rita Botelho,
Arcebispo de Goa e Primaz das Índias
,
Luís da Costa Campos,
Francisco Xavier Peres,
Bernardo Heitor da Silva e Lorena
Vítor Anastácio Mourão Garcez Palha
1855
Governor António César de Vasconcelos Correia,
Count of Torres Novas
1855 1864
Governor José Ferreira Pestana 1864 1870 (2nd term)
Governor Januário Correia de Almeida,
Count of São Januário
1870 1871
Governor Joaquim José Macedo e Couto 1871 1875
Governor João Tavares de Almeida 1875 1877
Government Council of the State of India D. Aires de Ornelas e Vasconcelos,
Archbishop of Goa and Primate of the Indies
,
João Caetano da Silva Campos,
Francisco Xavier Soares da Veiga
Eduardo Augusto de Sá Nogueira Pinto Balsemão
1877
Governor António Sérgio de Sousa 1877 1878
Government Council of the State of India D. Aires de Ornelas e Vasconcelos,
Archbishop of Goa and Primate of the Indies
,
João Caetano da Silva Campos,
Francisco Xavier Soares da Veiga
António Sérgio de Sousa Júnior
1878
Governor Caetano Alexandre de Almeida e Albuquerque 1878 1882
Governor Carlos Eugénio Correia da Silva,
Viscount of Paço d'Arcos
1882 1886
Government Council of the State of India D. António Sebastião Valente,
Arcebispo de Goa e Primaz das Índias
,
José de Sá Coutinho,
José Inácio de Brito
José Maria Teixeira Guimarães
1886
Governor Francisco Joaquim Ferreira do Amaral 1886
Government Council of the State of India D. António Sebastião Valente,
Arcebispo de Goa e Patriarca das Índias Orientais
,
José de Sá Coutinho,
José Inácio de Brito
José Maria Teixeira Guimarães
1886
Governor Augusto César Cardoso de Carvalho 1886 1889
Interim Governor Joaquim Augusto Mouzinho de Albuquerque 1889
Government Council of the State of India D. António Sebastião Valente,
Arcebispo de Goa e Patriarca das Índias Orientais
,
Joaquim Borges de Azevedo Enes,
José Inácio de Brito
Joaquim Augusto Mouzinho de Albuquerque
1889
Governor Vasco Guedes de Carvalho e Meneses 1889 1891
Governor Francisco Maria da Cunha 1891
Interim Governor João Manuel Correia Taborda 1891 1892 (1st term)
Government Council of the State of India D. António Sebastião Valente,
Arcebispo de Goa e Patriarca das Índias Orientais
,
Luís Fisher Berquó Falcão,
Raimundo Maria Correia Mendes
João Manuel Correia Taborda
1892
Governor Francisco Teixeira da Silva 1892–1893
Government Council of the State of India Luís Poças Falcão,
Raimundo Maria Correia Mendes
João Manuel Correia Taborda
1893
Governor Rafael Jácome de Andrade 1893 1894 (1st term)
Interim Governor João Manuel Correia Taborda 1894 (2nd term)
Government Council of the State of India D. António Sebastião Valente,
Arcebispo de Goa e Patriarca das Índias Orientais
,
Francisco António Ochoa,
Luís Carneiro de Sousa e Faro
João Manuel Correia Taborda
1894
Governor Elesbão José de Bettencourt Lapa, Viscount of Vila Nova de Ourém 1894 1895
Governor Rafael Jácome de Andrade 1895 1896 (2nd term)
Viceroy Prince D. Afonso Henriques de Bragança,
Duke of Porto
1896
Interim Governor João António de Brissac das Neves Ferreira 1896 1897
Interim Governor João Manuel Correia Taborda 1897 (3rd term)
Government Council of the State of India D. António Sebastião Valente,
Arcebispo de Goa e Patriarca das Índias Orientais
,
Francisco António Ochoa,
João de Melo Sampaio
João Manuel Correia Taborda
1897
Government Council of the State of India D. António Sebastião Valente,
Arcebispo de Goa e Patriarca das Índias Orientais
,
Abel Augusto Correia do Pinto,
João de Melo Sampaio
João Manuel Correia Taborda
1897
Governor Joaquim José Machado 1897 1900
Governor Eduardo Augusto Rodrigues Galhardo 1900 1905
Government Council of the State of India D. António Sebastião Valente,
Arcebispo de Goa e Patriarca das Índias Orientais
,
Alfredo Mendonça David,
José Emílio Santana da Cunha Castel-Branco
Francisco Maria Peixoto Vieira
1905
Governor Arnaldo de Novais Guedes Rebelo 1905 1907
Government Council of the State of India Bernardo Nunes Garcia,
César Augusto Rancon
Francisco Maria Peixoto Vieira
1907
Governor José Maria de Sousa Horta e Costa 1907 1910
Governor-General Francisco Manuel Couceiro da Costa 1910 1917
Interim Governor-General Francisco Maria Peixoto Vieira 1917 (1st term)
Government Council of the State of India Francisco Peixoto de Oliveira e Silva,
Francisco Wolfgango da Silva
Francisco Maria Peixoto Vieira
1917
Governor-General José de Freitas Ribeiro 1917 1919
Interim Governor-General Augusto de Paiva Bobela da Mota 1919 1920
Governador-General Jaime Alberto de Castro Morais 1920 1925
Interim Governor-General Francisco Maria Peixoto Vieira 1925 (2nd term)
Governor-General Mariano Martins 1925–1926
Interim Governor-General Tito Augusto de Morais 1926
Interim Governor-General Acúrcio Mendes da Rocha Dinis 1926 1927
Governor-General Pedro Francisco Massano de Amorim 1927 1929
Interim Governor-General Acúrcio Mendes da Rocha Dinis 1929
Governor-General Alfredo Pedro de Almeida 1929 1930
Governor-General João Carlos Craveiro Lopes 1930 1936
Interim Governor-General Francisco Craveiro Lopes 1936 1938
Governor-General José Ricardo Pereira Cabral 1938 1945
Interim Governor-General Paulo Bénard Guedes 1945 1946
Governor-General José Silvestre Ferreira Bossa 1946 1947
Interim Governor-General José Alves Ferreira 1947 1948
Governor-General Fernando Quintanilha e Mendonça Dias 1948 1952
Governor-General Paulo Bénard Guedes 1952 1958
Governor-General Manuel António Vassalo e Silva 1958 1961

(*) - In 1508, King Manuel I of Portugal devised a plan to partition the Portuguese empire in Asia into three separate governments or "high captaincies" - (1) Capitão-Mor dos mares da Ethiopia, Arabia e Persia, centered at Socotra, was to cover the East African and Arabian-Persian coasts, from Sofala to Diu; (2) Capitão-Mor dos mares da India, centered at Cochin, was to cover the Indian coast from Diu down to Cape Comorin. Afonso de Albuquerque was Captain-General of the latter. Jorge de Aguiar was made Captain-General of the former. A third high captaincy, covering Asia east of Cape Comorin (yet to be explored) was assigned to Diogo Lopes de Sequeira, who was assigned that year to discover Malacca. The triarchy experiment failed - Aguiar drowned en route, while Sequeira quit the region in 1509, after his debacle at Malacca, leaving Albuquerque sole governor of the whole unpartitioned complex.

(**) - Around 1570, King Sebastian of Portugal tried to partition the Portuguese State of India into three separate governments (much like Manuel's plan of 1508) - a western state based around Sofala (covering the East African coast from Cape Correntes to Cape Guardafui), a central state ruled from Goa (covering the area between the Red Sea and Ceylon, encompassing India, reserved for the "Viceroy") and an eastern state ruled from Malacca (covering Southeast Asia, from Pegu to China). D. António de Noronha was appointed to Goa, António Moniz Barreto to Malacca, and Francisco Barreto (the former India governor) to Sofala.

(***) - Title of Viceroy of Indies extinguished by royal letter in 1771, replaced by Capitão-Geral (Captain-General) of the Indies.

References[edit]

  1. ^ List based on: Danvers, Frederick Charles (1988) The Portuguese in India: being a history of the rise and decline of their eastern empire. Asian Educational Services; p. 487 (Appendix B); and Henry Morse Stephens (1892) Albuquerque, Oxford: Clarendon Press, Vol. 4,p.13

Further reading[edit]

  • Andrada (undated). The Life of Dom John de Castro: The Fourth Vice Roy of India. Jacinto Freire de Andrada. Translated into English by Peter Wyche. (1664). Henry Herrington, New Exchange, London. Facsimile edition (1994) AES Reprint, New Delhi. ISBN 81-206-0900-X.