Vickers Viscount

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Viscount
G-arir.jpg
A Vickers Viscount 700 at Aberdeen Airport, Scotland, June 1980
Role Turboprop airliner
Manufacturer Vickers-Armstrongs
First flight 16 July 1948
Introduction 1950 with British European Airways
Status Retired
Primary users British European Airways
Capital Airlines
Produced 1948–1963
Number built 445
Developed into Vickers Vanguard

The Vickers Viscount was a British medium-range turboprop airliner first flown in 1948 by Vickers-Armstrongs, the first such aircraft to enter service in the world. A product of the Brabazon Committee, it used a new form of propulsion, the turboprop engine, replacing the conventional piston engine.

The Viscount was well received by the public for its cabin conditions, which included pressurisation, reductions in vibration and noise, and panoramic windows. It became one of the most successful and profitable of the first post-war transport aircraft;[1] 445 Viscounts were built for a range of international customers, including in North America.

Development[edit]

Origins[edit]

The Viscount was a response to the Brabazon Committee's Type II design for a post-war small medium-range pressurised aircraft to fly less-travelled routes, carrying 24 passengers up to 1,750 mi (2,816 km) at 200 mph (320 km/h).[2] During discussions between the committee and Vickers' chief designer, Rex Pierson, Vickers advocated turboprop power. The committee was not convinced and split the specification into two types, the Type IIA using piston power, which led to the Airspeed Ambassador, and the turboprop-powered Type IIB which Vickers was selected to develop in April 1945.[3] British European Airways (BEA) was involved in the design and asked that the aircraft carry 32 passengers instead, but remained otherwise similar.

The first design in June 1945 was based on the Viking with four turboprop engines and 24 seats and designated the VC-2 or Type 453.[4] Later a double-bubble fuselage was proposed to give extra underfloor cargo space.[4][5] Neither was pressurised but it was soon realised that economical operation at 20,000 ft (6,100 m) needed pressurisation. The designs were abandoned and a circular cross-section variant offered at the beginning of 1946.[4] The resulting 28-seat VC-2 was financed by the Ministry of Supply with an order for two prototypes. But, before the contract was signed, the government asked for the capacity to be increased to 32. This stretched the fuselage increase from 65 ft 5 in (19.94 m) to 74 ft 6 in (22.71 m) and meant an increased wingspan of 89 ft (27 m).[N 1][4]

The contract for the aircraft to Air Ministry specification C.16/46 was signed on 9 March 1946 and Vickers allocated the designation Type 609 and the name Viceroy.[4] Although George Edwards had always favoured the 800 hp Rolls-Royce Dart[6] other engines were considered, including the Armstrong Siddeley Mamba which the government specified for the two prototypes, the choice of the Mamba engine increased the weight but Vickers made sure the engine nacelle would fit either the Mamba or Dart.[4][7] While the Dart progressed better in development, the government asked in August 1947 for the second prototype to be Dart-powered.[4] The second prototype was designated the 630 and was named as the Viscount.[4] The first prototype already under construction was converted to the Dart as a 630 as well.[4]

The resulting Vickers Type 630 design was completed at Brooklands by chief designer Rex Pierson and his staff in 1945, a 32-seat airliner powered by four Dart engines for a cruising speed of 275 mph (443 km/h). An order for two prototypes was placed in March 1946, and construction started in the company's Foxwarren Experimental Department. Originally Viceroy after the viceroy of India, Lord Louis Mountbatten, the aircraft was renamed Viscount following India's independence in 1947.[8] There was work on replacing the Darts with the Mamba, but this was dropped by the time the prototypes were reaching completion. After Pierson's death in 1948, George Edwards (later Sir George Edwards) took over as chief designer and assumed all technical control over the Viscount project.[9]

Prototypes[edit]

"Never having flown other than piston-engined aircraft I was tremendously impressed with the smoothness of the four Dart turboprop engines. As I sat in the cabin, a coin was balanced on its edge on the table..."

Test Pilot Joseph Summers, commenting on flight characteristics of the Viscount.[10]

The prototype Type 630, registered G-AHRF, made its maiden flight from the grass airfield at Wisley on 16 July 1948, piloted by Joseph "Mutt" Summers, Vickers' chief test pilot.[11] The design was considered too small and slow at 275 mph (443 km/h), making the per passenger operating costs too high for regular service, and BEA had placed an order for 20 piston engined Airspeed Ambassadors in 1947. Retrospectively commenting on Britain's aviation industry, Duncan Burn stated: "Had BEA committed itself to full support of the Viscount... it was quite likely that the smaller version would have gone into production... It was in a sense BEA's lack of enthusiasm for the [Type] 630 which made possible the [Viscount's] success."[12]

Early flight trials, however, showed the qualities of a turboprop, resulting in a February 1949 order from the Ministry of Supply for a prototype of a stretched version with more powerful engines, the Type 700.[13] Meanwhile, the first prototype Type 630 was awarded a restricted Certificate of Airworthiness on 15 September 1949,[14] followed by a full certificate on 27 July 1950, which allowed the aircraft to be placed into service with BEA on 29 July to familiarise the pilots and ground crew with the new aircraft. It flew scheduled flights between London and Paris, and London and Edinburgh for a month.[15] The 29 July flight between Northolt and Paris – Le Bourget Airport with 14 paying passengers was the first scheduled airline flight by any turbine-powered aircraft.[16]

Type 663 Tay Viscount demonstrating at Farnborough in September 1950

The second prototype Viscount, the Type 663 testbed, had two Rolls-Royce Tay turbojet engines and first flew in RAF markings as VX217 at Wisley on 15 March 1950.[17] It was demonstrated at the Farnborough SBAC Show in September and was later used in the development of powered controls for the Valiant bomber.[14] It later saw use as a test bed by Boulton Paul Ltd for the development of electronic flight control systems.[18][19]

The designers then went back to the drawing board and the aircraft emerged as the larger Type 700 with up to 48 passengers (53 in some configurations), and a cruising speed of 308 mph (496 km/h). The new prototype G-AMAV first flew from Brooklands on 28 August 1950, and served as a development aircraft for the type for several years.[20] In late August 1950, BEA placed an order for 20 aircraft; further orders would come in the following year from operators such as Air France, Aer Lingus and Misrair.[21][22] In 1953, the basic cost given for a Viscount was £235,000.[23]

Performance and changes[edit]

One commentator, after travelling on an Air France Viscount, wrote in 1953: "Noise level was less than that of piston engines. It was a definite relief to be rid of the rough vibrations... The turboprop is an excellent shorthaul airplane and a definite crowd pleaser. The substitution of a lower constant pitch noise and smoothness for the vibration, grunts, and groans of the piston engine gives the hesitant passenger a feeling of confidence."[24] The Viscount's cabin windows were ellipses measuring 19 by 26 inches.[N 2][26] The Viscount had lower operational costs than many rival aircraft;[27] Vickers projected a 700 could carry a 13,000-lb payload from Chicago to New York in 2 hours 45 minutes against a 10-mph headwind, burning 6395 lb of fuel.[28]

"In the field of intercity transports employing the propeller turbine, the Vickers Viscount Model 700 appears to be considerably superior to anything else in its class. [It has] exceptionally fine flying qualities and is a most comfortable vehicle in which to travel."

John Watkins, Chief Technical Officer of Trans Australia Airlines.[29]

All production Viscounts were powered by the Rolls-Royce Dart turboprop engine; From its initial 800 hp, and then 1,000 hp and higher, Rolls-Royce extensively developed the Dart engine, due to its popularity and use on the Viscount and several later aircraft.[N 3] One key model was the Dart 506 engine, which had far greater fuel efficiency than earlier models, this enabled the airlines to deploy their Viscounts onto longer routes and to carry a greater maximum weight.[31] Coupled with the availability of increasingly powerful engines Vickers continued to develop and modify the Viscount's design;[N 4] later models could carry increasing numbers of passengers and had fewer load limitations.[34]

The Viscount's good performance and popularity with customers encouraged Vickers to privately finance and develop an enlarged and re-engined variant of the Viscount, later designated as the Vickers Vanguard.[35] The Vanguard drew extensively from the knowledge and design of the Viscount, and likewise maintained its advantage of lower operating costs over pure jet-powered aircraft, but its disadvantage in being slower than jet aircraft became increasingly critical as jets became more available over time.[36]

Operational history[edit]

Regular passenger flights were launched by BEA in April 1953, this was the world's first scheduled turboprop airline service. BEA proceeded to become a large user of the Viscount, as well the rival Handley Page Dart Herald; by mid-1958 BEA's Viscount fleet had carried over 2.75 million passengers over 200,000 flight hours.[37] Following BEA's launch of the type, multiple independent charter operators such as British Eagle were quick to adopt the Viscount into their fleets.[38] During the 1960s, the Viscount had formed the backbone of domestic air travel in Scotland.[39]

Viscount 700 prototype G-AMAV as competitor No. 23 in the NZ Air Race at London Airport, 8 October 1953

The early operational service of the Viscount quickly proved it to have significant performance advances over its rivals, and orders rapidly rose as a result; up to November 1952 only 42 aircraft had been ordered; by the end of 1953, early on in which it had been introduced, the order book had risen to 90, and 160 by the end of the following year.[N 5][35] Vickers was able to quickly respond to the new orders as it had gambled on such orders emerging and early on the decision had been taken to commit to a high production rate at the company's own risk.[40] In 1957, the Vickers production line was producing the Viscount at a rate of one aircraft every three days.[36]

In October 1953, the Viscount 700 prototype G-AMAV achieved the fastest time (40 hours 41 minutes flying time) in the transport section of the 12,367 mi (19,903 km) air race from London to Christchurch, New Zealand. The aircraft averaged 320 mph (520 km/h) in the event, crossing the finishing line nine hours ahead of its closest rival, a Douglas DC-6A of KLM, with the latter winning on handicap. En route, equipped with extra fuel tanks, it flew 3,530 mi (5,680 km) nonstop from the Cocos (Keeling) Islands to Melbourne's Essendon Airport in 10 hours 16 minutes.[20][41][42]

Trans Australia Airlines (TAA) received its first Viscount in 1954, and the aircraft quickly proved profitable, leading to additional orders.[43] The Viscount proved to be an invaluable aircraft for TAA, aviation author John Gunn stating that "TAA had achieved dominance on Australia's trunk routes with its turboprop Viscounts".[44] TAA would procure over a dozen Viscounts, and purchase later turboprop aircraft such as the Fokker F27 Friendship;[N 6] it later transitioned to jet aircraft as passenger demand outgrew the capacity of the Viscounts.[44] In order to compete with its rival TAA, another Australian airline, Ansett-ANA also procured its own small Viscount fleet;[46] the Viscount allowed Ansett to set out a faster and superior service than the larger TAA for the first time.[47]

Trans-Canada Airlines Viscount making a low pass some time in the 1960s

The first North American airline to use turboprop aircraft was Trans-Canada Air Lines (TCA), with a small fleet of Type 700 Viscounts. Initially, TCA was cautious of the Viscount due to the turboprop engine being a new technology, and there had been a preference for acquiring the piston-engined Convair CV-240 instead; praise of the Viscount from pilots and a promise from Vickers to make any design changes desired by TCA persuaded it to procure the Viscount instead.[N 7] On 6 December 1954, the first Viscount was delivered to Canada in a large media event which including an improvised aerial display.[49]

TCA became a prolific operator of the type, having placed multiple follow-up orders for addition Viscounts; by 1958 TCA had an operational fleet of 51 Viscounts.[50] Aviation author Peter Pigott later wrote that: "For TCA and Vickers, the Viscount was a public relations coup. Passengers loved the quiet ride and panoramic windows. No other airline in North America flew turbo-prop airliners then, and no other British aircraft was bought by American airlines in such quantity."[51] TCA would operate the Viscount for two decades until its successor company, Air Canada, ended Viscount services in 1974, the type was replaced by the McDonnell Douglas DC-9.[52]

TCA's procurement of the Viscount generated considerable interest from airlines and industry figures across the United States, including American aviation pioneer Howard Hughes, Hughes purchased 15 Viscounts immediately after personally flying one.[52][53] U.S. Capital Airlines became an important operator of the Type 700 Viscount,[N 8] using it heavily throughout the eastern U.S. routes; it was reported in 1958 that Capital had accumulated over 350,000 flight hours on its Viscounts, more than any other operator.[54] Continental Airlines and Northeast Airlines also became US Viscount operators.[55]

National Airways Viscount at Wellington Airport, 1975

The first airline in Latin America to operate the Viscount was Cubana de Aviación. Cubana's -755D Viscounts, delivered in 1956, were placed on the Havana-Miami and Varadero-Miami routes, and were successful at raising Cubana's market share on these routes.[56] During the 1958 Cuban elections, a Cubana Viscount was hijacked by gunmen aligned with the 26th of July Movement, the aircraft crash-landed on the sea, reportedly killing 17 of the 20 occupants.[57] When the U.S. government imposed its embargo on Cuba in 1962, Cubana decided to sell all of its Viscounts. They were replaced by Soviet-built turboprop aircraft.[citation needed]

South African Airways (SAA) was another major operator of the Viscount, by January 1959 it was operating on all of SAA's domestic routes.[58] In 1961, SAA had seven Viscounts, and acquired a further aircraft from Cuba in the following year.[N 9][59] In 1965, SAA began receiving Boeing 727s, which had been selected the previous year as a jet-powered replacement for the Viscount.[59] SAA sold its last Viscount to British Midland in the 1970s.[60]

Central African Airways (CAA) had been a traditional customer of Vickers, already operating a number of Vickers Vikings when it received its first Viscount on 25 April 1956.[61] The introduction of the Viscount roughly coincided with the opening of a major airport at Salisbury, the Viscount became the mainstay of the route between Johannesburg in South Africa, Salisbury (now renamed Harare) in modern-day Zimbabwe, and London, England.[62] CAA had enough Viscounts to entirely replace its Viking fleet and to occasionally lease them to other operators.[63] More Viscounts were purchased by CAA right up until 1965, at which point CAA announced its intention to procure the British Aircraft Corporation's jet-powered BAC 1-11 successor as the long-term successor to the Viscount.[64]

Viscount 701 of Cambrian Airways at Bristol Airport, 1963

BEA, and its nationalised successor British Airways (BA), vigorously operated the Viscount on Britain's domestic routes.[39] In the 1980s, British Airways began withdrawing its aging Viscount fleet; all BA Viscount operations in Scotland had ended in 1982.[39] Former BA aircraft were often sold on to charter operators such as British Air Ferries. Some airlines chose to replace the Viscount with a newer turboprop aircraft, the Hawker Siddeley HS 748.[65] On 18 April 1996, British World Airlines conducted the last Viscount passenger service in Britain, exactly 46 years after BEA's inaugural flight; on board the flight were Sir George Edwards and Sir Peter Masefield.[55]

In late 1960, the People's Republic of China had begun negotiations with Vickers for as many as 40 Viscounts, however negotiations were protracted due to political tensions.[66] At this point, China sought arrangements to purchase Viscounts second-hand from existing operators, and later achieved successive deals regarding the Viscount with Britain directly.[67][68] The last batch of six aircraft built were for the Civil Aviation Administration of China, which were delivered during 1964; at the end of production a total of 445 Viscounts had been manufactured.[69] Many Viscounts were refurbished and saw new service with African operators, sales of these second-hand aircraft continued into the 1990s.[70][71]

It is believed that the last Viscounts flew commercial flights in 2007/2008.[72][73]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

See List of accidents and incidents involving the Vickers Viscount.

Variants[edit]

British European Airways Vickers Viscount 802 at London Heathrow Airport in 1964. Behind it is a BEA Hawker Siddeley Trident and on the right a BEA Vickers Vanguard
Type 630
First prototype, with short fuselage (74 ft 6 in (22.71 m), accommodating 32 passengers and powered by four 1,380 ehp (1,032 kW) Rolls-Royce Dart R.Da Mk 501 engines.[74]
Type 663
Second prototype, testbed for Rolls-Royce Tay turbojet.[17]
Type 640
Planned third prototype, to be powered by four Napier Naiad turboprops. Not built, with parts incorporated in Type 700 prototype.[69]
Type 700
The first production version, 1,381 hp (1,030 kW) engines, 287 built, the "D" suffix was used for aircraft powered by the 1,576 hp (1,175 kW) Dart 510 engines.
Type 800
Improved variant with fuselage extended by 3 ft 10 in (1.2 m), 67 built
Type 810
Improved longer-range variant with 1,991 hp (1,485 kW) Dart 525 engines, 84 built

Operators[edit]

Aircraft on display[edit]

Tail fin of a Viscount 757 at the Western Canada Aviation Museum in Winnipeg, Manitoba.
Brazilian Air Force Viscount used by Brazilian authorities on display at Brazilian Air Force Museum, in Rio de Janeiro
Interior of Viscount 757 in Winnipeg museum

Specifications (Type 810)[edit]

Data from British Civil Aircraft since 1919[77]

General characteristics

Performance

See also[edit]

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The wings and fuselage of the Viscount were similar to the earlier Viking; however no components were shared.[5]
  2. ^ The windows were elliptical, requiring the least weight of structural reinforcement in a pressurised fuselage.[25]
  3. ^ Other aircraft powered by the Rolls-Royce Dart engine include the Fokker F27 Friendship, Hawker Siddeley HS 748, Grumman Gulfstream I, Handley Page Herald, Armstrong Whitworth Argosy, and NAMC YS-11.[30]
  4. ^ During the 1960s, the occurrence of metal fatigue in the Viscount's wing spar led to Vickers implementing tighter restrictions on the lifespan of the spars.[32] To accurately gauge the progress of fatigue and for added safety, electro-mechanical strain range counters were retrofitted on some aircraft.[33]
  5. ^ Out of the Viscount's total production, 80% of aircraft had been produced for export customers.[27]
  6. ^ The Fokker Friendship was powered by the same Rolls-Royce Dart engine as the Viscount. TAA had initially approached Vickers with a desire for a smaller twin-engined aircraft to accompany the larger Viscount, however Vickers had dismissed the idea of developing such an aircraft.[45]
  7. ^ In meeting the requirements of United States market, Vickers developed an "Americanised" version of the Viscount; this would later act as the basis for most of the export models sold.[37] Many localised avionics systems were often fitted, such as American-sourced radios on Viscounts bound for service with US operators.[48]
  8. ^ Adaptions on Capital Airline's Viscounts include the addition of weather radar and a built-in airstair.[54]
  9. ^ South Africa Airways had intended to procure more than one Viscount from Cuba, arrangements proposed included an exchange for a pair of Lockheed Constellations, this did not come to fruition.[59]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ "No Profit in Building Civil Aircraft in Britain?" New Scientist, 69(988). 19 February 1976. ISSN 0262-4079.
  2. ^ Cacutt 1989, pp. 323–333.
  3. ^ Taylor Air Enthusiast August–November 1984, p. 1.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Turner 1968, pp. 1–5.
  5. ^ a b Flight, 20 November 1947, p. 569.
  6. ^ "Development of ann Aristocrat." Flight, 30 March 1953, pp 357–358.
  7. ^ Flight 20 November 1947, p. 568.
  8. ^ Pigott 2005, p. 125.
  9. ^ Gardner 2006, p. 71.
  10. ^ Pigott 2005, pp. 126–127.
  11. ^ Andrews and Morgan 1988, pp. 424–425.
  12. ^ Burn 1958, pp. 72–73.
  13. ^ Flight, 15 July 1955, p. 86.
  14. ^ a b Jackson 1988, p. 224.
  15. ^ Andrews and Morgan 1988, p. 427.
  16. ^ Turner 1968, p. 9.
  17. ^ a b Andrews and Morgan 1988, pp. 425–426.
  18. ^ "Flight Systems: Electrical Flight Controls". Flight International, 22 March 1962, p. 459.
  19. ^ Flight 11 July 1958, p. 42.
  20. ^ a b Flight 15 July 1955, p. 93.
  21. ^ Burn 1958, p. 72.
  22. ^ Guttery 1998, p. 52.
  23. ^ "Development of an Aristocrat." Flight, 20 March 1953. p. 357.
  24. ^ American Aviation, 7 December 1953, p. 64.
  25. ^ Flight, 20 November 1947, p. 570.
  26. ^ American Aviation, 11 April 1955, p. 66.
  27. ^ a b Sutton 2001, p. 434.
  28. ^ American Aviation, 3 August 1953, p. 43.
  29. ^ Gunn 1999, pp. 72–73.
  30. ^ Fricker, John. "The Growing Potential of the Rolls-Royce Dart." Flying Magazine, 70(3). March 1962. ISSN 0015-4806. pp. 41, 62, 66.
  31. ^ Gunn 1999, pp. 113-114.
  32. ^ Hill 2005, p. 123.
  33. ^ Hicks 2001, p. 61.
  34. ^ Gunn 1999, p. 144.
  35. ^ a b Burn 1958, p. 73.
  36. ^ a b "Vicker's £163 million turnover". New Scientist, 2(27). 23 May 1957. ISSN 0262-4079. p. 50.
  37. ^ a b Flight, 11 July 1958, p. 44.
  38. ^ Manning 2000, pp. 9–10.
  39. ^ a b c Warner 2005, p. 39.
  40. ^ Burn 1958, p. 84.
  41. ^ Flight 16 October 1953, pp. 521–523.
  42. ^ Gunn 1999, pp. 100–101.
  43. ^ Gunn 1999, pp. 134, 145.
  44. ^ a b Gunn 1999, p. 134.
  45. ^ Gunn 1999, pp. 107-108.
  46. ^ Gunn 1999, pp. 145, 217.
  47. ^ Gunn 1999, p. 156.
  48. ^ Hill 2005, p. 41.
  49. ^ Pigott 2005, p. 127.
  50. ^ Flight 11 July 1958, p. 48.
  51. ^ Pigott 2005, pp. 127–128.
  52. ^ a b Pigott 2005, p. 128.
  53. ^ "Hughes Buys 15 Vickers Planes for $12 Million, Plans to Make Caravelles." Wall Street Journal, 24 June 1957.
  54. ^ a b Flight, 11 July 1958, p. 45.
  55. ^ a b "Farewell, Viscount." Flying Magazine, 123(7). July 1996. ISSN 0015-4806, p. 34.
  56. ^ Hill 2005, p. 51.
  57. ^ Márquez-Sterling 2009, pp. 169-173.
  58. ^ Guttery 1998, pp. 187–188.
  59. ^ a b c Guttery 1998, p. 188.
  60. ^ Guttery 1998, p. 190.
  61. ^ Guttery 1998, pp. 225–226.
  62. ^ Guttery 1998, p. 226.
  63. ^ Guttery 1998, pp. 226–229.
  64. ^ Guttery 1998, p. 228.
  65. ^ Warner 2005, p. 48.
  66. ^ Mitcham 2005, pp. 52, 68, 77.
  67. ^ Mitcham 2005, pp. 75–77, 84.
  68. ^ "China Eyeing More Planes of Britain." Spokesman-Review, 30 December 1961.
  69. ^ a b Andrews and Morgan 1988, p. 537.
  70. ^ Pigott 2005, p. 129.
  71. ^ Manning 2000, p. 8.
  72. ^ Vincent, Gary. "Air Canada Vickers 757 Viscount." Airliners.net. Retrieved: 29 July 2014.
  73. ^ "Viscount, any Still Flying? " Airliners.net. Retrieved: 29 July 2014.
  74. ^ Andrews and Morgan 1988, p. 436.
  75. ^ "Vickers V701 Viscount - G-ALWF." Duxford Aviation Society, 2010. Retrieved: 14 September 2010.
  76. ^ "Viscount 35 Association." viscount35association.com. Retrieved: 28 September 2010.
  77. ^ Jackson 1974, p. 228.

Bibliography[edit]

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External links[edit]