Victoria County, Ontario

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County of Victoria
County of Canada

1863–2001
Location of Victoria County
A historic map of Victoria County, published in 1881.
Capital Lindsay, Ontario
Government Democracy
Warden
 -  1863 Patrick McHugh (first)
History
 -  Independence from the United Counties of Peterborough and Victoria 1863
 -  Manvers Township ceded from Durham County 1973
 -  Common Sense Revolution 1 January 2001
Political subdivisions

The County of Victoria, or Victoria County, was a county in the Canadian province of Ontario. It was formed in 1854 as The United Counties of Peterborough and Victoria, and separated from Peterborough in 1863. In 2001, the county was dissolved and reformed as the City of Kawartha Lakes. Though first opened to settlement in 1821, the area that was encompassed by Victoria County has a history of Indian occupation, first by the Hurons.

History[edit]

The history of Victoria County began with the passing of the Constitutional Act in 1791, dividing Canada into two provinces: Upper Canada (present day Ontario) and Lower Canada (present day Québec); and appointing a governor for each.[1] The first governor of Upper Canada was Colonel John Graves Simcoe, who surveyed the province and set out tracts of land for immigrants with genuine interests.[2] Before the land that became Victoria County could be surveyed, however, speculators had Simcoe removed from office in 1796, and the land was secured from settlement for over 20 years.[3]

Following the War of 1812, a large wave of immigration prompted the province to purchase more land from local Indian tribes. On 5 November 1818, six Mississauga chiefs, Buckquaquet of the Eagles, Pishikinse of the Reindeers, Paudash of the Cranes, Cahgahkishinse of the Pike, Cahgageewin of the Snakes, and Pininse of the White Oaks, met in Port Hope. There they surrendered the rights to over four thousand square kilometres of land,[4] known as the Mississauga Tract. In exchange, the Indians (numbering about 400) were to receive $750 per year in goods. However, the government later changed this to $10 per year for each living person born before the deal was signed.

The Mississauga Tract included all of Victoria and Peterborough counties, as well as parts of 28 adjacent townships.[5] Following the purchase, the land became Newcastle District. It was renamed Colborne District in 1841, followed by being reorganized in 1850 as Peterborough County. In 1854, Peterborough County was again reorganized as the United Counties of Peterborough and Victoria, the first time the land was officially named "Victoria County". Over the next decade, Victoria County gradually separated from Peterborough County, gaining a provisional government in 1861, and finally independence in 1863.[6]

In 1973, Manvers Township was transferred from Durham County (Now the Regional Municipality of Durham) to Victoria County as a result of the restructuring of several county governments.[7]

On 1 January 2001, Victoria County was dissolved, and its townships and incorporated communities were amalgamated into a single-tier municipality named Kawartha Lakes, a name chosen because of the prominence of the lakes in the geography of the region.[8]

Geography[edit]

It encompassed 2,855.56 square kilometres (1,102.54 sq mi)[9]

Townships[edit]

Victoria County consisted of 13 separate townships and 6 incorporated villages with their own local governments.[10] Population centres are listed in parentheses:

The township of Laxton, Digby and Longford is an amalgamation of the once individual townships of Digby and Laxton, and half of the original Longford Township. The separate township of Longford is uninhabited, though dotted with abandoned logging towns.

Incorporated communities[edit]

Unincorporated communities and hamlets[edit]

Abandoned towns, post offices and church villages[edit]

Demographics[edit]

+ Census Canada

Township Population
1991 1996 2001
Bexley 1,191[11] 1,306[11] 1,325[12]
Carden 781[13] 887[13] 888[14]
Dalton 423[15] 442[15] 474[16]
Eldon 2,669[17] 2,956[17] 3,087[18]
Emily 6,307[19] 6,724[19] 6,944[20]
Fenelon 5,710[21] 5,931[21] 6,240[22]
Laxton, Digby and Longford 1,086[23] 1,114[23] 1,052[24]
Manvers 5,166[25] 5,624[25] 5,830[26]
Mariposa 6,906[27] 7,456[27] 7,869[28]
Ops 4,027[29] 4,311[29] 4,955[30]
Somerville 2,045[31] 2,238[31] 2,241[32]
Verulam 3,982[33] 4,373[33] 4,313[34]
Incorporated areas
Bobcaygeon 2,562[35] 2,753[35] 2,854[36]
Fenelon Falls 1,888[37] 2,040[37] 1,874[38]
Lindsay, Ontario 16,696[39] 17,638[39] 16,930[40]
Lindsay census agglomeration (Ops including Lindsay) 20,723[41] 21,949[41] 21,885[30][40]
Omemee 1,103[42] 1,271[42] 1,319[43]
Sturgeon Point 110[44] 111[44] 107[45]
Woodville 680[46] 751[46] 871[47]
Total
Kawartha Lakes 63,332[48] 67,926[48] 69,179[49]
Ontario 10,084,885[50] 10,753,573[50] 11,410,046[51]

The population is mostly rural, with only 34% living in urban areas.[52]

Infrastructure[edit]

Colonization roads[edit]

Victoria County was first opened up to settlement in the 1821.[53] At this time, the primary routes for entering the county-to-be were narrow trails. Settlers were offered land on the condition that they help further the progress of concession roads into the region. This was often met with the bare minimum, and progress was slow.

The Land Act of 1853 provided funding for the development of roads throughout the wilderness of Upper Canada. Grants were administered by the Department of Agriculture to survey and build the new roads. The roads followed the tradition of old Roman roads, and cut through the wilderness in a straight line, veering only when the terrain was impassable, but cutting through swamps and hills otherwise. Four primary roads were built: the Cameron Road, the Bobcaygeon Road, the Monck Road, and the Portage Road.

http://www.ontariogenealogy.com/Victoria/settleme.html http://www.ontariogenealogy.com/Victoria/history/victoriacountypioneers2.html

The Cameron road, now mostly encompassed by Highway 35, provided access from Lake Ontario to the northern limits of Victoria;

The Bobcaygeon Road, begun in 1853, traversed north and south along the present-day eastern boundary of the region, and is mostly encompassed by former Highway 121;

The Monck Road, which connected Lake Couchiching to Bancroft, encompassed partially by former Highway 503, now City Road 45;

The Portage Road, connecting Lake Simcoe to Balsam Lake, encompassed entirely by former Highway 48, now City Road 48

Railways[edit]

Waterways[edit]

Economy[edit]

Culture, recreation and media[edit]

Government and politics[edit]

Education[edit]

At one time the Victoria County Board of Education provided educational services. In 1999 it was amalgamated into the Trillium Lakelands District School Board.[54]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Constitutional Act of 1791". Retrieved 16 September 2009 
  2. ^ "Ontario Heritage Trust – John Graves Simcoe". Government of Ontario. Retrieved 16 September 2009 
  3. ^ Kirkconnell, Watson (1967). "County of Victoria, Centennial History". Victoria County Council. p. 1. Retrieved 30 July 2009 
  4. ^ Government of Canada (1891). "Indian Treaties and Surrenders" 1. King's Printer. p. 49 
  5. ^ Canadian Genealogy. "Stone age annals of Victoria County – The surrender of the soil". Retrieved 17 September 2009 
  6. ^ Kirkconnell, Watson (1967). "County of Victoria, Centennial History". Victoria County Council. p. 2. Retrieved 30 July 2009 
  7. ^ "Ontario Government Archives". Retrieved 17 September 2009. 
  8. ^ "Municipal Government for Victoria County – A New Beginning (Final Report)". 19 April 2000. Retrieved 16 September 2009 
  9. ^ "Canadian Genealogy – Victoria County Geography, Topography, and Geology". Retrieved 25 September 2009 
  10. ^ "Algonquin Park and Kawarthas map". MapArt Corporation. 1998 
  11. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Bexley Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  12. ^ "2001 Canadian Census: Bexley Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  13. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Carden Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  14. ^ "2001 Canadian Census: Carden Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  15. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Dalton Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  16. ^ "2001 Canadian Census: Dalton Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  17. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Eldon Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  18. ^ "2001 Canadian Census: Eldon Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  19. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Emily Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  20. ^ "2001 Canadian Census: Emily Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  21. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Fenelon Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  22. ^ "2001 Canadian Census: Fenelon Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  23. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Laxton, Digby and Longford Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  24. ^ "2001 Canadian Census: Laxton, Digby and Longford Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  25. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Manvers Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  26. ^ "2001 Canadian Census: Manvers Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  27. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Mariposa Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  28. ^ "2001 Canadian Census: Mariposa Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  29. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Ops Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  30. ^ a b "2001 Canadian Census: Ops Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  31. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Somerville Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  32. ^ "2001 Canadian Census: Somerville Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  33. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Verulam Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  34. ^ "2001 Canadian Census: Verulam Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  35. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Village of Bobcaygeon, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  36. ^ "2001 Canadian Census: Village of Bobcaygeon, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  37. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Village of Fenelon Falls, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  38. ^ "2001 Canadian Census: Village of Fenelon Falls, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  39. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Town of Lindsay, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  40. ^ a b "2001 Canadian Census: Town of Lindsay, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  41. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Town of Lindsay, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  42. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Village of Omemee, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  43. ^ "2001 Canadian Census: Village of Omemee, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  44. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Village of Sturgeon Point, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  45. ^ "2001 Canadian Census: Village of Sturgeon Point, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  46. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Village of Woodville, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  47. ^ "2001 Canadian Census: Village of Woodville, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  48. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Victoria County, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  49. ^ "2001 Canadian Census: City of Kawartha Lakes, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  50. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  51. ^ "2001 Canadian Census: Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  52. ^ "2001 Canadian Census: Population counts for Kawartha Lakes, Ontario". Retrieved 25 September 2009 
  53. ^ Kirkconnell, Watson (1921). "Victoria County, The Making of a County". Retrieved 25 September 2009 
  54. ^ "New superintendent for school board," Lindsay Daily Post, 29 August 2003, A10.