Port of Hull

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Port of Hull
P and O Terminal - geograph.org.uk - 555110.jpg
The P&O Ferries terminal at the Port of Hull
Location
Country England
Location Kingston upon Hull
Coordinates 53°44′17″N 0°19′55″W / 53.738°N 0.332°W / 53.738; -0.332 (Port of Hull)Coordinates: 53°44′17″N 0°19′55″W / 53.738°N 0.332°W / 53.738; -0.332 (Port of Hull)
Details
Operated by Associated British Ports

The Port of Hull is a trading port located at the confluence of the River Hull and the Humber Estuary in the city of Kingston upon Hull in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. Seaborne trade can be traced to at least the 13th century.[1] As of 2010 the main port is operated by Associated British Ports and is estimated to handle one million passengers per year and is the main softwood timber importation port for the UK.[2] The Port of Hull is a constituent port of the Hull and Humber Ports City Region.

History[edit]

Background[edit]

17th century map by Wenceslaus Hollar showing position of various staithes in the Haven, and the fortifications of the City Wall

Hull lies on a naturally advantageous position for portage, since its position on the north side of the Humber Estuary before a bend southwards gives rise to (on average) deeper water; in addition the River Hull flows out into the Humber at the same point.[3][map 1]

An important event in the history of Hull as a port was the acquisition by the crown (Edward I), followed, in 1297, by it becoming the only port from which goods could be exported overseas from the county of Yorkshire.[4] Thus in the 13th and 14th centuries Hull was a major English port for the export of wool,[note 1] much of it to Flanders, with wine being a major import.[5][note 2] During this period the River Hull was made navigable as far as the then important town of Beverley (1269), and roads built connecting Hull to Beverley, Holderness and to the via regia between Hessle and Beverley near to Anlaby (about 1302).[4]

By the 15th century trade with the Hanseatic league had become important, also in the same period the growth of the English cloth industry meant that the export of cloth from Hull increased whilst wool exports decreased.[6] The 16th century brought a considerable reduction in the amount of cloth traded through the port, but the export of lead increased.[7] By the late 17th century Hull was the third port in the realm after London and Bristol, with export of lead and cloth, and imports of flax and hemp as well as iron and tar from the Baltic.[8]

Up till 1773 trade was conducted by the "Old Harbour" (also known as The Haven) which was in effect a series of wharves on the west bank of the River Hull,[note 3] with warehouses and the merchants houses backing on to the wharf along the High Street.[note 4]

Hull Dock Company[edit]

The second Hull Dock Company offices (built 1820), close to the entrance to the former Queen's Dock
The third Hull Dock Company offices (built 1871), at the former junction between Queen's and Prince's Dock

By the 18th century it was becoming increasingly clear that the Haven was unfit for the increasing amount of trade; not only was it narrow, but tidal and prone to build up of mud from the estuary.[10][11] An additional stimulus was the demand for a 'legal quay' on which customs officials could easily examine and weigh goods for export without causing excessive delay to shipment.[12]

In 1773 the Hull Corporation, Hull Trinity House and Hull merchants formed the "Dock Company",[11] which was the first statutory dock company in Britain.[13] The Crown gave the land which contained Hull's city walls for a docks construction,[14] and an act of Parliament was passed in 1774 allowing the Dock Company to raise up to £100,000 by shares and loans; thus; Hull's first dock (the Old Dock): a wet dock began construction.[10][11] Three docks (known as the Town Docks) which followed the path of the town walls were constructed by the company between 1778 and 1829: The Old Dock (later Queen's Dock) (1778), Humber Dock (1809), and Junction Dock (later Prince's Dock) (1829).[15][16][17] An extension of the Town Docks: Railway Dock was built in 1846 just north of the terminus of the then recently opened Hull and Selby Railway.[15] The first dock in Hull east of the River Hull (Victoria Dock) was constructed between 1845 and 1850; this became the main dock for timber trade, and was expanded in the next two decades including the construction of large timber ponds.[18]

In 1860 a rival company the West Dock Company was formed with the purpose of promoting and building new docks suitable for the increasing amounts of trade and the increasing size of steam ships; the scheme was supported by the Hull Corporation, the Trinity House, the North Eastern Railway (NER) and various individuals in Hull. The site for the proposed dock was on the Humber foreshore to the west of the River Hull. The Dock Company then proposed a larger dock at the same position, which was sanctioned by an Act of Parliament in 1861[note 5][20] This dock was known as "the Western Dock" until its opening in 1869 when it was named "Albert Dock", an extension "William Wright Dock" was opened 1880.[19] A third dock ("St. Andrew's Dock") on the Humber foreshore west of the River Hull was built in 1883.[21] All three docks where ideally suited for trans-shipment by rail as they were directly south of and parallel with the Selby to Hull railway line that terminated in the centre of Hull.

In 1885 Alexandra Dock opened, which was owned and operated by the Hull Barnsley & West Riding Junction Railway and Dock Company. This ended the monopoly the Dock Company had on dock facilities in Hull and led to price cutting competition between the two companies for dock charges; the Dock Company was operating at a loss and in 1886 began to seek to merge the company into a larger organisation – the obvious choice being the North Eastern Railway.[22] In 1891 the North Eastern Railway acquired the shares and debts of the Dock Company in exchange for its shares. A new dock was then planned to be built east of Alexandra Dock, this was to become the King George Dock, completed in 1914 as a joint enterprise between the NER and Hull and Barnsley Railway. Actual legal amalgamation of the Dock Company and NER took place in 1893, one of the clauses of the Act of Parliament allowing the merger was that about £500,000 would be spent on dock improvements over the next seven years.[23]

Dock ownership (1922–)[edit]

The Hull and Barnsley Railway became part of the North Eastern Railway in 1922,[24] making the docks in Hull the responsibility of a sole company once again. The Grouping Act of 1923 merged the NER into the London and North Eastern Railway,[24] which was nationalised in 1948 into the British Transport Commission. In 1962 the British Transport Docks Board was formed as a result of the Transport Act of 1962, in 1981 the company was de-nationalised by the Transport Act 1981 and Associated British Ports was formed.

Docks[edit]

The Old Dock[edit]

Queen's dock, Hull in 1922

The first dock in Hull, was built between 1775 and 1778 to a design by Henry Berry and John Grundy; Luke Holt acted as resident engineer, appointed on John Smeaton's recommendation.[25] The dock was called The Dock until the construction of further docks,[26] whence it was called The Old Dock,[27] it was officially named the Queen's Dock in 1855.[note 6]

The dock entrance was on the River Hull just south of North Bridge,[map 2] and the dock itself built west-south-west along the path of the North Wall as far as the Beverley Gate.[note 7] Some of the work proved inadequate, requiring reconstruction later.[10] The dock walls were of local brick, whilst cement for its construction was rendered waterproof through the use of pozzolana imported from Italy. At the entrance to the dock a double drawbridge, counterbalanced for ease of use, of the Dutch, type allowed people to cross the lock.[10]

The dock was 1,703 ft (519 m) long, 254 ft (77 m) wide, and the lock 121 ft (37 m) long and 38 ft (12 m) wide, with the depth of water being between 15 and 20 ft (4.6 and 6.1 m) depending on the tide.[30][map 3]

The dock closed in 1930 and was sold to the Corporation for £100,000, subsequently it was infilled and converted to an ornamental gardens known as Queen's Gardens.[31][32]

Humber Dock[edit]

Humber Dock in 1952

Since the entrance to the Old Dock was via the River Hull there were still problems with ships accessing the dock through the crowded river; in 1781 a canal was proposed to connect the Old Dock to the Humber, additionally sea-borne trade was still in general increasing. There was some delay in making a solution, partly due to lethargy of the Dock Company, but, by 1802 a bill had been passed in Parliament for the construction of a second dock; again following the path of the City walls, this time from Hessle gate roughly northwards.[33]

John Rennie and William Chapman were employed as engineers,[34][35] John Harrap was the on site engineer.[36][37] Construction started in 1803 and was completed in 1809 at a cost of £220,000;[38] mud from the excavations was used to make new ground on the banks of the Humber.[note 8]

The dock entrance was from the Humber via an outer basin with piers.[map 4] The dock itself was 914 ft (279 m) long and 342 ft (104 m) wide, the lock was 158 ft (48 m) long and 42 ft (13 m) wide. The depth of water varied from 21 to 26 ft (6.4 to 7.9 m) seasonally depending on the tides.[38][map 5]

Humber Dock closed in 1968, it re-opened in 1983 as the Hull Marina.[37]

Junction Dock[edit]

The Princes Quay shopping centre on the Junction Dock

One stipulation of the Act of 1802 for the construction of Humber Dock was that, when the average tonnage of goods unloaded at the docks reached a certain level, the Dock Company would build a third dock between the Old and Humber docks. This continuation was satisfied in 1825, the Act of Parliament required had already been passed in 1824, and construction of the third dock began in 1826.[41]

This dock, Junction Dock was constructed between, and connected the Old and Humber docks; making the old town of Hull an island bounded by the three docks,[27] river and estuary; it was designed by James Walker with John Timperley as resident engineer[42] and built roughly along the lines of the old fortifications between Beverley and Myton gates.[43] The construction cost £186,000.[44]

The dock opened in 1829 and was 645 ft (197 m) long and 407 ft (124 m) wide, with a lock at each end 36 ft (11 m) wide with a bridge over each.[45] In 1855 it was renamed Prince's Dock.[note 6][map 6]

The dock closed in 1968,[46] part of the dock still exists, but without a lock connection to Humber Dock; the Princes Quay shopping centre opened in 1991[46] was built over part of the dock on stilts, the dock now features a fountain.[47]

Railway Dock[edit]

Permission to construct two new docks was granted in 1844, one being the "Railway Dock", the other "Victoria Dock". The Railway Dock was connected on the west side of Junction Dock to the north of Kingston Street, and was smaller than the other town docks.[48] The dock of 13,130 sq ft (1,220 m2) cost something over £100,000[48] and was designed by J.B Hartley and opened in 1846.[49][map 7]

Its primary purpose was for the transfer of goods to and from the newly built Hull and Selby Railway[15] which had its passenger terminus just west of Humber Dock facing onto Railway Street, and its goods sheds north of this. Railway lines also ran from the goods shed to the Humber Dock.[50]

Like Humber Dock the dock closed in 1968 and in 1984 became part of the Hull Marina.[49]

Victoria Dock[edit]

Map showing the unextended Victoria Dock and the Town Docks

Permission to build the first dock on the east side of the River Hull was granted in 1844; construction of this new dock began in 1845 and was completed in 1850 at a cost of £300,000.[51] In its initial form the dock had an area of about 12.83 acres (5.19 ha). There were two entrances: one on the River Hull south of the entrance to the Old Dock and of Drypool Bridge had an outer lock which opened directly to a second locked area known as Drypool Basin;[map 8][note 9] the second entrance was on the Humber; from an outer basin it led via two parallel locks to the Half Tide Basin,[note 10][map 9] and then to the dock itself.[map 10] The engineer was J.B. Hartley.[51]

One major use of the dock was for the trade in timber, there were also facilities for cattle import including abattoirs and cold stores, coal was also exported through the dock.[54] In 1863 Victoria Dock was expanded east by 8 acres (3.2 ha), and another timber pond of 12 acres (4.9 ha) added east of the Humber entrance to the dock.[51]

The western boundary of the dock was defined by the Hull Citadel, which was sold to the Dock company and demolished in 1864, the site was then used for timber storage,[18] Part of the former Citadel land was used by Martin Samuelson and Company (later Humber Iron Works) for shipbuilding,[55] later by Cook, Welton & Gemmell (from 1883 to 1902).[56][57] C. & W. Earle also had shipbuilding facilities (established 1851) on the banks of the Humber adjacent to and south of Victoria Dock.[58]

The Dock closed in the 1970s and was infilled; the land being used for the construction of a housing estate in the late 1980s.[59] Of the dock the entrance basin on the Humber part remains though permanently sealed,[18] as does part of the entrance to the dock on the River Hull.

Albert Dock and William Wright Dock[edit]

The modern Albert Dock
Riverside Quay in 1922

The Hull Dock Act of 1861 sanctioned the building of a new dock on the Humber foreshore – its entrance was at the eastern end close to the entrance of Humber Dock. Construction began in 1863, the engineer was John Hawkshaw and the site engineer J.C. Hawkshaw. The dock followed the bank of the estuary east to west being 1,034-yard (945 m) long, with an area of 17 acres (6.9 ha).[20] It opened in 1869 and was named Albert Dock.[19][note 11][map 11]

In 1865 the Dock Company got permission to build a westwards extension to the dock[19] – construction began in 1873[61] and the dock opened in 1880 and was named William Wright Dock after the name of the Chairman of the Dock Company.[19] The dock was 6.75 acres (2.73 ha) in size.[62][map 12]

In 1907 the NER constructed a 2,500-foot (760 m) quay (Riverside Quay) on the Humber bank on the south side of Albert Dock.[63] The quay was designed for foodstuffs and other goods requiring rapid handling,[64] and incorporated a passenger station for continental boat trains.[64][65] During the Second World War the quay was destroyed by enemy bombing,[63] During the 1950s a new 1,065-foot (325 m) long concrete quay was constructed and officially opened in 1959.[63] The south side of Albert Dock modernised to a similar design as the new Riverside Quay in 1964.[63][66][map 13]

Both docks were closed to commercial vessels in 1972, and converted for use as fish docks, the Hull fish fleet moved to the docks in 1975.[60] As of 2010 both docks remain in use for general cargo traffic,[67] as well as being the landing point for the much reduced Hull fishing industry.[68]

St. Andrew's Dock[edit]

The silted dock in 2005

The most westward of the Hull docks was opened in 1883, directly to the west of William Wright Dock, and with an area of over 10.5 acres (4.2 ha).[21] It was originally to be used for coal handling but was used entirely for the fishing industry.[69]

The dock was extended by about 10 acres (4 ha) in 1897 after the Hull Dock Company was taken over by the North Eastern Railway.[21]

The dock was in use until 1975 when the fishing industry was moved to Albert Dock at which point the dock closed.[70] Partial filling in of the dock began in the 1980s. The western part has been redeveloped into the St Andrews Quay retail park[71][72] whilst the eastern part of the dock around the entrance was declared a conservation area in 1990 due to its social historic interest.[69] The dock entrance, and some shipping company buildings remain in situ, but the remains of the dock are completely silted up.[69][map 14]

In 2013, the charity 'St Andrew's Dock Heritage Park Action Group' (STAND) selected a design for a memorial to the 6,000 Hull trawlermen who lost their lives in the fishing industry, to be sited next to the Humber at the dock.[73][74][75][76]

Alexandra Dock[edit]

Map of 1914 showing the Alexandra Dock, extended Victoria Dock, Town and West docks, and the rail systems of the H&BR and the NER
Alexandra Dock, Hull in 1922

The Alexandra Dock was built between 1881 and 1885 on land reclaimed from the Humber as part of the construction of the Hull and Barnsley Railway;[77] a railway and dock company proposed for the purpose of increasing the rail transportation and dock facilities in Hull. The dock was built to the east of Victoria Dock with an outlet to the Humber. Water to fill the dock came from drains to the north of the dock, which was intended to minimise the silting up of the dock that would be caused by ingress of water from the Humber; it had an area of 46.5 acres (18.8 ha).[78]

The entrance lock was 550 ft (170 m) long and 85 ft (26 m) wide. Two graving docks, one 500 ft (150 m) long and 60 ft (18 m) wide, the other a little bigger were built at the north-east corner of the dock. Its primary purpose was the export of coal.[78][map 15]

In 1899/1900 the dock was expanded by 7 acres (2.8 ha).[78][79] A pier onto the Humber Estuary was added in 1911,[80] the pier was 1,350 ft (410 m) with a 18 ft (5.5 m) minimum depth of water at spring tides, and was equipped with electric conveyors for the transportation of coal.[65][map 16] The area of the wharf, west of the dock entrance was proposed for a riverside container terminal in the 2000s, the project Quay 2005 gained approved in December 2005.[81]

Alexandra Dock closed in 1982[82] at which time the connection to the rail network was removed,[83] in 1991 the dock re-opened[82] but without a rail connection.[84] As of 2010 the dock handles cargoes including aggregates, bulk agricultural products, bulk chemicals and wood. The dock also has a Ro-Ro terminal.[68]

In January 2011 Siemens and Associated British Ports signed a memorandum of understanding concerning the construction of wind energy machine manufacturing plant at Alexander Dock. The plan would require some modification of the dock to allow the ships, used for transporting the wind turbines, to dock and be loaded,[85][86][87] and would make use of the proposed Quay 2005 riverside facilities, which had already gained planning consent.[88][89] The development – known as Green Port Hull, would infill the dock west of the lock gates with about 28,000,000 cu ft (780,000 m3) of material creating additional land for operations, and 19 acres (7.5 ha) of land would be created on the banks of the Humber for shipping;[note 12] and businesses already located in the western part of the dock would be relocated, primarily to other sites within the Port of Hull.[91] In March 2014 Siemens and ABP finallised the 2011 MOU, and announced an additional facility near Paull, East Riding of Yorkshire, east of King George Dock, Hull which would manufacture rotor blades for turbines. ABP is to invest £150million in the port facilities, and Siemens £160m across the two sites. The facility is expected to become operational between 2016 and 2017.[92]

King George Dock and Queen Elizabeth Dock[edit]

Aerial view of King George and Queen Elizabeth docks

Built as a joint development between the Hull and Barnsley Railway and the North Eastern Railway, and contracted to S. Pearson in 1906,[93] the design was undertaken by Sir Benjamin Baker and Sir John Wolfe-Barry.[94][95] King George Dock (also known as the Joint Dock) was opened in 1914 by King George V.[93][95]

The dock's entrance lock was 750 ft (230 m) long and 85 ft (26 m) wide, the unexpanded water area was 53 acres (21 ha).[map 17] Two graving docks were also constructed in the north-east corner of the dock.[65] Initially primarily used for coal a grain silo was added in 1919,[95] initially used for imports and later for export of grain, the silo was demolished in 2010/11.[96][97]

In 1965 the creation of berths for use by roll-on roll-off ferries began the increasing use of Ro-Ro ferries at the dock for unit freight transport.[95] In 1968 work on a 28 acres (11 ha) extension to King George Dock built on reclaimed land to the south-east of the dock was begun, the extension was officially opened in August 1969 by Queen Elizabeth II and named Queen Elizabeth Dock.[63][map 18] At Elizabeth Dock a container terminal was opened in 1971, and two Ro-Ro terminals were opened in 1973, by 1975 there were six Ro-Ro terminals in the two docks.[63][98]

In 1990 PD Ports (orgininally Humberside Sea and Land Services) began operating the Hull Container Terminal. By the mid 2000s throughput was over 100,000 TEU per annum, with Samskip as the primary customer.[99]

In 1993 River Terminal 1 (now known as "Rotterdam terminal") a terminal for large Ro-Ro vessels was opened on the banks of the Humber Estuary south of the King George Dock, constructed at a cost of £12 million.[100][map 19] A covered shed for paper products (Finland terminal) was opened in 2000, by 2006 expanded to 70,000 sq ft (6,500 m2).[101] As of 2010 other facilities at the two docks included a 850,000 cu ft (24,000 m3) cold store, an enclosed terminal for ship to shore handling of metals, general cargo and bulk grain, and passenger services to Rotterdam and Zeebrugge; the company AarhusKarlshamn operates a large vegetable based oil products processing plant at the dock, and the Kingston Terminal located at the south-east of Queen Elizabeth Dock is used for import of coal products. In 2010 there were ten Ro-Ro berths in total within the two docks.[68]

In 2013, a 1 million tonne per year capacity sea to rail biomass facility, with a 161 ft (49 m) silo was constructed to supply Drax power station.[102][103]

Other facilities[edit]

Dry docks[edit]

In addition to the dry docks in King George, Alexandra, and William Wright docks there were dry docks on the sides of the River Hull.[104] Hull Central Dry Dock (also known as "South End Dock") on the west bank of the River Hull near to its outfall onto the Humber Estuary[map 20] was the largest, being 345 ft (105 m) long with an entrance of 51 ft (16 m),[104] the dock having been extended several times.[105] Built in 1843 and later extended the dock has been disused since 1992 and is now a Grade II listed structure.[105][106][107] In September 2013 the City Council approved plans by Watergate Developments Ltd to turn the dock into an open-air entertainment venue.[108]

On the east bank of the River Hull were Crown Dry Dock,[map 21] 104 by 21 ft (31.7 by 6.4 m)[104] half way between the river outfall and entrance to Victoria Dock's Drypool Basin. Further upstream was Union Dock, 214 by 48.5 ft (65.2 by 14.8 m),[104] opposite the entrance to Queen's Dock,[map 22] dating to the first half of the 1800s.[109] and a third dock further upstream.[map 23]

On the west bank of the River Hull there were ship repair facilities just within the city walls at North Gate on the river dating back as far as the 15th century, with slipways by the 18th century; the entrance to Queen's Dock was later built in this area, and two dry docks remain North Bridge Dry Dock and No.1 Dry Dock to the north and south of Queen's Dock basin respectively. North Bridge Dry Dock[map 24] and No.1 Dry Dock[map 25] were smaller dry docks of around 150 ft (46 m) long and with entrances less than 40 ft (12 m).[104] Both were extended in the latter part of the 19th century.[110][111] The northernmost of the two docks is a Grade II listed structure.[112] Additionally the former Queen's Dock basin was converted to an enclosed dock after the main dock was infilled.[113][114][map 2]

Quays, wharfs and piers[edit]

Victoria Pier, Minerva Pier behind, Albert Dock entrance lock and Riverside Quay in distance

In addition to the Riverside Quay at Albert Dock, the former pier at Alexandra Dock, and the Ro-Ro river terminal at King George Dock there are other water side berths at the port, both on the Humber and on the River Hull.

Corporation Pier, first constructed in 1810 was parallel to the mainland but not directly connected to it,[115] it was converted to a "T" shaped pier in 1847.[115] It was used as the terminus of the Hull to New Holland ferry, initially run by the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway (MS&LR), later by the LNER and British Rail, until the service ended in 1981 due to the opening of the Humber Bridge.[116] It was renamed Victoria Pier in 1854.[39][note 13][map 26] A railway booking office latterly named Hull Victoria Pier was established here c. 1849 by the MS&LR, and closed on 25 June 1981 with the cessation of the ferry service.[117] The pier has been altered several times during its existence, a floating pontoon was added in 1877, removed in 1980;[115] an upper Promenade was added in 1882,[118] and removed in the mid 20th century; as of 2005 the primary wooden structure is "L" shaped.[115]

To the west of Victoria Pier were the "L" shaped piers enclosing the Humber Dock basin,[119][120] The West Pier became defunct in the 19th century, the land to the west being reclaimed from the Humber to form Island Wharf.[121][122][note 14] The East Pier was a wooden structure, since the 1920s known as the Minerva Pier;[123] it was replaced by a steel walled pier in the latter part of the 20th century.[124][125]

As of 2010 the piers are still used to harbour vessels, but are not used for cargo handling.

The River Hull had extensive staithes, wharfs and warehouses along its length; the Old Harbour could accommodate vessels up to 200 ft (61 m), the river being navigable for vessels up to 180 ft (55 m) for two miles.[126] As of 2010 cargo handling has mostly ceased in the Old Harbour, barges are still used for transportation of vegetable and mineral oils further upstream within the boundaries of Hull: including to Rix petroleum, the Cargil vegetable oil plant in Stoneferry, and to the Croda chemicals vegetable oil chemical processing plant.

Salt End jetties[edit]

At Salt End a jetty (No.1 Oil Jetty) for the importation of bulk mineral oil was constructed in 1914 by the North Eastern and Hull and Barnsley railway companies, connected to a tank farm at Salt End. The jetty was constructed extending into the Humber, giving a water depth of 30 ft (9.1 m) at low spring tides.[65] Chemical industrial development fed by the oil imports would develop into the chemical site at Salt End known as BP Saltend.

No.2 Jetty was constructed in 1928 westward of No.1, and a reinforced concrete structure No.3 Jetty was built 1958, the original No.1 jetty was demolished and replaced with a new structure in 1959.[63] No.2 jetty was demolished in 1977.[127] As of 2010 both No.1 and 3 jetties remain in use.[map 27]

Disasters, accidents and war damage[edit]

Explosion of the PS Union[edit]

In 1837 the packet steamer Union exploded in the Humber Dock basin,[128] resulting in the death of over twenty people including bystanders on the dock side, and a large number of injuries, the vessel itself being sunk by the explosion.[129][130]

R38 airship disaster[edit]

In 1921 a R38-class airship broke apart whilst performing a sharp turn near to Victoria Pier, the air-vessel then exploded, and the flaming wreckage crashed into the Humber near to the Victoria Pier killing 45 of the 49 on board.[131]

Second World War[edit]

During the Second World War the Hull docks were actively targeted; in addition to mines in the Humber,[132] the docks in Hull were bombed; all docks were damaged during the period, and the wooden Riverside Quay at Albert Dock was totally destroyed in 1941.[133]

Fires[edit]

Major fires destroyed the fish market at St. Andrews Dock in 1929, and a general cargo shed at Humber Dock in 1951.[134] In 1970 a vehicle carrying liquefied gas struck the top of a road subway leading to the William Wright and St. Andrew's docks, resulting in a gas explosion and fire. The incident caused two deaths and 17 serious injuries.[135][136]

See also[edit]

Museums in Hull with exhibits relevant to the port

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Much from the North Yorkshire Moors then called Blackhower Moor, additionally wheat, corn, lead, leather were exported, later in the 14th century also cloth.
  2. ^ Also dyestuffs – Madder, Woad as well as Alum for mordant, as well as wood, iron and iron ore and a wide variety of foreign goods.
  3. ^ The east of the river not being developed until later
  4. ^ The High Street still contains merchant buildings, most from a later date, Wilberforce House dates to 1660, and was once used for this purpose.[9]
  5. ^ One clause of the Hull Docks Act of 1861 was that the Dock Company could be converted to a municipally owned dock trust by the Hull Corporation, additionally the dividends paid by the company were restricted: the Dock Company had been created as a private 'for profit' company, and was subject to widespread prejudice in the town of Hull that it better served the interests of the shareholders rather than the port itself; the shareholders were characterised as being uninterested in the development of the port.[19]
  6. ^ a b The docks were renamed in honour of Queen Victoria's and the Prince Consort's (Prince Albert) visit to Hull in 1854, during which the Royal Party made a tour of the docks on the steam-yacht "Fairy".[28]
  7. ^ The walls were demolished, but not all the gate, which was rediscovered in the 20th century – the part occupying the gap between the constructions of Queen's and Prince's Dock.[29]
  8. ^ The land made was in the area of the Victoria Pier, south-east of the dock,[39] creating Nelson Street, and to the south and west of the dock, creating Wellington Street.[40]
  9. ^ The entrance on the River Hull had not been sanctioned at the time of the formal opening (1850), it was completed soon after, being under construction by 1852.[52]
  10. ^ One lock was narrower and used for barges.[53]
  11. ^ Opened by Albert Edward (Prince of Wales) later Edward VII of the United Kingdom.[60]
  12. ^ A development roughly in the location of the derelict West wharf quay formerly used for coal and later oil shipping, formerly known as the 'Quay 2005' proposal, the plan authorised by The Associated British Ports (Hull) Harbour Revision Order 2006.[90]
  13. ^ Both names were commonly used
  14. ^ Island Wharf was separated from the mainland by a channel known as Albert Channel, the channel was filled-in in the 1960s.[122] Since 2007 Island Wharf is the site of the World Trade Centre Hull & Humber

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gillett & MacMahon 1980, Chapter 1 'Beginnings of the Medieval Town'.
  2. ^ "Port of Hull". Associated British Ports. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2013. 
  3. ^ Lewis 1991, p. 158.
  4. ^ a b MacTurk, G.G. (1879). "Chapter I "Early Approaches to Hull"". A History of the Hull Railways. 
  5. ^ Gillett & MacMahon 1980, Chapter 2 "The Medieval Trade of Hull".
  6. ^ Gillett & MacMahon 1980, Chapter 6 "The Market, the Ferries, and Foreign Trade.
  7. ^ Gillett & MacMahon 1980, Chapter 8 "Hull in the Early 16th century".
  8. ^ Gillett & MacMahon 1980, Chapter 15 "Hull under Charles II and James II".
  9. ^ "Wilberforce House and Hull's High Street". Hull City Council. Retrieved 19 January 2013. 
  10. ^ a b c d Gillett & MacMahon 1980, pp. 219–222, Chapter 17 "The Beginnings of the Modern Port"
  11. ^ a b c Lewis 1991, pp. 158–159, Chapter 11 "Ports and Harbours"
  12. ^ Jackson 1972, pp. 234–243, Chapter X "The Provision of Modern Port Facilities".
  13. ^ "Hull’s docks and trade". Hull City Council. Archived from the original on 1 July 2008. Retrieved 19 January 2013. 
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  17. ^ Waterston, William (1846). "Dock : III. Docks at other ports of the United Kingdom, p.256". A cyclopædia of commerce, mercantile law, finance, commercial geography, and navigation. Henry G. Bohn (London). Retrieved 22 February 2013. 
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  20. ^ a b Sheahan 1864, pp. 293–295
  21. ^ a b c Tomlinson 1914, pp. 715–716
  22. ^ Tomlinson 1914, pp. 707–708.
  23. ^ Tomlinson 1914, pp. 711–715.
  24. ^ a b Parkes, G.D. (1970) [1946]. The Hull & Barnsley Railway. The Oakwood Press. p. 6. 
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  27. ^ a b Head, George (1836). "Hull". A home tour through the manufacturing districts of England: in the summer of 1835 1. John Murray, London. p. 235. 
  28. ^ Sheahan 1864, pp. 190 and 289.
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  42. ^ Skempton et al. 2002, p. 708, "TIMPERLEY, John (1796–1856).
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  47. ^ Gibson, Paul (January 2010). "A short history of Hull's fountains". Retrieved 1 February 2013. 
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  54. ^ Thomson 1990, pp. 32–5, "Victoria Dock 1850–1970".
  55. ^ "A Tale of Two Rivers". The Deep. A History of Sammy’s Point. Retrieved 22 February 2011. "..and when Victoria Dock was built in 1850 the dug out mud was used to reclaim even more land at the point. Martin Samuelson set up a shipyard in 1857 on this new piece of land .. 1864 the point was sold to the Humber Iron Works and Ship Building Company .. 1872 was bought by Bailey and Leetham Ship Owners .. 1903 it was bought by Thomas Wilson and Son" 
  56. ^ "Exhibition keeps river shipyard's fame afloat". Yorkshire Post. 15 March 2004. Retrieved 20 January 2013. 
  57. ^ "Cook, Welton and Gemmel and their successors". Access to Archives. The National Archives. Retrieved 20 January 2013. 
  58. ^ "History of the Dock". Victoria Dock Village Hall Community Association. Retrieved 20 January 2013. 
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  60. ^ a b Thompson 1990, pp. 36–43, "Albert and William Wright Docks 1869"
  61. ^ Simpson 2009, p. 27, "1883".
  62. ^ Allison 1969, "The Corporation and the Docks, 1870–1914"
  63. ^ a b c d e f g British Transport Docks Board 1975, pp. 21–25, "History of the Port of Hull"
  64. ^ a b Wright 1932, p.69; illustration p.71
  65. ^ a b c d H.N. Appleby, ed. (1921). "Hull Docks, Quays and Piers". The Port of Hull (Official Handbook of tides, rates, and general information). Hull and Barnsley Railway Company, Hull. pp. 17–22. 
  66. ^ Thompson 1990, pp. 36–43, "Albert and William Wright Docks 1869"
  67. ^ "Port of Hull – facilities". Associated British Ports. Archived from the original on 26 May 2010. Retrieved 19 January 2013. , see also "Commodities"
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  69. ^ a b c "Urban Conservation and Design, St. Andrews Dock, Conservation Area Character Statement". Hull City Council. 23 October 1996. Retrieved 19 January 2013. 
  70. ^ Thompson 1990, pp. 44–9, "St. Andrews Dock".
  71. ^ "The Junction, St Andrews Quay, Retail Park, Clive Sullivan, Way, Hull, HU3 4SA, Phase 1". Completely Retail. Retrieved 12 June 2012. 
  72. ^ "The Junction, St Andrews Quay, Retail Park, Clive Sullivan, Way, Hull, HU3 4SA, Phase 2". Completely Retail. Retrieved 12 June 2012. 
  73. ^ Sykes, Alan (22 March 2013). "Hull seeks designer for a memorial to its lost trawler crews". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 March 2013. 
  74. ^ "Hull's lost trawlermen memorial designs go on display". BBC News (BBC). 19 July 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2013. 
  75. ^ "Hull's lost trawlermen memorial competition winner unveiled". BBC News (BBC). 29 July 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2013. 
  76. ^ "Finding the right words to remember Hull's lost trawlermen". Hull Daily Mail. 5 December 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2013. 
  77. ^ Hurtzig 1888, pp. 144–5.
  78. ^ a b c Parkes, G.D (1970) [1946]. The Hull & Barnsley Railway. The Oakwood Press. "Docks and Piers", pp.12–13. 
  79. ^ 16 Shipping and Trade. "The East Riding of Yorkshire ( with York)". Cambridge County Geographies. p. 81. Retrieved 22 February 2013. 
  80. ^ "Kingston upon Hull City Docks Page Three". www.river Humber.com. Alexandra Dock. Retrieved 20 February 2011. 
  81. ^ "Hull Port Project Gets Go-ahead". www.gov-news.org. 21 December 2005. Retrieved 20 February 2011. 
  82. ^ a b Simpson 2009, p. 28, "1885, 16th July"
  83. ^ Dodsworth, Ted (1990). The train now standing (Vol.1) : The Life and Times of the Hull and Barnsley Railway. Hutton Press. p. 21. 
  84. ^ Chapman, Stephen, ed. (1999). Railway Memories No.12 : The Hull & Barnsley Railway. Bellcode Books. pp. 7–10, 46, 51. ISBN 1871233119. 
  85. ^ Bounds, Andrew (20 January 2011). "Hull for wind turbine plant". Financial Times. Retrieved 22 January 2011. (subscription required)
  86. ^ "Siemens selects ABP as preferred bidder for UK wind turbine factory". www.siemens.co.uk (Press release). Siemens. 20 January 2011. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  87. ^ Webb, Tim (20 January 2011). "Siemens chooses Hull for wind turbine plant generating 700 jobs". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  88. ^ "Green Port Hull to transform the Humber economy". Hello from Hull and East Yorkshire. Bondholderscheme Ltd. 6 December 2010. Retrieved 20 January 2013. 
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  93. ^ a b Gillett MacMahon, p. 355, Chapter 25 "Pre War"
  94. ^ UNKNOWN (1907). "Obituary, Sir Benjamin Baker, Kcb, Kcmg, Dsc, Lld, Mai, Frs, 1840–1907". Minutes of the Proceedings 170 (1907): 377. doi:10.1680/imotp.1907.17263.  edit
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  96. ^ "Final days for King George Dock grain silo that helped feed the world". This is Hull and East Riding. 27 December 2010. Retrieved 17 January 2013. 
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  102. ^ Portz, Tim (16 July 2013). "Preparing for a Pellet Tide". biomassmagazine.com. Retrieved 29 October 2013. 
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  117. ^ Butt, R. V. J. (1995). The Directory of Railway Stations: details every public and private passenger station, halt, platform and stopping place, past and present (1st ed.). Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. p. 125. ISBN 1-8526-0508-1. OCLC 60251199. 
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  136. ^ "'Scene straight out of the Blitz'". This is Hull and East Riding. 27 September 2012. Retrieved 17 January 2013. 

Sources[edit]

Maps and landmark coordinates[edit]

  1. ^ 53°44′17″N 0°19′55″W / 53.738°N 0.332°W / 53.738; -0.332 (Confluence of River Hull and Humber Estuary) Confluence of River Hull and Humber Estuary
  2. ^ a b 53°44′48″N 0°19′47″W / 53.746607°N 0.32973°W / 53.746607; -0.32973 (Queen's Dock entrance basin, later dry dock) Queen's Dock entrance basin, later dry dock
  3. ^ 53°44′43″N 0°20′07″W / 53.74520°N 0.33534°W / 53.74520; -0.33534 (Queen's Dock (Old Dock, or The Dock), now Queen's Gardens) Queen's Dock (Old Dock, or The Dock), now Queen's Gardens
  4. ^ 53°44′16″N 0°20′09″W / 53.73779°N 0.335927°W / 53.73779; -0.335927 (Humber Dock entrance basin) Humber Dock entrance basin
  5. ^ 53°44′23″N 0°20′15″W / 53.739636°N 0.337549°W / 53.739636; -0.337549 (Humber Dock (now part of Hull Marina)) Humber Dock (now part of Hull Marina)
  6. ^ 53°44′32″N 0°20′19″W / 53.742176°N 0.338550°W / 53.742176; -0.338550 (Junction Dock, later Prince's Dock, now site of Princes Quay shopping centre) Junction Dock, later Prince's Dock, now site of Princes Quay shopping centre
  7. ^ 53°44′23″N 0°20′27″W / 53.739712°N 0.340856°W / 53.739712; -0.340856 (Railway Dock, now part of Hull Marina) Railway Dock now part of Hull Marina
  8. ^ 53°44′39″N 0°19′31″W / 53.744117°N 0.325200°W / 53.744117; -0.325200 (Drypool basin, Victoria Dock (defunct)) Drypool basin, Victoria Dock (defunct)
  9. ^ 53°44′31″N 0°19′09″W / 53.741926°N 0.319263°W / 53.741926; -0.319263 (Half Tide basin, Victoria Dock) Half Tide basin, Victoria Dock
  10. ^ 53°44′37″N 0°19′12″W / 53.743732°N 0.320027°W / 53.743732; -0.320027 (Victoria Dock (defunct)) Victoria Dock, defunct
  11. ^ 53°44′06″N 0°20′49″W / 53.734888°N 0.346980°W / 53.734888; -0.346980 (Albert Dock) Albert Dock
  12. ^ 53°43′53″N 0°21′32″W / 53.7313815°N 0.358812°W / 53.7313815; -0.358812 (William Wright Dock) William Wright Dock
  13. ^ 53°44′07″N 0°20′30″W / 53.735362°N 0.341550°W / 53.735362; -0.341550 (Riverside quay (1950s replacement), original quay extended twice as far west) Riverside quay (1950s replacement), original quay extended twice as far west
  14. ^ 53°43′46″N 0°22′03″W / 53.729312°N 0.367407°W / 53.729312; -0.367407 (St. Andrew's Dock (location close to eastern entrance)) St. Andrew's Dock (location close to eastern entrance)
  15. ^ 53°44′41″N 0°17′47″W / 53.744753°N 0.296448°W / 53.744753; -0.296448 (Alexandra Dock) Alexandra Dock
  16. ^ 53°44′29″N 0°18′08″W / 53.741333°N 0.302336°W / 53.741333; -0.302336 (Alexandra Dock west pier (West Wharf), built 1911, planned site of 'Quay 2005' expansion, and site of expansion of 'Green Port Hull' (planned 2013)) Alexandra Dock west pier (West Wharf), built 1911, planned site of 'Quay 2005' expansion, and site of expansion of 'Green Port Hull' (planned 2013)
  17. ^ 53°44′28″N 0°16′18″W / 53.741214°N 0.271790°W / 53.741214; -0.271790 (King George Dock (entrance lock)) King George Dock (entrance lock)
  18. ^ 53°44′23″N 0°15′40″W / 53.739606°N 0.261192°W / 53.739606; -0.261192 (Queen Elizabeth Dock (extension to King George Dock)) Queen Elizabeth Dock (extension to King George Dock)
  19. ^ 53°44′28″N 0°16′55″W / 53.741081°N 0.282001°W / 53.741081; -0.282001 (River Terminal 1, ro-ro terminal) River Terminal 1, ro-ro terminal
  20. ^ 53°44′20″N 0°19′58″W / 53.738960°N 0.332687°W / 53.738960; -0.332687 (Hull Central Dry Dock) Hull Central Dry Dock (disused)
  21. ^ 53°44′34″N 0°19′44″W / 53.742867°N 0.328809°W / 53.742867; -0.328809 (Crown Dry Dock) Crown Dry Dock, no longer extant, but lock gates remain as frontage onto the River Hull as of 2010
  22. ^ 53°44′48″N 0°19′42″W / 53.746528°N 0.328345°W / 53.746528; -0.328345 (Union Dry Dock) Union Dry Dock, as of 2010 still extant but completely silted, the entrance to the dock is crossed by steel footbridge along the River Hull east bank footpath
  23. ^ 53°44′57″N 0°19′51″W / 53.749218°N 0.330899°W / 53.749218; -0.330899 (Dry Dock (defunct)) Dry Dock, (defunct)
  24. ^ 53°44′49″N 0°19′48″W / 53.746981°N 0.330007°W / 53.746981; -0.330007 (North Bridge Dry Dock) North Bridge Dry Dock
  25. ^ 53°44′47″N 0°19′46″W / 53.746252°N 0.329402°W / 53.746252; -0.329402 (No.1 Dry Dock) No.1 Dry Dock
  26. ^ 53°44′16″N 0°20′02″W / 53.737703°N 0.333852°W / 53.737703; -0.333852 (Corporation (or Victoria) Pier) Corporation or Victoria Pier
  27. ^ 53°43′38″N 0°14′52″W / 53.72727°N 0.24766°W / 53.72727; -0.24766 (Salt End jetties (approximate location 2012)) Salt End jetties (approximate location 2012)

Literature[edit]

External links[edit]

Modern
Historical
Images