A 2009 stock Victoria line train at Euston station
|Ridership||199.988 million (2011/12)  passenger journeys|
|Colour on map||Light Blue|
|Line length||21 km (13 mi)|
The Victoria line is a deep-level London Underground route running from the south (Zone 2) to the north-east (Zone 3) of London. It is coloured light blue on the Tube map. Unlike most other lines on the Underground, it runs entirely below ground with the exception of the connection between Seven Sisters and the line's depot at Northumberland Park.map 17 Constructed in the 1960s, it was the first entirely new tube line in London for fifty years, and was designed to relieve congestion on other lines, in particular the Piccadilly line and the West End branch of the Northern line It has always been operated using automatic train operation, though all trains do carry drivers.
200 million passengers use the Victoria line each year, making it the sixth most heavily used line on the network in absolute figures, but in terms of the average number of journeys per mile it is by far the most intensively used line.
A tube railway running from Victoria to Walthamstow was first proposed by a Working Party set up by the British Transport Commission in 1948. The main purpose was to relieve congestion in the central area. The necessary Private Bill was introduced into Parliament in 1955. It described a line from Victoria to Walthamstow (Wood Street). There was also a proposal, though not included in the Bill, for a subsequent extension from Victoria to Fulham Broadway station on the District line.
Construction began in 1962 on the initial Walthamstow-Victoria section, opening Walthamstow-Highbury on 1 September 1968, and the full Walthamstow-Brixton line was completed in 1972. A test tunnel from Tottenham to Manor House under Seven Sisters Road had been bored in 1959 and was later incorporated into the running tunnels.
In August 1967 the government gave approval for the Brixton extension. Preparatory work had already started at Bessborough Gardens near Vauxhall Bridge Road in May 1967. In June 1968 a proposal to build a station at Pimlico was approved.
The name "Victoria line" dates back to 1955; other suggestions were "Walvic line" (Walthamstow – Victoria) and "Viking line" (Victoria – King's Cross). During the planning stages, it was known as Route C and then was named the Victoria line after Victoria Station by David McKenna, whose suggestion was seconded by Sir John Elliot.
It had been intended to build the line beyond Walthamstow Central to Wood Street (Walthamstow), where it would have surfaced to terminate next to the British Rail station. Proposals were also made to extend the line as far as South Woodford or Woodford, to provide interchange with the Central line. However, in a late decision in 1961 the line was cut back to Walthamstow (Hoe Street) station, renamed Walthamstow Central in 1968.
Every Victoria line station apart from Pimlico and Blackhorse Road (see above) was built as an interchange station, and several existing stations were rearranged to allow for cross-platform interchange with the new line. In some cases this was achieved by placing the Victoria line platforms on either side of the existing station; in others, the Victoria line uses one of the older platforms and the existing line was diverted into a new platform. Particularly significant is the direct same-level interchange with the Bakerloo line at Oxford Circus, a pivotal node at the heart of the whole network, facilitating a wide range of north-south journeys across central London.
At Euston, northbound Victoria and Northern line (Bank branch) trains run along adjacent platforms, although they travel in opposite directions. Other cross-platform interchanges are provided at Stockwell (with the Northern line), Highbury & Islington (with First Capital Connect, originally the Northern City Line), and at Finsbury Park (with the Piccadilly line).
All Victoria line stations were originally tiled in blue/grey. Each station was decorated with tiled motifs in seating recesses to help identify the station. During the construction of the first stage of the Jubilee line in the late 1970s, the original motifs on Green Park station were replaced by motifs matching the new design for the Jubilee line platforms. These were in turn replaced in 2009 by replicas of the original design.
In late 2010 and 2011, platform humps were installed on all Victoria Line stations except Pimlico to provide step-free access to trains. This project was in accordance with the Rail Vehicle Accessibility (Non Interoperable Rail System) Regulations 2010 and the Disability Discrimination Act 1995. The Victoria line humps resemble in form the Harrington Hump, a ramp type being installed on some mainline stations, but are of a masonry construction.
Each platform constructed specifically for the Victoria line from new is 132.6 metres (435 ft) long. The line has hump-backed stations to allow trains to store gravitational potential energy as they slow down and release it when they leave a station, providing an energy saving of 5% and making the trains run 9% faster.
The first section to be opened was between Walthamstow Central and Highbury & Islington. There was no initial opening ceremony: instead the normal timetable started on Sunday 1 September 1968. The first train left Walthamstow Central for Highbury & Islington at about 6.30 am. Later that year, the section between Highbury & Islington and Warren Street was opened, again without ceremony.
The official opening ceremony took place at Victoria station on 7 March 1969: Queen Elizabeth II unveiled a commemorative plaque on the station concourse. After a short ceremony, Her Majesty bought a 5d ticket (5.00 old pence = 2.08 new pence) and travelled to Green Park.
Princess Alexandra opened the Brixton extension on 23 July 1971, making a journey from Brixton to Vauxhall. The Prince of Wales and the Duke of Edinburgh had previously visited the line during its construction: in July 1968, they visited tunnel workings under Vauxhall Park.
When the line was opened from Victoria to Walthamstow Central the station at Blackhorse Road served by Kentish Town - Barking trains was ignored for interchanged purposes and publicity materials even went as far as to state specifically that it was a station with no interchange. This was probably as the service was proposed for closure under the Beeching axe. An interchange was provided at a later date when surface line platforms and a connecting overbridge were built on the same side as the tube station and the original railway station was closed and demolished.
Service and rolling stock
Trains run every two minutes during peak periods. In normal service all trains run from Brixton to Seven Sisters, with roughly three out of five continuing to Walthamstow Central.
When the line was opened it was served by a fleet of 39½ eight-car trains of 1967 Tube Stock trains. These were later supplemented by a number of cars of 1972 Mark I Tube Stock, transferred from the Northern Line and converted to be compatible with the 1967 stock. Ultimately there were 43 trains, each made up of two four-car units. These were replaced by 2009 Tube Stock between 2009 and 2011 (see below).
In the early planning stages of the line an articulated type of rolling stock was considered, but the idea was dropped because of difficulties in transferring the stock to Acton Works for heavy overhauls. With the demise of Acton Works this no longer applies, and the new 2009 tube stock has a wider profile and slightly longer carriages which preclude it running on other deep-level tube lines.
The line is equipped with an Automatic Train Operation system (ATO); the train operator (driver) closes the train doors and presses a pair of "start" buttons, and if the way ahead is clear, the ATO drives the train at a safe speed to the next station and stops it there. This system has operated since the line opened in 1968, making the Victoria line the world's first full-scale automatic railway.
Replacement of the 1967 rolling stock began in July 2009 as part of Transport for London's 5-year £10 billion redevelopment project. A new fleet of 47 eight-car trains called 2009 Tube Stock were built by Bombardier Transportation. The first prototypes began testing in 2008. The main fleet began to be introduced in 2009 and went into squadron service[clarification needed] in 2010. The last of the 1967 stock trains ran on 30 June 2011, after which the whole service was provided by 2009 stock.
The original signalling has now been replaced with a more modern ATO system from Westinghouse Rail Systems. LUL claims that this is the world's first ATO-on-ATO upgrade. The new system allowed a revised timetable to be introduced from February 2013, allowing up to 33 trains per hour instead of 27. This in combination with the new, faster trains will increase the line's capacity overall by 21%, equivalent to an extra 10,000 passengers per hour.
24 hour weekend service
From 2015, there will be a 24-hour service on Friday and Saturday nights on the entire Victoria line.
|Walthamstow Central||1870||Victoria line began 1 September 1968map 1|
|Blackhorse Road||19 July 1894||Current station opened 1 September 1968map 2|
|Tottenham Hale||15 September 1840||Opened as Tottenham, renamed and beginning of Victoria line 1 September 1968map 3|
|Seven Sisters||22 July 1872||Victoria line began 1 September 1968map 4|
|Finsbury Park||1 July 1861||Opened as Seven Sisters Road (Holloway), renamed 15 November 1869, Victoria line began 1 September 1968map 5|
|Highbury & Islington||1872||Victoria line began 1 September 1968map 6|
|King's Cross St. Pancras||1863||Victoria line began 1 December 1968map 7|
|Euston||12 May 1907||Victoria line began 1 December 1968map 8|
|Warren Street||22 June 1907||Victoria line began 1 December 1968map 9|
|Oxford Circus||30 July 1900||Victoria line began 7 March 1969map 10|
|Green Park||15 December 1906||Victoria line began 7 March 1969map 11|
|Victoria ( Trains to Gatwick)||1 October 1860||Victoria line began 7 March 1969map 12|
|Pimlico||14 September 1972||map 13|
|Vauxhall||11 July 1848||Victoria line began 23 July 1971map 14|
|Stockwell||4 November 1890||Victoria line began 23 July 1971map 15|
|Brixton||23 July 1971||map 16|
On 27 June 1991 the London Underground (Victoria) Act 1991 allowed for the construction of a new 43-metre (140 ft) underground pedestrian link at London Victoria station between the Victoria line platforms and the sub-surface Circle Line platforms above. On 18 September 2009 The London Underground (Victoria Station Upgrade) Order 2009 came into force, authorising the construction of a second 1,930-square-metre (21,000 sq ft) ticket hall at Victoria station. By mid-2009 trial boreholes for a cooling system at Green Park station had taken place, with additional boreholes being scheduled to be created during the end of 2009. In 2010 Engineering & Technology reported that 200 litres (44 imp gal) of water per second is being pumped at Victoria station from the River Tyburn, through heat-exchangers and into the River Thames.
Around 50 shafts were created during the construction phase of the line. Between each station remain midpoint tunnel ventilation shafts. Special "local arrangements" are in place should it be necessary to evacuate passengers from a Victoria line train out of Netherton Road emergency escape shaft. Planning permission for Ferry Lane was granted 11 January 1968.
Between 2009–2014 thirteen ventilation shafts were scheduled to be revamped. In the first phase, during tranche 1 the air shafts for replacement were Drayton Park, Gillingham Street, Moreton Terrace, Purloss Road, Somerleyton Road and Tynemouth Road. In tranche 2 for the second phase were scheduled those at Cobourg Street, Dover Street, Gibson Square, Great Titchfield Street, Isledon Road, Kings Cross, Palace Street and Rita Road. By 2009 changes at Cobourg Street were in the planning stage, with demolition work at Moreton Terrace, Somerleyton Road and Drayton Park shafts having taken place. Original planning permission for Netherton Road shaft had been granted on 8 September 1967. On 31 March 2009 the demolition and rebuilding of Netherton Road shaft was allowed as permitted development.
Northumberland Park Depot is the service and storage area for trains on the Victoria Line of the London Underground, the only part of the line above ground.
Trains access the depot by a tunneled branch line to the north of Seven Sisters. Opened with the first stage of the line in 1968, the depot is next to Northumberland Park railway station, on Tottenham Marshes, Tottenham in the London Borough of Haringey. As part of Transport for London's tube upgrade scheme, the depot has been expanded and upgraded to accommodate the new fleet of 2009 Tube Stock trains.
Possible future projects
When the Victoria line was built, budget restrictions meant that station infrastructure standards were lower than on older lines and on later extension projects. Examples include narrower than usual platforms and undecorated ceilings at Walthamstow Central, Blackhorse Road and Tottenham Hale, adversely affecting lighting levels. At most stations there is still a concrete staircase between the up and down escalators, where an additional escalator could be installed. The lack of a third escalator can cause severe congestion at peak times. However, in recent years an additional escalator has been installed in place of the fixed stairway at Brixton (2004) and Vauxhall (2006). There have been station closures for safety reasons, when both escalators have been unserviceable. Over many years, heavy equipment has been installed in fenced-off sections at the ends of platforms owing to the lack of anywhere else to install them.
Supporters of Tottenham Hotspur (and the club itself) have campaigned for a surface station to be built next to Northumberland Park Station, adjacent to the line's depot, supported by Haringey Council. This would improve the football ground's transport links, seen as essential if the club's wish to redevelop their ground and increase its capacity is to become a reality. The idea was looked into, but Network Rail owns the necessary land and needs it for its own expansion plans. It was announced by Haringey Council in its 2012 A Plan for Tottenham report that there was "potential for a Victoria Line extension to Northumberland Park".
For many years there have been proposals to extend the line one stop southwards from Brixton to Herne Hill. Herne Hill station would be on a large reversing loop with one platform. This would remove a critical capacity restriction by eliminating the need for trains to reverse at Brixton. However, it would be expensive and cannot currently be justified on cost-benefit grounds. Because the current line is heavily overcrowded this is considered to be the only extension proposal with any realistic prospect of coming to fruition; but to have any hope of being built, it would have to be seen to be effective in reducing overcrowding (by enabling trains to run more frequently) and not to increase it. The Mayor of London's 2020 Vision, published in 2013, proposes extending the Victoria Line "out beyond Brixton" by 2030.
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- Although the system was tested on the Tube on a smaller scale before that, initially on a short section of the District line; then a larger trial was carried out on the Central line between Woodford and Hainault. See:
- "Driverless metros poised to expand". Railway Gazette International. 1 March 2000. Retrieved 25 October 2007. "These trials matured into 'attended ATO'. London's Victoria line was the first into revenue service on 1 September 1968, with Philadelphia's Lindenwold line close behind in January 1969."[dead link]
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- TfL Night Tube Map http://www.tfl.gov.uk/assets/downloads/corporate/cstp-night-map-2.jpg
- "London Underground (Victoria) Act 1991" (Statutory Instrument). The National Archives. 27 June 1991. Retrieved 11 June 2012.
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- London Underground Limited (20 May 2009). Parry, Richard. ed. "Performance Report to the Rail and Underground Panel". Managing Director's Report – London Underground (Transport for London) (Period 13 2008/09, ended 31 March 2009). http://www.tfl.gov.uk/assets/downloads/corporate/04a-LU-MD-Report.pdf. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
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- "OLD/1968/0211". Online Planning Services. Haringey Council. 11 January 1968. Retrieved 1 August 2013. "Land At Ferry Lane: Construction of new fan house form Victoria Line."
- Klettner (24 January 2008). "Underground keeps its cool". Construction News. Event occurs at Andrea. Retrieved 11 June 2012.
- "OLD/1967/0517". Online Planning Services. Haringey Council. 8 September 1967. Retrieved 1 August 2013. "Construction of new ventilation shaft and emergency staircase for Victoria Line."
- Urban Environment Directorate (6 April 2004). "HGY/2009/0151: LUL Mid-Tunnel Vent Shaft, Netherton Road N15". Planning Applications Decided (Haringey Council). http://www.haringey.gov.uk/mar_09_-_apps_decided_for_web.pdf. Retrieved 21 June 2012. "Demolition and rebuilding of existing headhouse in order to upgrade existing cooling system to Victoria Line."
- "HGY/2009/0151". Online Planning Services. Haringey Council. 31 March 2009. Retrieved 1 August 2013. "Demolition and rebuilding of existing headhouse in order to upgrade existing cooling system to Victoria Line."
- "Victoria Line to Northumberland Park". alwaystouchout.com. 10 June 2005.
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- Strickland, Alan; Kober, Claire; Vanier, Bernice; Lipton, Stuart; Lammy, David; Fletcher-Smith, Fiona; Head, Paul; Campling, Andrew et al. (26 July 2012). A Plan for Tottenham (Report). Haringey Council. p. 10. http://www.haringey.gov.uk/a_plan_for_tottenham.pdf. Retrieved 2 August 2012. "potential for a Victoria Line extension to Northumberland Park"
- http://www.london.gov.uk/mayor-assembly/mayor/vision-2020/interactive-map (Click on the arrow pointing south east from Brixton and then, on the popup, click on "more")
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Victoria Line.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Victoria line station Motifs.|
- "Opening of the Victoria Line". British Pathe. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- "Victoria line". Clive's UndergrounD Line Guides. 30 December 2007. Retrieved 11 July 2008.
- "Automatic Train Operation on the Victoria Line". Tube Prune. 15 March 2003. Retrieved 11 July 2008.
- "BCV (Bakerloo, Central & Victoria) Upgrade". Alwaystouchout.com. 8 September 2006. Retrieved 11 July 2008.
- "Victoria Line Underground Stations – Facts, Trivia And Impressions". 22 October 2012. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
- London Transport Museum Poster Archive – images of the station tiling motifs: