Vidarbha

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Vidarbha
विदर्भ
Region/Aspirant State
The Vidharba Cricket Association Stadium
The Vidharba Cricket Association Stadium
Map of India with Vidarbha highlighted in red
Map of India with Vidarbha highlighted in red
Country India
State Maharashtra
Area[1]
 • Total 97,321 km2 (37,576 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Total 2,30,03,179
 • Density 240/km2 (610/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Marathi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Largest city Nagpur

Vidarbha (Marathi: विदर्भ) is the eastern region of the Indian state of Maharashtra, comprising Nagpur Division and Amravati Division. Its former name is Berar (Varhad in Marathi).[2][3] It occupies 31.6% of total area and holds 21.3% of total population of Maharashtra.[1] It borders the state of Madhya Pradesh to the north, Chhattisgarh to the east, Telangana to the south and Marathwada and Khandesh regions of Maharashtra to the west. Situated in central India, Vidarbha has its own rich cultural and historical background distinct from rest of Maharashtra. The largest city in Vidarbha is Nagpur, the second largest is Amravati while Akola stands third followed by fourth largest city Chandrapur, Yavatmal,is fifth, Gondia is sixth largest and Achalpur is seventh, In terms of population.A majority of Vidarbhians speak Marathi and Varhadi, a dialect of Marathi.

The Nagpur region is famous for growing oranges and cotton. Vidarbha holds two-thirds of Maharashtra's mineral resources and three-quarters of its forest resources, and is a net producer of power.[4] Vidarbha has Tadoba Tiger project, Melghat Tiger Project, Pench Tiger Project, Bor Wildlife Sanctuary, Navegaon National Park, and Nagzira wildlife sanctuary near Bhandara district, all are located in Vidarbha region.

Throughout its history, Vidarbha has remained much calmer during the communal troubles than the rest of India; but it is plagued very much by poverty[5] and malnutrition.[6] It is less economically prosperous compared to the rest of Maharashtra.[7]

In recent times, there have been calls for a separate state of Vidarbha, due to perceived neglect from the Government of Maharashtra and incompetent political leadership in Vidarbha. The living conditions of farmers in this region are poor compared to India as a whole. There have been more than 200,000 farmers' suicides in Maharashtra in a decade, of which 70% being in the 11 districts of Vidarbha region.[8] Though rich in minerals, coal, forests and mountains, this region is always underdeveloped because of its continuous dominance by the political leadership from the other parts of the state, especially Western Maharashtra. Though being culturally, politically and financially different from the rest of Maharashtra, the calls for a separate state rise to prominence only when the leaders from this region are sidelined by other political leaders in the Government of Maharashtra.[9] Statehood demands have not fructified mainly due to the opposition from a major state political party, the Shiv Sena.[10]

History[edit]

Vakataka dynasty: Pravarapura-Nandivardhana branch: The Pravarapura-Nandivardhana branch ruled from various sites like Pravarapura (Paunar) in Wardha district and Mansar and Nandivardhan (Nagardhan) in Nagpur district. This branch maintained matrimonial relations with the Imperial Guptas. Vatsagulma branch: The Vatsagulma branch was founded by Sarvasena, the second son of Pravarasena I after his death. King Sarvasena made Vatsagulma, the present day Washim in Washim district of Maharashtra his capital.[6] The territory ruled by this branch was between the Sahydri Range and the Godavari River. They patronized some of the Buddhist caves at Ajanta.

map of Central Provinces and Berar regions of British India. Nagpur is shown as capital of Central provinces

The region is named for the Vidarbhas, a ruling clan in the Mahabharata epic.

Nagpur was the Capital of the Devgadh Sarkar of Subah Berar and Gondwana and the Vidarbha region known as Gulshan-e-Berar in Muedveal period since khilji dynasty to mughal period according Aine-Akbari and Alimgeer Namah report the berar is hole Fourteen sarkar of Vidarhbha region and Sawai Shiri Shrimant Santaji Bhonsle Depute "Sena Sahibe -E-Subah of berar and gondwana. He was father-in-law of Aurangzeb grandson "Bedar Bakht Mirza s/oMirza Mohammed Azam Shah Emperor of India, Buland Bakht the king of Gondwana in 1681 deputed by Aurangzeb Alamgeer Emperor of India after sultan Chand Shah son of Buland Bakht After the death of Sultanchand Shah widow wife call Relative of "Sena Sahib-E-Subah". Raghuji Bhonsle "I" In 1732 Raghuji Bhonsle "I"appointed Military officer for collection of revenue and chauth for sultan chand shah family. Then Bhonsle dynasty of Marathas who in the mid-eighteenth century created an independent Hindu princely state that covered much of east-central India. After their defeat in the Third Anglo-Maratha War in 1818, the Bhonsle dominions were reduced to the Nagpur division. In 1853 the last Maharaja of Nagpur died without a male heir and subsequently Nagpur division was incorporated into mainstream British India. Nagpur division became a part of the British Raj's Central Provinces in 1861.

Amravati division, formerly known as Berar, was administered by the Nizam of Hyderabad until 1853. In that year, citing misgovernance by the Nizam, the British colonial administration took direct control over the province. Berar was added to the Central Provinces in 1903.

During India's independence struggle Nagpur hosted the sessions of Indian National Congress several times. Sevagram was arguably the capital of nationalistic India during the Gandhian era.

After India's independence in 1947, Central Provinces and Berar became the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. In 1956 Vidarbha was transferred to Bombay state along with all Marathi-speaking areas. In 1960 Bombay state was split along linguistic lines into the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat. Marathi-speaking Vidarbha became part of the state of Maharashtra.

Chronology of Historical Events in Berar[edit]

  • Mahabharat – Berar was part of Vidarbha Kingdom
  • 322 BC-185 BC Under Mauryan Empire
  • 100 BC-199 Satavahana dynasty
  • 250 Vakataka dynasty starts
  • 510 Vakataka rules end
  • 510–580 Ahirs or Abhira rule for 67 years. Named forts of Gawilgad, Asirgad.[11]
  • 5xx-750 Chalukya dynasty
  • 750–973 Rashtrakuta dynasty
  • 973–1188 Chalukya dynasty again
  • 1188- Yadavas of Devagiri
  • 1292 Invaded by Khilji
  • 1318 Annexed by Khilji to Delhi Sultanate
  • 1348 Berar becomes One of the five provinces of the Bahmani Sultanate
  • 1400 Firoz Shah Bahmani halts at Ellichpur and sends an expedition against Gond of Kherla.
  • 1425–1428 Ahmed Shah Wali of Bahmani repairs the forts of Gawilgad and Narnala
  • 1478 The Bahmanis divide Berar into the two provinces of Gawil and Mahur
  • 1490 Imad-ul-Mulk establishes Imad Shahi Dynasty of Berar as the Bahmani sultanate falls apart. Ellichpur made Capital of the Berar Sultanate.
  • 1504 Aladdin Imad Shah makes Gawilgad his capital
  • 1529 Darya Imad Shah rules until 1562
  • 1562 Burhan Imad Shah overthrown in 1568
  • 1568 Tufal Khan Dakhni rules until 1572
  • 1572 Murtaza Nizam Shah of Ahmendnagar invades Berar and annexes it to its dominions
  • 1596 Chand Bibi cedes Berar to Akbar. Prince Murad settled at Balapur and renames it Shahapur.
  • 1598 Murad dies. Price Daniyal governs Berar Subah, Khandesh and Ahmednagar
  • 1605 Daniyal dies and Malik Ambar governs Berar.
  • 1611 Malik Ambar defies Mughal sovereignty
  • 1614 Raja Man Singh, General of Jahangir, dies a natural death at Ellichpur.
  • 1636-1634 Aurangzeb becomes viceroy of the four Deccan subahs including Berar
  • 1653–1657 Aurangzeb becomes viceroy of the four Deccan subahs including Berar for the second time.
  • 1680 Sambhaji
  • 1698 Rajaram
  • 1720 Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath gets the right to collect revenue from Berar from the Mughal.
  • 1724 Asaf Jah establishes the Nizam State and invades Berar, which becomes nominally a part of Hyderabad State
  • 1737 Asaf Jah and the Marathas fight for supremacy.
  • 1760 Berar ceded to the Maratha Peshwa
  • 1785 The Bhosla Raja of Nagpur governs Berar
  • 1803 Battle of Adgaon. The British transfer Berar to the Nizam.
  • 1822 The Marathas lose the right to tribute in Berar
  • 1853 The British East India Company manages Berar as the Berar Province, one of the Hyderabad Assigned Districts of the Nizam.
  • 1860 Nizam treaty modified
  • 1903 Berar attached to the Central Provinces, forming the Berar Division
  • 1936 The Central Provinces become the 'Central Provinces and Berar'
  • 1947 CP & Berar becomes a province of independent India
  • 1950 CP & Berar renamed Madhya Pradesh
  • 1956 Berar and Nagpur become part of Bombay State
  • 1960 Bombay State split into Gujarat and Maharashtra; Berar included in the new Maharashtra State

Geography[edit]

Geographically Vidarbha lies on the northern part of Deccan Plateau. Unlike the Western Ghats, there are no major hilly areas . The Satpura Range lies to the north of Vidarbha region in Madhya Pradesh. The Melghat area of Amravati district is on southern offshoot of the Satpura Range.[12] Large basaltic rock formations exists throughout Vidarbha caused by the Deccan lava trap. Gondia district is unique in Maharashtra in the sense that the entire area of the district is occupied by metamorphic rock and alluvium.[13] Buldhana has the Lonar crater created by impact of meteorite or comet. The eastern districts of Gondia, Bhandara, Gadchirolli and Nagpur fall in earthquake zone 1, which is considered safest in India, while other districts fall in zone 2.

Wainganga is the largest of all the Vidarbha rivers. Other major rivers that drain Vidarbha region are the Wardha, and Kanhan rivers which are all tributaries of Godavari river. In north, five small rivers, Khapra, Sipna, Gadga and Dolar along with Purna, are the tributaries of Tapti river. Penganga river is another big river which originates in Buldhana district. Then it flows through Washim district. There onwards it forms a border between districts, Washim (Vidharbha) and Hingoli (Marathwada), Yavatmal(Vidharbha) and Hingoli, Yavatmal(Vidharbha) and Nanded(Marathwada), Yavatmal and Andhra Pradesh, Yavatmal and Chandrapur. After that it meets Wardha flowing through Chandrapur district and meets Wainganga to become Pranhita river which is a tributary of Godavari. Kas, Kayadhu, Adan, Pus and Arunavati are main tributaries of Penganga river.

Administration & politics[edit]

Vidhan Bhavan at Nagpur hosts winter session of Maharashtra Assembly

Vidarbha comprises two divisions (Amravati and Nagpur). It has 11 districts namely, Amravati, Akola, Bhandara, Buldana, Chandrapur, Gadchiroli, Gondia, Nagpur, Wardha, Washim, Yavatmal.

District administration[edit]

Each district has a collector's office which is responsible for day-to-day administration. The District Collector is a Central Indian Government appointee who is in charge of the governance of a district in a state.[14] Nagpur city, the largest city in Vidarbha, has a special civic body, the Nagpur Improvement Trust, which along with Nagpur Municipal Corporation is responsible for overall development and planning activity. Other significant cities like Amravati, Akola and Chandrapur too have their own municipal corporation. The corporators (representatives) in these civic bodies are elected via elections. Urban areas are split in different wards and each ward elects a representative. Rural areas have a panchayat raj system.

Representation in Lok Sabha[edit]

Vidarbha is represented at national level by 10 Lok sabha seats. Nagpur district which has the highest population density is split into 2 lok sabha seats of Nagpur and Ramtek while districts with lower population density like Chimur and Gadchiroli are clubbed together. Gondia-Bhandara seats has very important as Praful Patel basically from Gondia is MP from this lok sabha seat. Ramtek and Amravati seats are reserved for Scheduled caste candidates only while Gadchiroli-Chimur is reserved for Scheduled Tribes.[15]

Representation in Vidhan Sabha[edit]

Vidarbha is represented at state level by 62 assembly seats. Nagpur boasts the densest concentration of assembly seats with the city divided into 6 areas. Certain seats are reserved for Scheduled Tribe candidates only, while others are open to all to contest.[16] As part of the Nagpur Pact the winter session of Maharashtra assembly is held as Nagpur Vidhan Bhavan.

Demographics[edit]

District Male Female Total
Akola 936,226 882,391 1,818,617
Amravati 1,482,845 1,404,981 2,887,826
Bhandara 604,371 594,439 1,198,810
Buldana 1,342,152 1,245,887 2,588,039
Chandrapur 1,120,316 1,073,946 2,194,262
Gadchiroli 542,813 528,982 1,071,795
Gondiya 662,524 659,807 1,322,331
Nagpur 2,388,558 2,264,613 4,653,171
Wardha 665,925 630,232 1,296,157
Washim 621,228 575,486 1,196,714
Yavatmal 1,425,593 1,349,864 2,775,457

Vidarbha has total population of 23,003,179 according to the 2011 census of the government of India.[17] Hinduism is the predominant religion in this region. Buddhism is second most followed religion. This is unusual compared to the rest of Maharashtra and even most north Indian states where usually Islam is second most followed religion. The significant following of Buddhism is due to Neo-Buddhist movement started by Dr. B. R. Ambedkar.

Religious composition Population  %
Hindus 15,866,514 76.906%
Buddhists 2,697,544 13.075%
Muslims 1,720,690 8.340%
Christians 70,663 0.343%
Sikhs 37,241 0.181%
Jains 89,649 0.435%
Others 127,516 0.618%
Religion not stated 21,170 0.103%
All Religions 2,30,03,179 100.000%

Separate Statehood movement[edit]

Main article: Vidarbha movement
  1. 1853: After British conquests from Mughals and Marathas in central India, in 1853 "Nagpur Province" was formed with Nagpur as capital. It was administered by a commissioner under the central government.
  2. 1861: "Central Province" was formed by the British, with Nagpur as capital.
  3. 1903: On 1 October Berar was also placed under the administration of the commissioner of Central Provinces. It was now named as "Central Province and Berar".
  4. 1935: Government of India Act, passed by British parliament formed provincial assembly, providing for an election. Central Province and Berar was kept a separate entity, with Nagpur as capital.
  5. 1950: When constitution of India went into effect in 1950; Central Province and Berar became Madhya Pradesh, with Nagpur as capital.
  6. 1956: "Vidarbha State" with Nagpur as capital was recommended by Fazal Ali commission (appointed in 1953) for reorganisation of states in India.
  7. 1960: On 1 May the "Vidarbha state", recommended by Fazal Ali commission for reorganisation of states, was merged with, newly formed Maharashtra State.

In recent years there have been sporadic calls by its population for Vidarbha to secede from Maharashtra. This is based on a feeling of being neglected by the Maharashtra state government and a desire to assert a distinct political identity. The region has been seen to have fallen behind others in Maharashtra in attracting investment and development funds, being comparatively poorly served by roads, irrigation facilities and educational institutions. However political movements for attaining statehood have failed to hold sway as their leaders have been considered opportunistic. Vidarbha Rajya Party and Vidarbha Rajya Nirman Congress are very small political parties created by leaders that have split from national level parties like INC. Only one national party - BJP has officially included demand for a separate Vidarbha state in its national manifesto.

Vidarbha has total population of 20,630,987 according to the 2001 census of the government of India.[18] Though rich in minerals, coal, forests and mountains, this region is always underdeveloped primarily because of lack of agriculture. Tata group started the country's first textile mill at Nagpur, formally known as Central India Spinning and Weaving Company Ltd. The company was popularly known as "Empress Mills" as it was inaugurated on 1 January 1877, the day Queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India.[19]

Economy[edit]

Vidarbha's economy is primarily agricultural and also the region is rich in forest and mineral wealth. From a business point of view, Chandrapur, Amravati and Nagpur are important cities of Vidarbha. Nagpur is a central hub for business. Amravati is well known for film distributors and its cloth markets. Chandrapur has a thermal power station which is one of the biggest in India and some other heavy industries such as BILT (Paper Industry) MEL,Ballarpur, Steel industries, Cement industries and coal mines.

An International cargo hub project, the Multi-modal International Cargo Hub and Airport at Nagpur, (MIHAN), is being developed at Nagpur.[20][21] MIHAN will be used for handling heavy cargo coming from South-East Asia and Middle-East Asia. The project will also include a INR100 billion (US$1.7 billion) Special Economic Zone (SEZ)[22] for information technology companies. This will be the biggest development project in India so far.[23]

Agriculture[edit]

The main cash crops of the region are cotton, oranges and soya beans. Amravati is the largest Orange growing district. Traditional crops are sorghum (jowar), pearl millet (bajra) and rice. Yavatmal is the largest cotton growing district. Gondia is the largest rice growing district. Gondia is a Rice city. Recently Vidarbha region has become infamous for a large number of farmer suicides occurring.
On 1 July 2006 the Prime Minister of India Manmohan Singh announced a Rs. 3,750-crore (Rupees 37.5 billion) relief package for Vidharbha. The package should help farmers in six districts of the region. However the package was not welcomed by most financial pundits and the journalist P Sainath wrote the following[24] in The Hindu newspaper criticising the package and saying that it was destined to fail for sure. Recently it was found that most of the government officials are involved in corruption of the 'packages' which were announced for farmers. Government suspended more that 400 government officials in this scam. Bhiwapur is famous for Red Chilies.

Mineral wealth[edit]

The Chandrapur, Gondia, Gadchiroli, Bhandara and Nagpur Districts form the main mineral belt, with coal and manganese as the major minerals. Chandrapur district alone contributes 29% of all mineral output of Maharashtra.[25] Iron ore and limestone are identified as potential mining resources.[26]

Industry[edit]

Traditionally Vidarbha has lagged behind western Maharashtra in industrial growth. Various incentives were granted to attract industries but have failed. Butibori Industrial Area MIDC outside Nagpur is one of the largest industrial areas in country but few industries have actually opened there. MIHAN an international cargo hub project is currently underway at Nagpur. The project aims to exploit the central location of Nagpur and convert the present airport into a major freight hub with integrated road and rail connectivity along with a Special Economic Zone. Ballarpur Industries, India's largest manufacturer and exporter of paper is located in Chandrapur district.[27]

Farmers' suicides[edit]

There have been more than 200,000 farmers who committed suicide in Maharashtra in the last decade, out of which more than 70% farmers belong to the 11 districts of Vidarbha region. This is mainly because of the infertility of the land, lack of ample amount of water resources, lack of new technologies and due to the negligence of the state government towards the farmers' needs. The main crop in Vidarbha is cotton, but the farmers growing it do not get their share from the government, which leads to the high distress among them, leading to the massive suicides. Due to the absence of any responsible counseling either from the government or society there were many farmers who did not know how to survive in the changing economy. Such stresses pushed many into a corner where suicide became an option for them.[28] This also led the farmers and others in this region to make a call for a separate Vidarbha state. On 2 August 2012, fearing failed monsoon multiplying his debt burden, Murlidhar More committed suicide, the first farmer suicide during 2012. His body was found hanging from a tree in his farm in Yamaji Patil Wadi in Atpadi taluka, Sangli district.[29]

Tourism[edit]

Entrance of Anand Sagar, Shegaon, Holy place for Hindus and a famous picnic spot in Vidarbha.

Vidarbha has lush green deciduous forests which are home to a variety of flora and fauna. These attract a large number of visitors each year. All of Maharashtra's tiger reserves are located in Vidarbha.[citation needed] They are Melghat Tiger Reserve in Amravati district, Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve in Chandrapur district and Pench Tiger Reserve in neighbouring state of madhya Pradesh to the north . The Nagzira wild life sanctuary and Navegoan Bandh National Park (bird sanctuary) of Gondia District are also very popular. Although the eastern region of the Vidarbha is poorer in natural resources in comparison with the west, it contains Maharashtra's oldest National Park created in 1955, the Tadoba Tiger Reserve spanning 575.78 km2,[30] one of India's 39 Project Tiger Reserves.[31]

The National Park consists of two forested rectangles of the Tadoba and Andhari range. Aside from around 50 tigers, Tadoba Tiger Reserve is home to rare Indian wildlife like leopards, sloth bears, gaur, wild dogs, hyenas, civet and jungle cats, and many species of Indian deer like sambar, cheetal, nilgai, and barking deer. The Tadoba lake sustains the Marsh Crocodile, which were once common all over Maharashtra. Tadoba is also an ornithologist's paradise with a varied diversity of aquatic birdlife.

Thickly clad hills form the northern and western boundary of the Tiger Reserve. To the southwest is a huge lake which acts as a buffer between the park's forest and the extensive farmland which extends up to Irai Lake.

Adjacent to the core forested hills is the Chichghat valley which hosts the forest lodge.[32] The Tadoba Tiger Reserve is an undisturbed forest not crowded by too many tourists. Tadoba Tiger Reserve is open throughout the year and is at three-hour road journey from the city of Nagpur. [33] Chikhaldara is a Hill Station and a municipal council in Amravati district in the state of Maharashtra, India. Featured in the epic, the Mahabharata, this is the place where Bheema killed the villainous Keechaka in a herculean bout and then threw him into the valley. It thus came to be known as Keechakadara—Chikhaldara is its corruption. But there's more to Chikhaldara. The sole hill resort in the Vidarbha region, it is situated at an altitude of 1118 m and has the added dimension of being the only coffee-growing area in Maharashtra. It abounds in wildlife—panthers, sloth bears, sambar, wild boar, and even the rarely seen wild dogs. Close by is the famous Melghat Tiger Project which has 82 tigers. The scenic beauty of Chikhaldara can be enjoyed from Hurricane Point, Prospect Point, and Devi Point. Other interesting excursions include Gavilgad and Narnala Fort, the Pandit Nehru Botanical Gardens, the Tribal Museum and the Semadoh Lake.

Scriptural importance[edit]

Aside from cultural distinctness from the rest of Maharashtra, Vidarbha has evolved historically in a different fashion. Many scriptures mention Vidarbha as the location of:

  • The marriage of Agastya and Lopamudra.
  • Rukmini-haran (the elopement of Rukmini with Krishna). Rukmini is described as the princess of the Vidarbhas king Bhishmak and when she came to amravati for worship of goddess Ambadevi Lord krishna run with her. Later Rukmini became one of the chief queens of Krishna.
  • Kundinpur/Kaundinyapur/Kundinapuri, the mythological capital of Vidarbha has been mentioned in Mahabharata
  • The story of king Nala and Damayanti, also in the Mahabharata.
  • Ramayana has the reference of Vidarbha as one on the Janapadas at that time. In Ramayana, The Queen Indumatee - Mother of King Dasharath and the paternal grandmother of Rama, Lakshmana, Bharat and Shatrughna was the Princess of Vidarbha.
  • Kalidasa's epic poem "Meghaduta" also mentions Vidarbha as the place of banishment of the Yaksha Gandharva.
  • The ancient 'Vijasan' hill, a Buddhist Monastery was discovered recently.

Culture & people[edit]

Situated in central India, Vidarbha has a rich cultural and historical background distinct from rest of Maharashtra. Even though Marathi culture is most dominant, Vidarbha has been a melting pot of Telugu speaking people from south, Hindi speaking central India and tribal people of Chhattisgarh. Vidarbha is famous for the Varhādi in Amravati division and Zadipatti in Nagpur division. Varhadi and Zadipatti is another type of speaking marathi available in only Vidarbha. Marathi language spoken in the rest of Maharashtra but it has some another type of speaking like Puneri[Pune and area], Ahirani in Khandesh[North of Nashik, Dhule, Jalgaon, Nandurbar], Kolhapuri[Kolhapur], etc. The Gadchiroli district of Vidarbha has a large population of tribal people. Hindu festivals like holi, diwali and Dasara are celebrated throughout the region.[34] There are many prominent cultural and literary societies working in Vidarbha. Vidarbha Sahitya Sangh (for development of Marathi), Vidarbha Rashtrabhasha Prachar Samiti (promotion and spreading Hindi) and Vidarbha Hindi Sahitya Sammelan (for promoting Hindi). The Nagpur central museum (estb 1863) maintains collections that are mainly from Vidarbha.[35]

Sports[edit]

Cricket is the most popular sport in this region and Nagpur's Vidarbha Cricket Association Ground (VCA) hosted international cricket matches[36] now superseded by the Vidarbha Cricket Association Stadium,[37] built in 2008 in Jamtha. The Vidarbha cricket team plays in the Ranji Trophy.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Population". 31 March 2011. Retrieved 6 April 2011. 
  2. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=EFDVAAAAMAAJ&pg=RA1-PA131&dq=AHIR+YADAV++RAJPUTANA&hl=en&ei=MjccTdTaKcTflge13L22DA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CEMQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=AHIR%20YADAV%20%20RAJPUTANA&f=false
  3. ^ Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland By Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland--page-323
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ "Vidarbha profile on rediff". In.rediff.com. 12 October 2004. Retrieved 22 September 2010. 
  6. ^ "WHO declares Melghat as India's most malnutrition-hit area"
  7. ^ "Understanding Underdevelopment in Vidarbha." By Sanjiv Phansalkar. IWMI-Tata Water Policy Program. Article listed here [2].
  8. ^ "Opinion / News Analysis : Maharashtra: ‘graveyard of farmers’". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 14 November 2007. Retrieved 22 September 2010. 
  9. ^ "Interview of Maharashtra Pradesh Congress Committee President-Mr. Ranjeet Deshmukh". Rediff.com. 18 August 2004. Retrieved 22 September 2010. 
  10. ^ "Very few takers for a separate State". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 23 March 2004. Retrieved 22 September 2010. 
  11. ^ Imperial Gazetteer2 of India, Volume 7, page 366 – Imperial Gazetteer of India – Digital South Asia Library
  12. ^ http://amravati.gov.in/htmldocs/melghat.htm
  13. ^ "Gondia geology". Gondia.gov.in. Retrieved 22 September 2010. 
  14. ^ Districts Of Maharashtra
  15. ^ http://www.eci.gov.in/election_maps/Results/PC/S13/S13_PC.jpg
  16. ^ http://www.eci.gov.in/election_maps/Results/AC/S13/S13_AC.jpg
  17. ^ "Vidarbha population 2011". 
  18. ^ "Census data online Maharashtra all districts". Censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 22 September 2010. 
  19. ^ ""Are Indians Really Dumb?"". Rediff.com. http://www.rediff.com/money/2004/aug/10das.htm. Retrieved 2006-06.
  20. ^ "Maharashtra Airport Development Company Limited". madcindia.org. madcindia.org. Archived from the original on 10 May 2008. Retrieved 14 May 2008. 
  21. ^ "Maharashtra Airport Development Company Limited". Press Information Bureau and Ministry of Civil Aviation. Retrieved 29 January 2008. 
  22. ^ "Nagpur stakes claim to lead boomtown pack". The Indian Express. Retrieved June 2006. 
  23. ^ "Mihan is biggest development". timesofindia.indiatimes.com (timesofindia.indiatimes.com). 22 May 2007. Retrieved 22 May 2007. 
  24. ^ bhaskar deshmukh, (1 August 2006). "article". Indiatogether.org. Retrieved 22 September 2010. 
  25. ^ "Demography". Chanda.nic.in. Retrieved 22 September 2010. 
  26. ^ "Maharashtra Resources"
  27. ^ "Ballarpur Industries Limited- Bilt". Chanda.nic.in. Retrieved 22 September 2010. 
  28. ^ Behere PB, Behere AP. Farmers' suicide in Vidarbha region of Maharashtra state: A myth or reality?. Indian J Psychiatry [serial online] 2008 [cited 2009 Oct 23];50:124-7. Available from: http://www.indianjpsychiatry.org/text.asp?2008/50/2/124/42401
  29. ^ "Drought fears claim first farmer in Maharashtra". 4 August 2012. 
  30. ^ "Tadoba Tiger Reserve". Projecttiger.nic.in. Retrieved 22 September 2010. 
  31. ^ "Online Map". Projecttiger.nic.in. Retrieved 22 September 2010. 
  32. ^ [3] Tiger Trails website
  33. ^ Chikhaldara
  34. ^ "People And Their Culture". Gadchiroli.gov.in. Retrieved 22 September 2010. 
  35. ^ Nagpur District Gazetteer
  36. ^ "Vidarbha Cricket Association Ground profile". Cricinfo. Retrieved 12 November 2012. 
  37. ^ "Vidarbha Cricket Association Stadiumprofile". Cricinfo. Retrieved 12 November 2012. 

Article regarding environment of Vidarbha by Dr. Heda

External links[edit]

  • Tigertrails
  • Public Domain Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Berar". Encyclopædia Britannica 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 763.  This details the history of the province up to 1903, and itself cites Imperial Gazetteer of India  (Oxford, 1908)